- 1 Quiz #1 – TEX GOVT Flashcards
- 2 Political Culture handout
- 3 Individualistic
- 4 Moralistic
- 5 Traditionalistic
- 6 QUIZ1_2_GOVT2306.docx – Daisy Garza Quiz 1 2 GOVT 2306 1 A belief that government is designed to promote the public good describes the political culture
- 7 Chapter 3: Federalism and the Separation of Powers
- 8 State Political Culture
- 9 Moralistic Political Culture
- 10 Individualistic Political Culture
- 11 Traditionalistic Political Culture
- 12 Critiques of Elazar’s Theory
- 13 Summary
- 14 Texas – Government and society
- 15 Health and welfare
- 16 Education
Quiz #1 – TEX GOVT Flashcards
1. The political culture of is characterized by the concept that government is intended to promote the general welfare. 2. Individualistic political culture, which started in the middle states and is centered on government policies that encourage individual liberty and opportunity. Personal liberty and monetary riches are two important aspects of life. Trade between Mexico, the United States, and Canada is unfettered. 4. The following EXCEPTIONS all contribute to the explanation of population increase in Texas: lavery and indentured servitude are two types of slavery.
The economy of Texas in the twenty-first century is concentrated on computer hardware, electrical equipment, and other high-tech goods.
Texas’s political life has grown and developed over time.
The cattle industry became into a multibillion-dollar enterprise.
- The Texas Railroad Commission is responsible for the regulation of oil and energy in the state of Texas.
- Beginning in late 2007, there was a period of persistent economic difficulties that evoked comparisons to the Great Depression of the 1930s.
- What role did Stephen F.
- Working with the Spanish administration, he was instrumental in settling American immigrants in Texas.
- Which city in Texas has the most population at the present time?
- The town of Spindletop was the site of which major event in the state’s history?
In Texas, which of the following has traditionally dominated the state’s political culture is correct?
Which of the following factors contributed to the decline of provincialism in Texas?
Which of the following is a geographical region of Texas?
It is the arrangement, which was widespread throughout the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, in which farmers were loaned land and equipment in exchange for a portion of the earnings from their crops.
Article 8 of the Texas Constitution is concerned with taxation and revenue collection.
Who was granted full citizenship rights under the Texas Constitution in 1876, according to the text of the document?
A new constitution for Texas is unlikely to be adopted in the next several years, according to the Texas Historical Commission.
Fundamental freedoms and privileges were provided to newly freed former slaves during the constitutional conference that took place in November 1865.
Creating a system of checks and balances in state constitutions is intended to prevent political power from becoming concentrated in one person or group.
Which of the following elements was incorporated in the Constitution of 1845?
An assembly with two chambers, the House of Representatives and the Senate31 is in place.
Davis, who served as governor under the Reconstruction Constitution of 1869.
Some of the principles in this document go beyond the protections afforded by the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution.
The Texas Constitution is known as the Texas Bill of Rights.
In what ways did the architects of the current Texas Constitution hope to achieve their objectives?
Voter turnout for constitutional amendment elections may be increased if they were conducted at the same time as presidential elections, according to some estimates36.
In order to meet the standards set out by the so-called Radical Republicans in the United States Congress, 37.
In which section of the United States Constitution does it indicate that “the Constitution, laws established by the national government, and all treaties” are the highest law of the land, superseding all other statutes and laws adopted by any state?
According to the current Texas Constitution, the Senate has members and the House of Representatives has members.
For what reason do you believe that the protections for slavery provided in the Constitution of 1836 were significant? They diverged from clauses in the Coahulia y Tejas Constitution of 1827, which stated that
Political Culture handout
One of the reasons that various governments implement different strategies to cope with comparable challenges, according to political scientist Daniel Elazar, is because of differences in political culture. In reality, he distinguishes between three political subcultures that combine to constitute the American political culture, which he contrasts with the German political culture, the French political culture, and the Mexican political culture, all of which are distinct from one another. The following political subcultures exist:
- Individualistic subcultures rely on the marketplace for their livelihood. The government’s role is minimal, and it is primarily concerned with maintaining the operation of the marketplace. It is the pecuniary self-interests of politicians, as well as their desire to promote themselves professionally, that drive them into politics. Bureaucracy is perceived badly because it interferes with the ability to get patronage. Corrupt practices are permitted because politics itself is a filthy business. Political rivalry is partisan in nature. Elections are primarily concerned with attaining office rather than with addressing concerns.
- Originally originating in the Middle Atlantic states, when German and English settlers established themselves
- Then spreading to the lower Midwest, Missouri, and western states
- “Government should never get in the way!”
- Individualistic values are opposed
- The commonwealth is emphasized. A beneficial influence in citizens’ lives, the government advances the public interest and contributes to the well-being of all citizens. Aspects of politics are centered on topics. Politicians run for office in order to advance specific issues. Due to the fact that government service is seen as public duty, corruption is not allowed. It is generally agreed that bureaucracy serves the public interest and should be encouraged. Participation in politics is a civic obligation for every person.
- The Puritans, who colonized in New England, were responsible for bringing view to the United States. Traveling from the upper Great Lakes through the Midwest and then to the Northwest. Values that have been reinforced by waves of Scandinavian and northern European immigrants
- Individualism and morality are on opposite sides of the spectrum. The market and the common good are treated with ambivalence by the individual. The government’s role is to sustain the present social and economic hierarchical structure. Politicians are drawn from the upper crust of society. Politicians have a moral duty to govern for their families. Individuals from all walks of life are not required to participate in politics or even to vote. Competition between different groups within the elite, rather than between class-based parties, is the essence of politics. It is believed that bureaucracy is harmful to personal connections because it interferes with them.
- Individuals who settled in the southern colonies contributed their point of view to the United States. Constructed a plantation-based agricultural system
- Descendants traveled westward across the southern and southwestern states
Political Culture in the State of Texas According to Elazar, Texas’s political culture is a mix of traditionalistic and individualistic characteristics that coexist together. Traditionalism in state politics is demonstrated by the lengthy history of one-party dominance in state politics, the low voter turnout, and the social and economic conservatism that characterize the state. It is possible to discern the individualistic nature of state politics in the support for private enterprise, the hostility to large government, and the belief in the ability of individuals to take up new challenges.
- In order to identify these subcultures, researchers looked at colonization and migration patterns, which had essentially been accomplished by the early twentieth century.
- If a big number of northern retirees moved to a traditionally conservative state like Florida, what influence did this have on the state’s economy?
- We may gain a better understanding of the influence of population expansion on political culture by studying the politics of a region such as Amarillo, and more especially the politics of southwest Amarillo, for example.
- “Virginia’s World” (Virginia’s World, 1999).
- 7th edition of Politics in the American States: A Comparative Analysis (Politics in the American States: A Comparative Analysis).
- Hanson, and Herbert Jacob are the editors of this volume.
- Neal Tannahill published a book in 2000 titled Texas Government: Policy and Politics, 6th ed., is a textbook about Texas government.
- It’s all in my head.
- Return to the Course Page Central page.
QUIZ1_2_GOVT2306.docx – Daisy Garza Quiz 1 2 GOVT 2306 1 A belief that government is designed to promote the public good describes the political culture
Daisy GarzaQuiz 12GOVT 23061 is a 12GOVT quiz. The political culture is characterized by the concept that government exists to serve the general public’s interests. Secondly, individualistic political culture, which originated in the middle states, is characterized by government policies that encourage personal freedom and financial riches. 3.The North American Free Commerce Agreement (NAFTA) created free trade between Mexico, the United States, and Canada. 4.All of the factors that contribute to population expansion in Texas are described by the following: Except for slavery and indentured servitude, the Texas economy of the twenty-first century is based on computer technology, electronics, and other high-tech products.6.
Political life in Texas has grown and developed in recent years.
8.The Texas Railroad Commission is in charge of regulating the oil and energy industries in the state of Texas.
Creative destruction refers to the process through which the capitalism system undergoes periodic waves of transition driven by new technology, as opposed to the term “creative destruction.”
Chapter 3: Federalism and the Separation of Powers
Introduction One of the most significant accomplishments of the American foundation was the establishment of a functional constitutional system of political institutions and institutions of government. In part, the attempts of the framers to divide governmental authority are represented by two fundamental components of the United States Constitution: federalism and the separation of powers. Federation restricts governance by creating two sovereign powers: the central government and the governments of the states, so limiting the authority of both governments.
- Who is in charge of what? Federalism and Institutional Jurisdictions are two terms that are used to refer to two different types of jurisdictions. What is the definition of federalism? In their decision to create a federal system rather than a unitary government, the Founders gave several reasons. The Constitution established what sorts of federal ties and how they were to be carried out. What has caused the shift in the federal balance of power over time, and how has it occurred?
- Federalism is a form of governance in which authority is split between a central government and regional governments
- It is the most common form of government in the United States. As far as sovereignty is concerned, both the national government and individual state governments exercise considerable power in the United States. Because of their well-established and already-functioning political institutions, as well as the popular attachments eighteenth-century “Americans” had to their individual states, even though some of the framers desired to create something akin to a unitary system of government, the states were retained. According to the Constitution’s authors, the national government was granted just a few express powers, with the balance of powers being reserved for state governments.
- In addition to the clear powers of the national government, the “necessary and suitable” provision offered an avenue for the government to expand its authority into the domain of “implied powers,” which were not explicitly granted.
- A provision of the Constitution’s Tenth Amendment provides that powers not expressly assigned to the national government “shall be ceded to the states, or to the people, as the case may be.” The Tenth Amendment, in conjunction with states’ historic pulice powers and shared (concurrent) powers, provides the constitutional foundation for state authority in the federal relationship
- Federalism also affects the intricate relationships that exist among the many states. State governments are required to honor the public acts and judicial decisions of other states under the Constitution’s “full faith and credit” clause, and the “privileges and immunities clause” prohibits states from discriminating against someone who is a citizen of another state. Federalism also imposes some restrictions on state authority, particularly in the context of interstate relations between state governments. Local governments, despite the fact that they are not recognized by the Constitution, are utilized by states in the conduct of government functions.
- Under the traditional system of “dual federalism,” which lasted from 1789 to 1937, there was a relatively clear division of federal power, with the national government limiting itself primarily to promoting commerce (as evidenced by cases such asMcCulloch v. MarylandandGibbons v. Ogden) and the states doing the majority of the governing
- Under the traditional system of “dual federalism,” there was a relatively clear division of federal power, with the national A system of “cooperative federalism” came into being after 1937, and was characterized by partnerships between the national government and governments at the state and local levels
- This cooperation began to blur the traditional lines of authority, which had been relatively clear under the previous system of “dual federalism.” The national government’s influence increased as a result of the use of grants-in-aid to persuade states to support national government programs, even if states retained the majority of their traditional rights. A system of “regulated federalism and national standards” has emerged since the 1960s, in which the national government began to attach “strings” to the federal funds that states had come to rely on (and at times imposed rules without providing funding), thereby shifting the balance of federal power even further toward the national government. The current stage of federalism, frequently referred to as “new federalism,” is characterized by a power struggle between the federal government and the states, which are resurgent inside the federal framework. The fight for power continues, despite the fact that the central government and the states continue to cooperate collaboratively toward common goals. The Supreme Court has played an important role in a number of key legal disputes during the past 15 years, including:
- The principle of separation of powers What was the power distribution in the United States Constitution between the legislative, executive, and judicial departments of government? What are the various duties played by each of these branches of government in the United States national government
- According to the constitutional principle of separation of powers, authority is divided among the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government as distinct departments of the United States national government.
- In turn, this grants many distinct institutions—the Congress, the administrative branch, and the judicial branch—the authority to shape and influence the nation’s agenda and decision-making
- This also develops a system of checks and balances in which authority is divided in order to prevent any one branch from becoming dominant
- The founders of the Constitution established legislative supremacy within the system of divided powers by outlining the functions of the national government in Article I of the Constitution, which deals with the Congress. It has developed, particularly since 1937, that Congress and the president are continually in competition for control of the national government, particularly during periods of split government. It is the goal-seeking conduct of politicians functioning within the various institutions of the national government that allows the separation of powers system of checks and balances to function well. For example, the give-and-take that takes place between the legislative and executive branches is fuelled by the goals of the politicians who work inside those institutions, which is an illustration of the Rationality Principle. When it comes to separation of powers issues between the Congress and the president, the Supreme Court serves in a similar role as a referee in the evaporation of the federal balance of power by demanding “judicial review.”
State Political Culture
You will be able to do the following by the conclusion of this section:
- Make a comparison between Daniel Elazar’s three types of political culture. Describe how cultural variations across the states might influence perceptions toward the function of government and citizen engagement in the political process. Discuss the key points of contention with Daniel Elazar’s idea
Some states, such as Alaska, have a wealth of natural resources at their disposal. These countries may take use of their oil or natural gas assets to support education or lower taxes. Other states, such as Florida, are favored by a climate that attracts visitors and retirees each winter, generating cash that can be used to fund infrastructure upgrades throughout the state. Florida is a good example of this. When these discrepancies are taken into account, states might gain strategic advantages in terms of their economic fortunes, which can translate into differences in the amounts of taxes that must be collected from individuals.
- According to theory, states are also distinct as a result of their diverse political cultures, or their attitudes and ideas about the functions of and expectations from the government.
- Daniel Elazar proposed in 1966 that the United States may be separated into three distinct political cultures: moralistic, individualistic, and traditionalistic.
- The migratory patterns of immigrants who settled in and spread out throughout the country from the east coast to the west coast are credited with the spreading of these cultures across the United States.
- Daniel Elazar proposed that the United States may be split geographically into three sorts of political cultures: individualistic, moralistic, and traditionalistic.
Moralistic Political Culture
State governments with an amoralistic political culture, according to Elazar’s theory, consider the government as a vehicle to improve society and promote the public welfare. The public expects political officials to be honest in their interactions with others, to put the interests of the people they serve above their own, and to make a commitment to improving the area in which they are elected or appointed. The political process is seen positively rather than as a vehicle polluted by corruption, as was the case in the past.
- As a result, moralistic nations are more likely to accept the expansion of the role of government.
- Furthermore, they believe it is the responsibility of public authorities to push for new initiatives that will assist marginal individuals or that will solve public policy problems, even when there is little public pressure to do so at the time.
- The ideals of these pioneers spread over the top of the United States to the upper Great Lakes region after multiple generations of migration westward by these migrants.
- Together, these tribes advanced further west, passing through the northern section of the Midwest and West, and eventually along the West Coast of the United States of America.
- Citizens in moralistic nations, according to Elazar’s model, should be more likely to devote their time and/or resources to political campaigns and to vote in elections.
- First and foremost, because the state places a high priority on mass involvement, state legislation is expected to make it simpler for citizens to register and vote.
- As a result, candidates will be less likely to run unopposed and will be more likely to encounter meaningful competition from a competent opponent.
As explained by Elazar, individuals’ belief in public service as an important activity and a respectable profession is a factor in the increased level of competitiveness.
Oregon’s Efforts to Expand the Voting Franchise
States with an amoralistic political culture, according to Elazar’s theory, consider the government as a vehicle to improve society and promote the general welfare of the population. They expect political leaders to be honest in their interactions with others, to put the interests of the people they serve above their own, and to make a commitment to improving the region in which they are elected to represent them. A favorable image of the political process is projected, rather than a negative image of it as a vehicle for unethical activity.
- The expansion of the function of government is thus supported by moralistic states.
- As a result, they believe that public authorities have a responsibility to push for new initiatives that will assist marginalized persons or that will address public policy issues, even when there is little public pressure to do so.
- The ideals of these settlers spread over the top of the United States to the upper Great Lakes region after numerous generations of migration westward.
- Together, these tribes advanced further west, passing through the northern section of the Midwest and West, and eventually along the West Coast of the United States and Canada.
- Citizens in moralistic nations, according to Elazar’s model, should be more likely to devote their time and/or resources to political campaigns and to vote in general.
- First and foremost, because the state places a high priority on mass involvement, it is probable that state legislation will make it simpler for citizens to register and vote.
- In other words, candidates will be less likely to run unopposed and will be more likely to encounter true competition against a competent adversary.
Individualistic Political Culture
States that share Elazar’s individualistic political culture are called “aligned states.” Consider the government to be a vehicle for resolving issues that are important to individual people and for achieving personal objectives. When it comes to government, people in this society deal with it in the same way they would with a marketplace. They anticipate that the government will provide products and services that they consider necessary, and they anticipate that the public officials and bureaucrats who offer these goods and services will be paid for their efforts.
- It is likely that new policies will be passed if they can be used by politicians to win support from voters and other interested stakeholders, or if there is a high demand for these services among the general public.
- It was in the mid-Atlantic area of New York, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey that the first settlements appeared, and they spread throughout the central half of the United States in a fairly straight path from Ohio to Wyoming.
- In 2015, for example, New Jersey Governor ChrisChristie made news when he spoke about the incentives he employed to get firms to relocate to the state of New Jersey.
- The governor thinks that by offering these business incentives, it would encourage the development of jobs for individuals who are in need of work in an economically disadvantaged section of his state.
- Elazar’s argument is supported by research.
- These personal motives will cause individuals in individualistic governments to be more tolerant of corruption among their political leaders and less inclined to regard politics as a noble profession in which all citizens should participate.
- Instead, it puts political parties against one another that are well-organized and compete directly for votes in order to win votes.
Thus, unlike in moralistic cultures, voters do not place a high value on the personalities of politicians when selecting how to vote and are less accepting of third-party candidates than in moralistic cultures.
Traditionalistic Political Culture
Because of the role played by slavery in the establishment of political culture, atraditionalistic political culture, according to Elazar, considers the government to be essential to sustaining the current social order, or the status quo. Only elites have a place in the political enterprise, and as a result, new public policies will be implemented only if they serve to reinforce the ideas and interests of those in positions of authority. Traditionally conservative political culture, according to Elazar, has been associated with the southern area of the United States, where it first emerged in the higher regions of Virginia and Kentucky before expanding to the Deep South and the Southwest.
- Although some settlers in traditionalistic states made money via business operations, most related their economic fortunes to the need of slavery on plantations throughout the South.
- For example, despite the fact that poverty is an issue throughout the United States, the South has the highest incidence of it, as seen on the map below.
- Due to the fact that they must prioritize economic limits in the face of increasing demand for services, these figures provide issues for legislators not only in the near term, but also in the long run.
- While moralistic cultures expect and encourage all people to participate in politics, traditionalistic cultures are more inclined to consider it as a privilege reserved for those who satisfy the necessary requirements to do so.
- Conservatives contend that these rules minimize or eliminate voting fraud, whilst liberals argue that they disproportionally disenfranchise the poor and minorities and amount to a modern-day poll tax on the poor and minorities.
- Finally, Elazar believes that, in a traditionalistic political culture, party competition would likely to occur between factions within a dominating party, rather than across parties.
Prior to realignment during the civil rights period, the Democratic Party had historically controlled the political system in the southern United States. These days, depending on the post being sought, the parties are more likely to compete for voters than they were previously.
Critiques of Elazar’s Theory
Since Elazar originally published his theory of state political culture fifty years ago, a number of objections have been brought to the fore. However, because immigration patterns have changed over time, it is possible to argue that the three cultures no longer correspond to the country’s current reality. The original theory was founded on the assumption that new cultures could emerge as a result of an influx of settlers from various parts of the world. Today’s immigrants are less likely to be from European nations and are more likely to be from Latin American and Asian countries as their origin.
Consequently, the pattern of diffusion on which the original idea is based may no longer be correct since individuals are traveling in a greater number of directions, many of which are unpredictable in nature.
Often, they are driven by socioeconomic challenges such as widespread unemployment, urban deterioration, or poor quality health care in educational institutions.
Finally, unlike economic or demographic variables, which can be measured with more precision, culture is a broad notion that might be difficult to define on a micro level.
Based on the cultural ideals of early immigrants who established in different parts of the nation, Daniel Elazar’s theory claims that the United States is composed of three component cultures: individualistic, moralistic, and conservative. There are significant differences in how each culture perceives many aspects of governance and politics, notably the nature and purpose of political rivalry and the role of public engagement. Critics of the theory argue that the influx of recent immigrants from other parts of the world, the disparity between urban and rural lifestyles in a particular state, and new patterns of diffusion and settlement across states and regions have rendered the theory no longer be a completely accurate description of the current state of affairs.
Texas – Government and society
The state of Texas is governed under a constitution that was ratified in 1877. In addition to the president, the country has a bicameral legislature consisting of 31 senators who serve four-year terms and 150 representatives who are elected to two-year terms. He or she may propose legislation, call for special legislative sessions, veto laws, and appoint members to boards and commissions. The governor is elected to a four-year term. No constitutional restriction on the number of terms a governor may serve, however the governor’s power is constrained in that many officials and executive boards are elected rather than appointed, limiting the governor’s ability to legislate.
- The Court of Criminal Appeals is the highest court in the United States for criminal cases, with nine judges who are elected to six-year terms.
- County courts, justice of the peace courts, and municipal courts are all examples of lower courts.
- The legislature has the authority to create new counties within the confines of the constitution.
- The charters of cities having a population of more than 5,000 people may be adopted by such cities.
- From extreme liberalism to extreme conservatism have been represented among the candidates running for the Democratic Party nomination.
- From the late 1960s to the early 1970s, several conservative Democrats and powerful Texas liberals began to covertly back Republicans, whom they thought to be more liberal than the traditional Democratic leadership.
- Clements, Jr., was elected to the position of governor, becoming the state’s first Republican governor since Reconstruction.
In national politics, several Texans have played an important role, and several (Lyndon B. Johnson, George Bush, and George W. Bush) have been elected president of the United States.
Health and welfare
Texas is ranked among the top states in the United States for medical education, research, and preventative health care. Texas Children’s Hospital and Texas Medical Center, both located in Houston, as well as the University of Texas Health Science Center in Dallas are significant medical facilities in the state. Outpatient clinic services have been receiving more and more attention in recent years. Despite the fact that mental health services in Texas evolved slowly, by the early twenty-first century, there were numerous mental health facilities in the state.
There is a severe shortage of physicians and facilities in rural parts of Texas, as well as a general underfunding of health-care services.
Since the 1830s, public lands in each county of Texas have been set aside for the purpose of constructing schools. It was established in the state constitution of 1876 that a total of 52 million acres (21 million hectares) would be set aside for public schools and another 2 million acres (800,000 hectares) would be set aside for a state university and agricultural college. Since World War II, efforts to solve educational difficulties that have arisen as a result of social, economic, and other changes have met with varying degrees of success.
In all, more than 150,000 students are enrolled in the University of Texassystem, with almost one-third of them attending classes on the main campus in Austin.
Texas A & M University, as well as the University of Texas at Austin, feature renowned graduate and research programs.
Baylor University, in Waco, Texas, was founded in 1845 and is the only one of the five universities that were created during the republican era to still exist.