Which Of The Following Is A Characteristic Of A Collectivistic Culture


Understanding Collectivist Cultures

Collectivist cultures place a greater emphasis on the needs and aims of the group as a whole than they do on the wants and ambitions of individual members. Relationships with other members of the group, as well as the interconnection of individuals, play an important part in the formation of each individual’s identity in such cultures.

Collectivistic Culture Traits

Among the characteristics of collectivist civilizations are the following:

  • In many cases, people describe themselves in terms of their relationships with others (for example, “I am a member of.”). Loyalty within the group is promoted. Determinations are made on the basis of what is best for the group. It is crucial to work as a team and to provide assistance to others. Rather than individual interests, a greater focus is placed on achieving collective goals. The rights of families and communities take precedence over the rights of an individual.

China, Korea, Japan, Costa Rica, and Indonesia are examples of countries that are comparatively more collectivistic than others. If a person demonstrates generosity, helpfulness, dependability, and attention to the needs of others, they are seen as “good” in collectivistic societies. Individualistic cultures, on the other hand, tend to place a larger premium on attributes such as assertiveness and independence, which might be counterproductive.

Collectivism vs. Individualism

Individualistic civilizations are frequently compared with collectivist cultures in academic literature. Individualism is concerned with the rights and interests of each individual, whereas collectivism is concerned with the value of the group. Individualistic societies stress independence and personal identity above unity and selflessness, whereas collectivist cultures value unity and selflessness over individualism. These cultural differences are widespread and can have a significant impact on a wide range of aspects of how society runs.

Workers who live in a collectivist society, for example, may attempt to sacrifice their personal happiness for the greater welfare of the collective in order to achieve greater success.


People’s behavior and self-concept are influenced by their cultural background. In contrast to those from individualistic cultures, those from collectivist cultures are more likely to describe themselves in terms of their social relationships and roles (e.g., “I am smart, funny, athletic, and kind”), whereas those from individualistic cultures are more likely to describe themselves in terms of their personality traits and characteristics (e.g., “I am a good son, brother, and friend”).


According to the findings of the research, collectivist societies are related with poor relational mobility, which is defined as the number of options individuals in a society have to develop relationships with others of their choosing in that community. When there is little or no relational mobility, it suggests that people’s connections are solid, robust, and long-lasting. These types of relationships are typically developed as a result of variables such as family and geography, rather than as a result of personal choice.

People who are strangers in a collectivistic society are more likely to stay strangers in a collectivistic culture than they are in individualistic cultures.

This is most likely due to the fact that changing these connections is incredibly tough.

According to the inverse of this, individuals in individualistic cultures put out extra effort and energy into actively sustaining intimate connections, which is generally accomplished through higher self-disclosure and greater closeness.

When compared to collectivist societies, where strong interpersonal connections are more anticipated, interpersonal interactions in individualistic cultures are more problematic and weak. People must put out additional effort in order to keep these connections going.


In addition, cultural differences have an impact on the drive to either stand out or blend in with the rest of the group. In one experiment, individuals from different cultural backgrounds, including American and Japanese, were instructed to choose a pen. The bulk of the pens were the same color, with the exception of a couple that were different colors. The majority of participants from the United States preferred the brightly colored pen. However, the Japanese participants were considerably more likely to chose the majority color, even if they liked the distinctive hue, as opposed to the other participants.

Social Anxiety

According to research, collectivistic societies are more supportive of socially hesitant and withdrawn tendencies than individualistic ones. In one study, participants from these cultures had higher degrees of social anxiety as compared to people from individualistic cultures, according to the findings. However, it is possible that collectivist beliefs were not the only factor in this development. Persons in collectivist nations in Latin America, for example, showed lower levels of social anxiety than people in collectivist countries in East Asia, according to the findings.

Social Support Use

People who live in collectivist societies are more hesitant to confide in their peers about their personal concerns. The fear of scaring others, upsetting the unity of the group, losing face, and making the situation worse are some of the reasons why people delay seeking social help, according to research. Instead, people frequently seek for implicit social support, which is a type of social assistance that is not explicitly stated. This entails spending time with individuals who are supportive of you without actually dealing with the root of your stress.

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1.3.4 – Individualist or Collectivist

1.3.4 – Individualist or CollectivistIndividualist or CollectivistTheway you responded to the Sharing theRewards exercise tells you something about how you feel regarding individualachievement and reward. Most Americanschoose to divide the available pool in a disproportionate way; they do notgenerally divide the money equally. Thistendency to stress either individuality or a more collective response is oneof the most widely distributed traits around the world. Not every culture is at one end or the otherof the spectrum, but the majority tend to favor one over the other in everydaylife. Knowing about the basis of this Collectivism versus Individualism constructwill help you to recognize, understand, and anticipate attitudes in differenttypes of cultures.Individualist� The individual identifies primarily with self, with the needsof the individual being satisfied before those of the group. Looking afterand taking care of oneself, being self-sufficient, guarantees the well-beingof the group. Independence and self-reliance are greatly stressed and valued.In general, people tend to distance themselves psychologically and emotionallyfrom each other. One maychooseto join groups, but group membershipis not essential to one�s identity or success. Individualist characteristicsare often associated with men and people in urban settings.Collectivist�One�s identity is, in large part, a function of one�s membership and role ina group, e.g., the family or work team. The survival and success of the groupensures the well-being of the individual, so that by considering the needsand feelings of others, one protects oneself. Harmony and the interdependenceof group members are stressed and valued. Group members are relatively closepsychologically and emotionally, but distant toward nongroup members. Collectivistcharacteristics are often associated with women and people in rural settings.

Look at the list of characteristicsand behaviors given below. If you decide the statement ismore likelyto apply to people living in an individualist culture, write “I”in the underlined blank space; if you think it is characteristic of acollectivist culture, write “C.”Characteristicsand Behaviors
1. People answer the phone by giving the name of the organization.
2. People give cocktail parties.
3. Inter-group rivalry is strong.
4. Employee-of-the-year awards are offered.
5. People adhere to tradition.
6. People are promoted based on production and results.
7. Contracts in business are used frequently.
8. There is a need for autonomy.
9. People change jobs frequently.
10. People believe that conflict clears the air.
11. There is a need for affiliation.
12. Short-term relationships are common.
13. It�s okay to stand out.
14. Face-saving is important.
15. It�s common for mothers to ask their preschoolers what theywant to wear each day.
16. Self-help books are popular.
17. Decisions are made by consensus.
18. The language has one word for mother�s brother, another forfather�s brother.
19. Marriages are arranged.
20. People have potluck dinners.


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Which of the following is a hallmark of certain collectivistic societies? Select one. Optional responses to Question 6:

They are fair in their evaluations at work.
They may prefer team-based rewards over individual ones.
They consider everyone to be part of their group.
They change their groups often.

In the case of personnel who come from cultures where uncertainty avoidance is low, which of the following is the most likely scenario? Choose one of the options. Optional responses to question 7:

They will avoid taking big risks.
They will enforce rules selectively.
They will create detailed procedural and instructional manuals.
They will use several rounds of interviews before hiring someone.

Which of the following characteristics characterizes persons who come from an aggressive culture?

Choose one of the options. Optional responses to question 8:

The women tend to be highly competitive.
They place more value on maintaining good relationships.
They prefer a separation of gender roles.
They encourage a better work/life balance.

To assist in managing cultural diversity in the workplace, which of the following measures should you implement? Choose one of the options. Optional responses to question 9:

Make uniform decisions across global teams.
Train employees to learn about a different culture.
Encourage ethnocentrism in your team.
Emphasize interpersonal skills regardless of cultural background.

Saving. Which of the following standards should you follow while engaging with persons from diverse cultural backgrounds is appropriate? Select all of the options that apply. Optional responses to question 10:

Avoid negative questions.
Take turns to listen and respond.
Summarize the conversation.
Use light humor for support.
Use only well-known slang and idioms.

Expert AnswerWho are the experts?Experts are tested by Chegg as specialists in their subject area. We review their content and use your feedback to keep the quality high.

Q6 is the answer. Which of the following is a hallmark of certain collectivistic societies? Alternatively, they may prefer group benefits above individual ones. Clarification – In a collectivist society, loyalty is valued above everything else, and organizations are chosen over individuals. Objectives for each individual. See the complete response here. question before this onequestion after this one

Which of the following is characteristic of collectivist societies?

Ms. Gladyce Champlin posed the question. 4.6 out of 5 stars (13 votes) People are regarded “good” in collectivistic societies if they are kind, helpful, trustworthy, and attentive to the needs of others around them. These values stand in contrast to those of individualistic societies, which tend to place a larger premium on attributes such as assertiveness and independence.

Which of the following countries exhibit a highly individualistic culture?

National customs and traditions The cultures of the United States, Australia, the United Kingdom, Canada, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Ireland, Germany, and South Africa have all been described as being very individualistic in their outlook. Hofstede coined the phrase “individualistic culture” in 1980, and it has since become widely used.

What are examples of collectivism?

In cultural terms, collectivism refers to a society that places a high value on family and community over the individual. Children in collectivist communities, for example, are more likely to care for their elderly parents if they get unwell and to alter their own plans in the case of a family emergency than in other societies.

Which of the following are examples of collectivistic countries?

Contrast this with individualist societies that place a greater premium on traits such as aggressiveness and independence. Japan, China, Korea, Taiwan, Venezuela, Guatemala, Indonesia, Ecuador, Argentina, Brazil, and India are among the nations that are considered collectivistic.

Which of the following is characteristic of collectivist societies quizlet?

Identify one of the following characteristics that characterize collectivist cultures. Compromise and compliance are important in maintaining group unity in collectivist cultures. There were 40 questions that were connected.

What are the 5 components of cultural competence?

This handbook provides a step-by-step review of the five building blocks of cultural competence: open attitude, self-awareness, awareness of others, cultural knowledge, and cultural skills. Open attitude, self-awareness, awareness of others, cultural knowledge, and cultural skills are all covered.

What is a collectivist society?

Individualism refers to a society in which social and individual ties are strong, with people belonging to strong cohesive groupings, whereas collectivism refers to a society in which social and individual ties are weak, with people stressing their individuality.

What type of culture is called collectivist?

A collectivist society is one that places greater emphasis on the needs of a group or a community than on the needs of an individual.

The importance of kinship, family, and community cannot be overstated. People are more likely to collaborate in order to achieve harmony, and group cohesiveness is highly regarded.

What is a collectivist society example?

When it comes to collective needs, wants, and objectives, collective needs and desires take precedence over the needs and ambitions of individuals. Collectionivist societies may be found in countries like as Portugal, Mexico, and Turkey, among others.

What is collectivism in simple terms?

Any of numerous systems of social structure in which the individual is considered as subordinate to a social collectivity such as a state or nation or race or social class are referred to as collectivism. Individualism (q.v.) is a political philosophy that opposes collectivism by emphasizing the rights and interests of individuals over those of groups.

What is another word for collectivism?

Collectivism has 30 synonyms, antonyms, idiomatic expressions, and related words, including communalism, socialism, sharing, communitarian communism communitarianism, communization, communism, bolshevism, saint-simonism, centralism, democratism, and federalism. Collectivism is a political ideology that advocates for the sharing of resources.

What is a collectivist state?

Associated with communism, the political theory of collectivism is a political philosophy. More generally, it is the notion that people should place the benefit of society ahead of their own personal well-being. In a collectivist government, authority should be in the hands of the people as a whole, rather than in the hands of a small number of influential individuals.

Which of the following is a characteristics of individualistic cultures?

Characteristics of an Individualistic Culture Being reliant on others is frequently regarded as a source of shame or embarrassment. The importance of independence is highly regarded. Individual liberties are given precedence. People frequently place a higher focus on sticking out and being different from the crowd.

What is the importance of individualism and collectivism?

Individualism emphasizes the pursuit of personal interests as well as the rights of the individual person. Collectivism is concerned with the aims of the group, what is best for the collective group, and individual connections. Personal incentives and advantages are the primary motivators for individuals. Individualists develop personal aims and objectives that are based on their own interests.

What are the main ideas of individualism?

Individualism is a political and social ideology that emphasizes the moral importance of the person and places the individual at the center of attention. It believes that the interests of the individual should take precedence above the interests of a community, state, or social group, and it places a high importance on independence and self-reliance.

Is America a collectivist country?

It is widely acknowledged that the United States has one of the world’s most individualistic societies. Americans keep a higher margin of personal space between themselves and others as compared to cultures that are more touch-oriented and collectivistic, such as those seen in Latin American or Mediterranean nations.

What is collectivism country?

Collectivist cultures, such as those seen in China, Korea, and Japan, place a high value on the aims of the family and the workplace over the wants and wishes of individuals.

The concepts of collectivism and individuality are strongly ingrained in all societies. People just accept the attitude taken by their society without question.

Why Is Japan a collectivist culture?

Japanese people are collectively minded, which means that they will always prioritize what is best for the group over what is best for the individual in every situation.

Which values are the most important to collectivism?

The fundamental principles of collectivism are as follows: As previously stated, collectivist societies are characterized by a number of fundamental ideas, including economic equality, public ownership, collaboration, collective interest, economic equality, government control, and government regulation.

What are the values of collectivism?

Collectivist values are characterized by moral frameworks and social behaviors that place a strong emphasis on the group and its interests, and which favor in-group interests (such as communal, societal, or national interests) over the interests of its individual members, and which further favor the interests of in-group members over the interests of non-members of the group

Are collectivistic cultures happier?

People can be even happier in collectivist societies than they can be in individualist cultures, according to several studies. However, people must absorb the principles of their culture in order to be happy (RegoCunha, 2009; RyanDeci, 2000).

What are the two group members are stressed and valued?

The importance of harmony and the interdependence of group members is emphasized and cherished. Psychologically and emotionally, group members are generally close to one another, yet they are aloof from nongroup members. Females and persons who live in rural areas are frequently identified as having collectiveist tendencies.

Why is Philippines a collectivist society?

The Philippines is a collectivist society, which means that the interests of the family take precedence above the requirements of the individual in the community. Filipinos place a high importance on social peace and the maintenance of harmonious relationships, which means they may refrain from expressing their genuine ideas or giving unwelcome news on a regular basis.

What are the pros and cons of collectivism?

What are the advantages and disadvantages of collective action?

  • One of the most appealing aspects of collectivism is that the collective grows and benefits as a result of an individual’s sacrifice. The disadvantage of collectivism is that the individual is frequently prevented from pursuing his or her own interests and from realizing his or her own personal potential.

Multiple Choice Quiz

  1. A. modify your communication style so that it is more closely aligned with individuals of different cultures. By obtaining understanding about different cultures, we may eliminate ambiguity and work together to discover common ground. d. all of the foregoing
  1. In intercultural exchanges, A. we are open to fresh information that focuses on the communication processb. we aim to avoid stereotypingc. we pick up signs that warn us to possible misunderstandingsd. all of the foregoing
  • There is no distinction between individualist and collectivist societies in terms of which of the following is not true:
  1. A. Self-promotion is favored in collectivist societies, as opposed to individualistic ones b. An individualist culture is characterized by a communication style that is devoid of context. In an individualist educated society, public speaking abilities are seen as advantageous. Collective cultures place a great importance on harmonious relationships.
  1. A. Individualist cultures place a larger importance on personal aims and wants than collectivist cultures, whereas collectivist cultures place a higher value on community objectives and needs. B. The terms “responsibility,” “loyalty,” and “commitment” indicate collectivist cultural norms. In contrast to collectivist societies, individualist cultures are preferable than collectivist cultures. Both of these statements are correct.
  1. It is defined as follows: A. an acquired set of enduring values, beliefs, and practices that are held by a discernible, substantial group of people who have shared history. b. the most firmly held and widely held perspective of what is judged good, proper, or useful thought or conduct by the majority of the population. c. what a person believes to be true or likely to occur. d. a group of individuals who live in a dominant culture but who retain ties to another cultural background
  2. Or
  1. Anglo-Americanabroadly-Scandinavian (Norway, Sweden, Finland) c. West Africand. a and b are both correct
  • Australia has a strong sense of individualism in its culture. As a result, you might conclude that they are as well
  1. A. a culture with a low power distance b. a culture of high-contextual communication c. a high level of power-distance cultured. none of the options listed above
  1. A. The North American continent. b. Scandanavian (from Scandinavia) (Norway, Sweden, Finland). the East African continent (both b and c)
  • Choose the assertions about civilizations that are correct from the list below:
  1. A. The majority of the world’s population is concentrated in ethnocentric culturesb. Ethnocentric civilizations are only seen in North American and Western European cultures. To some extent, every civilization is ethnocentric in some way. There is widespread agreement that direct, unambiguous communication is preferred to indirect, implicit communication across cultures.
  • While interviewing for a job, your cultural norms urge you to “sell yourself” and make a point of highlighting your own achievements. You are most likely a member of
  1. A strongly collectivist culture is characterized by the following characteristics: b. a culture that is strongly individualistic Cultured at short ranges of power
  2. B and c are both true.

Children’s Medical Services – Lesson2_4

Culture Differences and CommunicationThink about how cultural differences between families and professionals might lead to miscommunication and conflict. Be aware of the different styles of interactions between families and professionals in various cultures. Consider the impact on conflict resolution when differences arise between the family and the professional. Some issues to be aware of:
  • Some cultures place a high value on maintaining one’s dignity. The importance of maintaining peace rather than becoming hostile
  • The importance of indirectness and subtlety is emphasized.

It is possible that your cultural frame of reference will prohibit you from comprehending another person’s mode of communicating. In our culture, there are certain expectations and conventions about how we should engage with others in the world, such as how we interact with family and community members, how we feel about higher authority, how we deal with problems and communicate effectively, among other things. Cultural learning is reflected in verbal communication, which includes things like voice tone, speech rate, modulation, conversation pauses, the way interruptions are interpreted, and how quickly one gets to the point in a conversation (Jordan, 2001, p.13) When interacting with people from cultures other than our own, it is critical to suspend preconceived notions about how they are acting or speaking and to examine some alternate interpretations of what they are doing or saying, rather than making assumptions about them.

  1. It is critical that we scrutinize our own views and refrain from making snap judgements or jumping to conclusions.
  2. African American, Native American, and Alaskan Native cultures are examples of collectivistic cultures in the United States.
  3. Most of these characteristics or value orientations may be found on a spectrum, ranging from individualism to collectivism (FriendCook, 2003).
  4. Collectivistic cultures place a high priority on interdependence as well as the cohesiveness of the community as a whole.
  5. Another cultural aspect that is crucial for communication is whether the culture is in a “low” or “high” cultural environment, respectively.
  6. The United States is seen as having a low-context cultural tradition.
  7. There are fewer words uttered, and less emphasis is placed on verbal exchanges in general ” (LynchHanson,1997, p.
  8. Nonverbal indications and communications are becoming increasingly important.
  9. This has ramifications for effective communication between cultures with low and high context levels of understanding.

Take note of the ways in which they may diverge from the mainstream Anglo-European culture in the United States. It is important to remember that these are broad qualities on a continuum and may not apply to all families all of the time (KalyanpurHarry, 1999; LynchHanson, 1997; TharpYamauchi, 1994).

Individualistic Collectivistic
Low-context: Direct, explicit communication – “get to the point.” High-context: Indirect cues, communication relies on context of the conversation and past experience.
Talk: Self-assertion is achieved through talk; talk used to achieve comfort in a group. Silence: Silence is valued and used communicatively; comfort derived from silence.
Directness: Individuality and uniqueness are asserted; opinions are expressed to disagree, persuade, and avoid ambiguity. Indirectness: Hints and subtle cues are used and ambiguity tolerated to maintain harmony.
Uneven turn-taking: One party may dominate; both parties may introduce topics and speak at length about them. Balanced turn-taking: Turns distributed evenly; each party takes short turns and does not randomly shift topics.

Based on the work of Watkins, R., and Eatman, J. (2001). Cross-cultural communication is introduced in this course. (2nd Chapter of Technical Report 14). The Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services for Early Childhood Research (CLAS) Institute is located in Champaign-Urbana, Illinois. According to Harry, Kalyanpur, and Day (19999), a model of cultural reciprocity is proposed in order to ensure that families are actively involved in the special education process. This methodology has the potential to be helpful in early intervention as well.

These are as follows:

  1. Determining whether or not cultural values are integrated in a professional’s perception of a child’s developmental concerns or in the prescription for assistance Determine whether or not these ideals are shared by the family, and if not, how their perspectives differ. Recognize and appreciate any cultural differences that have been found, and thoroughly explain to the family the cultural basis for the professional assumption. Determine the most effective method of adjusting professional interpretations or suggestions to the value system of the family through conversation and collaboration between the family and the professional (pp. 1-12).

Identify the cultural values that are ingrained in the professional’s perception of a kid’s developmental concerns or in the referral for treatment for that youngster. Check to see if these principles are shared by the family, and, if not, how their perspectives differ. Identify and appreciate any cultural disparities that have been found, and explain to the family completely the cultural underpinnings of the professional assumptions. Determining the most effective strategy to adapt professional interpretations or suggestions to the value system of the family is accomplished via dialogue and collaboration between family and professional (pp.

  1. What role do these disparities have in increasing the divide between families and professions
  2. Are there any unfavorable sentiments against “uninvolved” or “non-compliant” parents as a result of these distinctions? Professionals who “don’t get it” or “are attempting to tell me what to do” are addressed as follows: What strategies can you use to reduce these discrepancies

Collectivistic Cultures (CULTURAL PSYCHOLOGY) iResearchNet

Cultures, according to social psychology specialists, are shared meaning systems that equip individuals with the information they need to operate well in their social context. Consider the following scenario: you are in a foreign country where you do not understand the language or the customs, and you want to understand the significance of common meaning systems. If you were to try to operate in such a society, it would be quite difficult, at least until you learnt these things. It is only when you share your knowledge with others that you will be able to properly communicate and connect with them.

  1. The fact that people within a culture are more likely to be similar to one another than to people from other cultures does not imply that all people within a culture will be identical.
  2. Generally speaking, collectivistic cultures are contrasted with individualistic cultures, although there is no universally accepted definition for either.
  3. Most individuals in collectivistic cultures believe that they are interconnected with their groups, including their families, workplace, nation, and others, and that they place a high value on harmonious relationships with those in their communities.
  4. As a result, they are more inclined to prioritize the aims of the group over their own personal objectives.
  5. East Asians (e.g., Chinese, Japanese, and others) and Arabs are examples of collectivistic civilizations, as are several other cultures (e.g., Egyptians, Syrians, and others).
  6. For example, when asked to finish sentences that begin with “I am,” these persons are more likely than other people to react with group memberships such as “I am a member of my family,” “I am a Chinese person,” and other similar responses.
  7. For the simple reason that people in collectivistic societies are interdependent with one another, meaning that they have influence over one another and are impacted by one another.

As a result, the propensity to prioritize group objectives above personal goals is reinforced since failing to do so might result in sanctions from other members of the group, whilst pursuing collective goals can result in approbation from the other members of the group.

This is due to the fact that affluent individuals are able to purchase what they like, migrate to a different place, and seek other relationships to a higher extent than those who are not fortunate.

There are a variety of elements that might influence the degree to which a culture is collectivist.

The more similar people in a group are to one another, the simpler it is for them to agree on suitable standards, and the more likely it is that they will lean toward collectivism as a result of this.

Assume that the task at hand is to provide food for one’s family.

A person living in an agricultural community, particularly one in which the production of food is a collaborative effort, must, on the other hand, be able to communicate successfully with others.

In addition, certain cultures provide people with greater access to alternative groups than other cultures, which is a third element to consider.

In contrast, to the extent that any given group has access to other groups, the power of that group to reward or punish conduct diminishes, and as a result, collectivism diminishes.

Many studies have demonstrated that people from a wide range of cultural backgrounds have both a private self-concept (where thoughts about their traits and behaviors are stored) and a collective self-concept (where thoughts about group memberships are stored), though these concepts may not be equally likely to be accessed in the same way in every culture.

  • For example, by asking individuals to consider how they are similar to their family and friends, it is possible to make the collective self-concept more accessible to the general public.
  • As a result, when people in a society are exposed to stimuli that improve the accessibility of their collective self-concepts, they are more likely to engage in collectivistic conduct.
  • Some people place a higher importance on group affiliations than others, and this is understandable.
  • Additionally, certain people are more sensitive to social pressure than others, which contributes to the culture’s trend toward collectivism by increasing the number of people who are susceptible.
  • More religious people conform more to the practices of their religious community and identify themselves more strongly with that group as their religious beliefs grow.
  • However, not all faiths are created equal when it comes to the extent to which they encourage people to follow their precepts.
  • When people are encouraged to disagree (as is the case in Reform Judaism), religion has a lower likelihood of increasing collective behavior.
  • Also noteworthy is the fact that there is no single type of collectivism; while many distinct cultures may be classified as collectivistic, they differ from one another in terms of the degree to which they practice collectivism, among other characteristics.

Although there are some difficulties with the concept of collectivism, it has been frequently employed in social and cross-cultural psychology for many years and is expected to continue so for the foreseeable future.


  1. P. B. Smith and M. H. Bond are two of the most well-known scientists in the world (1999). Social psychology differs from culture to culture (2nd ed.). Allyn Bacon
  2. Trafimow, D., Triandis, H. C., and Goto, S. Boston: Allyn Bacon
  3. Trafimow, D., Triandis, H. C., and Goto, S. (1991). Several ways to determine whether or not there is a separation between the private self and the communal self Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 649-655
  4. Triandis, H. C., Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 649-655. (1989). The ego and social conduct in a variety of cultural situations are explored. 269-289 in Psychological Review, vol. 96

Individualism & Collectivism

Cultures influence how we perceive and interact with other people, as well as how we perceive and interact with ourselves. The contrast between individualism and collectivism is one of the most generally acknowledged divisions between different types of civilizations. Individualism places a high priority on one’s own independence. It is more common for individuals in individualist societies to “view themselves as distinct from others, identify themselves based on their particular features, and perceive their attributes as relatively constant and unchanging.” The “interior” of an individualist’s concept of self is more important than the “outside,” with less emphasis placed on external elements such as circumstances and other individuals in the individual’s life.

  1. Individualists prefer to communicate in indirect ways — they say what they mean and place a high value on information that is given plainly and unambiguously — rather than directly and explicitly.
  2. Personal interdependence is highly valued in a collectivist society.
  3. When it comes to collectivism, a person’s sense of self is determined more by their relationships with other individuals or their participation in a group.
  4. It is common for them to communicate in indirect ways —collectivists indicate what they truly mean, but may say something different in order to avoid confrontation or public disgrace.
  5. In collectivist societies, the individualist notion of having a more unchanging, true private self is not as alluring as it is in individualist cultures.
  6. Inversely, to someone who is more individualistic, the collectivist demand for social agreement and collaboration may appear stiflingly conformist, and vice versa.
  7. You shouldn’t assume that someone is an individualist simply because their cultural background is individualist.
  8. Even within a very collectivist culture, there will be individuals who are more individualistic in their outlook.

It is more prevalent in heterogeneous groups and environments for people to be adaptable. The desire to participate in intercultural interaction is partially motivated by this desire: we want to absorb diverse cultural frameworks and learn how to apply them in relevant societies and settings.

Collectivism – Wikipedia

Collectivism is a value that is defined by an emphasis on cohesion among individuals as well as a preference of the collective over the individual’s interests. In general, individuals or organizations who subscribe to a collectivist worldview are more likely to perceive shared values and goals to be particularly prominent, and they are more likely to show a larger orientation toward their own group than they do toward others. For collectivist persons, the word “in-group” is regarded to be more broadly defined, encompassing a wide range of societal groups ranging from the nuclear family to a religious or racial/ethnic group, among others.

Origins and historical perspectives

Germany’s Ferdinand Tönniesdescribed an early concept of collectivism and individuality using the termsGemeinschaft (community) andGesellschaft (company) to characterize the approach (society). Small, rural village communities were assumed to be characterized by gemeinschaftrelationships, in which communalism is favored over individual interests. According to Redfield (1941), an anthropologist, this thought was mirrored in his work in which he compared folk society to urban civilization. Max Weber (1930) viewed religion as a means of contrasting collectivism and individuality.

Professor Geert Hofstede(1980) was a seminal figure in ushering in the modern period of cross-cultural study, which focused on comparisons along the dimension of collectivism against individuality.

Individuals who advocated for a high degree of collectivism, according to the author, were deeply rooted in their social environments and placed a high value on communal aims above individual ones.


When it came to the Soviet Union, collectivism was a crucial component of Marxist–Leninist philosophy, and it played a crucial role in producing the New Soviet man, who was prepared to give his or her life in order to further the interests of the collective. “Collective” and “the people” were widely employed in the official language and commended in anti-Communist agitprop literature, including as works byVladimir Mayakovsky (Who needs a “1”) and Bertolt Brecht (Who needs a “1”?). (The Decision,Man Equals Man).


Anarcho-collectivism is a form of collectivism that takes place in a decentralized anarchistic system in which people are compensated for their excess work. A comparison is drawn between collective anarchism and anarcho-communism, in which salaries would be eliminated and everyone would be free to withdraw from a storehouse of products “to each according to his need.” In popular culture, anarchism is connected withMikhail Bakunin, the anti-authoritarian parts of the International Workingmen’s Association, and the early Spanish anarchist movement.


As a political philosophy, corporatism is frequently characterized as one that places a strong emphasis on collective co-operation as one of its core components. According to the definition, the term corpus is derived from the Latin corpus, which means “human body,” and in this context signifies that society should work similarly to a body, via the means of loyalty to a person’s in-group orcorpus. Collective bargaining is an illustration of the economic concepts of corporatist capitalism. State-sanctioned bargaining is frequently characterized as collectivism.

Terminology and measurement

In empirical literature, the notion of collectivism is referred to by a variety of distinct names. The phrase “interdependent self-construal” is most frequently used to describe this process. Other terms that have been used to characterize the notion of collectivism-individualism include allocentrism-idiocentrism, collective-private self, and subtypes of collectivism-individualism, among others (meaning, vertical and horizontal subtypes). Certain of the difficulties in properly integrating the empirical research on collectivism is argued to be due to inconsistency in vocabulary, according to some theories.

See also

  1. Individualism against collectivism: A critique and recommended modifications, by S. H. Schwartz, published in 1990. “The lens of personhood: Viewing the self, others, and conflict in a multicultural society,” Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 139–157, doi: 10.1177/0022022190212001.S2CID146606056
  2. Oyserman, D. (1993). “The lens of personhood: Viewing the self, others, and conflict in a multicultural society,” Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, vol Hui, C. H. (1988). “Measurement of individualism–collectivism.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.65(5): 993–1009.doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.65.5.993.hdl:2027.42/89930
  3. Hui, C. H. (1988). “Measurement of individualism–collectivism.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.65(5): 993–1009. Journal of Research in Personality, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 17–36, doi: 10.1016/0092-6566(88)90022-0
  4. Triandis, H. C., Journal of Research in Personality, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 17–36, doi: 10.1016/0092-6566(88)90022-0
  5. (1995). Individualism and collectivism are two opposing ideologies. F. Tönnies’s Westview Press is located in Boulder, Colorado (1957). Community and affiliation are important terms in this context. Robert Redfield’s Harper Torchbooks
  6. Redfield, Robert (1941). Yucatán’s traditional culture is described here. M. Weber, University of Chicago Press
  7. University of Chicago Press (1930). The Protestant morality and the spirit of capitalism are in opposition to one another. Hofstede, G., ed., New York: Routledge
  8. Hofstede, G. (1980). The ramifications of culture Hofstede Insights. “National Culture.” www.hofstede-insights.com. Beverly Hills: Sage
  9. Hofstede Insights. “National Culture.” www.hofstede-insights.com. Overy, Richard (26 October 2021)
  10. Retrieved 26 October 2021
  11. (2004). 301. ISBN 978-0-393-02030-4
  12. Horn, Eva (2006). “Actors/Agents: Bertolt Brecht and the Politics of Secrecy.” Actors/Agents: Bertolt Brecht and the Politics of Secrecy. ISBN 978-0-393-02030-4. The Grey Room.24(1):38–55.doi: 10.1162/grey/2006.1.24.38.S2CID57572547
  13. Blann, Alex (1977). Marxism and anarchist collectivism coexisted in the International Workingmen’s Association between 1864 and 1872. Blonna
  14. Esenwein, George Richard
  15. Esenwein, George Richard (1989). Between 1868 and 1898, anarchist ideology and the working-class movement in Spain were linked. Benjamin Martin, University of California Press, p. 110, ISBN 978-0520063983
  16. University of California Press
  17. (1990). In Spain, the Agony of Modernization manifested itself in the form of labor and industrialization. Cornell University Press, p. 88, ISBN 978-0875461656
  18. Ackelsberg, Martha A., p. 88, ISBN 978-0875461656
  19. (1991). Free Women of Spain: Anarchism and the Struggle for Women’s Emancipation is a book about anarchism and the struggle for women’s emancipation in Spain. Turcato, Davide. AK Press, p. 61, ISBN 978-1902593968
  20. AK Press, p. 61, ISBN 978-1902593968
  21. Turcato, Davide. Understanding Anarchism: Errico Malatesta’s Experiments with Revolution, 1889-1900 is a book written by Errico Malatesta. The publisher is Palgrave Macmillan, and the ISBN number is 978-0230301795. The authors include Lars Calmfors, John Driffill, Seppo Honkapohja, Francesco Giavazzi, and others (April 1988). “Bargaining Structure, Corporatism, and the Performance of the Macroeconomy.” Economic Policy.3(6): 13.doi: 10.2307/13445003.JSTOR1344503
  22. Grunig, James E. Economic Policy.3(6): 13.doi: 10.2307/13445003.JSTOR1344503
  23. Grunig, James E. (January 2000). “Collectivism, collaboration, and societal corporatism as Core Professional Values in Public Relations” is the title of this paper. H. R. Markus and S. Kitayama published a paper in the Journal of Public Relations Research, Volume 12, Number 1, pages 23–48. doi: 10.1207/S1532754XJPRR1201 3.ISSN1062-726X
  24. H. R. Markus and S. Kitayama published a paper in the Journal of Public Relations Research (1991). Cultural influences on the self and their implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation are discussed in this paper. Psychological Review, vol. 98, no. 2, pp. 224–253. H. C. Triandis, CiteSeerX 10.1037/0033-295x.98.2.224
  25. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  26. (1983). The distinction between allocentric and idiocentric social conduct is a significant cultural divide between Hispanics and mainstream society (Technical reports). In a study published in 1991 by the Department of Psychology at the University of Illinois, D. Trafimow and colleagues found that “certain measures of the differentiation between the private self and the collective self” may be used to distinguish between the private self and the collective self. 60(5): 649–665
  27. DOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.60.5.649
  28. Triandis, H. C., Bhawuk, D. P. S., Gelfand, M. J. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.60(5): 649–665.DOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.60.5.649
  29. (1995). This paper is titled “A theoretical and measurement refinement on the horizontal and vertical dimensions of individuality and collectivism.” Cross-Cultural Research.29(3): 240–275.doi: 10.1177/106939719502900302.S2CID143852368.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  30. Taras and colleagues (2014). “Is it possible to have two opposite ends of the same stick? The Dimensionality of Individualism and Collectivism: A Multi-Method Examination” (PDF). Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology.45(2): 213–245.doi: 10.1177/0022022113509132.hdl:11693/12980.S2CID9349054
  31. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology.45(2): 213–245.doi: 10.1177/0022022113509132.hdl:11693/12980.S2CID9349054
  32. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology.45

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