Which Of The Following Forms The Foundation Of The American Culture


Which of the following forms the foundation of the American culture? a. basic values c. freedom of choice b. diversity d. self-fulfillment

To fill in the blanks, use a term that is the antonym of the italicized word. 1. Weegy is a kind of weed. After years of living in the heat of Texas, he couldn’t stand the cold of Alaska. He’s been accused of stealing, but we don’t believe it. 12:11:23 a.m. on January 10, 2022 | 9 Responses What you weigh isn’t as significant as the ratio of to in your body composition. Someone who is underweight is 15 to 20% below their optimal body weight, according to the Weegy. 5th of January, 2022, 12:50:33 PM |


Wind erosion is particularly frequent in flat, exposed places where there is little vegetation.

7 Responses to Fill up the blanks with appropriate information.

  1. In weegy, the atomic mass of the most prevalent carbon isotope, carbon-12, is either 12 or 12.
  2. 6 AnswersThe bottom and margins of a stream have a higher velocity than the middle.
  3. According to Weegy, stream velocity is slowest near the bottom and margins of a stream.
  4. 5 Answers This is the atomic mass of magnesium’s most prevalent isotope, which is .
  5. 5 Responses to The four primary aims of academic writing are to _, _, _, and _, respectively.
  6. 1/7/2022 1:21:32 AM|
  7. A stream s.Weegy: A stream velocity is slowest at the bottom and edges.

5 Answers The vocalist not only was great but she was a wonderful person, too.

5 Answers Due to the thick and viscous substance in the asthenosphere, the.

User: .

4 Answers Fill up the blanks with appropriate information.

1/5/2022 2:49:45 AM |

1/12/2022 10:15:07 AM|

Our grants

Since our inception 85 years ago, we have held the belief that justice begins when inequity is eliminated. The Ford Foundation provides assistance to organizations that aim to address the root causes of inequality and are aligned with our programmatic work across the world, including the United States. Our grant opportunities page contains information on the limited number of programs or initiatives that are currently accepting funding submissions. Scams should be avoided at all costs. Individuals posing as representatives of the foundation and claiming to be from the foundation have contacted people, claiming that monies are available if they pay a fee.

These communications are forgeries, according to the FBI. Please keep in mind that the foundation does not impose any fees in conjunction with its donations.

Grantmaking 101

What is the procedure for creating an endowment? What is the point of making donations in the first place? What role might financing play in igniting social change? These videos lay down some of the principles of grantmaking and provide an overview of how the foundation functions. Find out more about granting opportunities.

Building Institutions and Networks

Since 2015, we have committed $2 billion of our grantmaking budget to the building of social justice institutions, which is a crucial component of our approach to decrease inequality. BUILD is the name we have given to our endeavor. Find out more about BUILD.

Other resources

Find organizations that provide information on and insight into philanthropy, as well as those that may be able to assist you in funding your work or connecting you to other potential sources of support. Learn more about charity by visiting our website.

The Jed Foundation

Find information and insight about philanthropy from a variety of organizations that may be able to assist you in funding your work or connecting you to other potential sources of assistance. Seek out more information on charity.

JED’s Mental Health Resource Center helps you manage your emotional health, cope with challenges, and support the people in your life.

You may learn how to cope with emotions such as worry and grief, and how to negotiate emotional problems such as break-ups and other painful transitions. You can also learn about mental health issues such as depression, find self-care techniques, and seek treatment for yourself or a loved one. Get started today. Schools that implement JED programs to promote students’ mental health enroll more than 4.8 million young adults. More than 8 million individuals connect with JED services each year, seeking assistance for themselves or a loved one.

It is the most effective methodology available for improving student well-being while also saving lives.” The School of the Art Institute of Chicago is a prestigious art school in Chicago.

Our Work

Individuals are equipped, schools are strengthened, and communities are mobilized to make a difference and save lives via JED.

Equipping Individuals

Building resiliency and life skills in teens and young adults, encouraging social connectedness, and encouraging help-seeking and help-giving behaviors are all proven to improve their overall well-being, help them thrive, and protect their emotional health, making it less likely that they will engage in unhealthy behaviors. To engage teenagers and young adults, JED employs digital marketing, the media, and partnerships to meet them where they are and in a way that they can comprehend. Examine the programs offered by JED, which reach millions of young people each year.

Strengthening Schools

For children, their school community serves as an important aspect of their support network and mental safety net, and it should be valued as such. High schools, colleges, and universities representing millions of students collaborate with JED to develop systems, programs, and policies that promote a culture of caring that protects student mental health, develops life skills, increases the likelihood that students will seek help, and ensures that struggling students are identified, connected to mental health care, and supported.

Find out more about JED’s programs for high schools and universities by visiting their website.

Mobilizing Communities

Our mental health is influenced by the environment in which we live. There are a variety of elements that can impact the perspectives, well-being, and actions of our teenagers and young adults, including their families, friends, the media, and high-profile figures in the public arena. JED collaborates with these communities to cultivate a culture of care that is based on more knowledge and less shame and secrecy, as well as to work on increasing their good influence while limiting any negative consequences.

ProudThriving Framework: JED’s Framework to Support the Emotional Wellbeing and Mental Health of LGBTQ+ Youth

LGBTQ+ high school, college, and university students are at greater risk for unfavorable outcomes than their non-LGBTQ+ counterparts, as evaluated by health and academic issues such as drug usage, depression, suicidal thoughts, academic and extracurricular disengagement, and attrition. Schools provide a crucial setting for the development of academic, social-emotional, and identity skills in students. The need of developing mental health support services for LGBTQ+ kids cannot be overstated, especially considering the crucial role that schools play in their lives.

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Generally speaking, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights is regarded as the cornerstone of international human rights legislation. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), which was adopted in 1948, has spawned a plethora of legally enforceable international human rights treaties. It continues to be an inspiration to us all, whether we are confronting injustices, navigating through conflict, living in repressive environments, or working towards the achievement of universal enjoyment of human rights.

Regardless of our country, place of residence, gender, national or ethnic origin, race, religion, language, or any other status, the world community made a promise on December 10, 1948, to defend dignity and justice for all of us, no matter what our circumstances were at the time.

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Foundation for Our Common Future

Over time, the commitment has been formalized into law, whether in the form of treaties, customary international law, general principles, regional accords, or local legislation, all of which express and safeguard human rights in one way or the other. Indeed, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights has served as the inspiration for more than 80 international human rights treaties and declarations, as well as a large number of regional human rights conventions, domestic human rights bills, and constitutional provisions, all of which combine to form a comprehensive legally binding system for the promotion and protection of human rights worldwide.

  • President of the Third Committee of the UN General Assembly, Panama’s Humberto Calamari, presided over a meeting on the draft International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights in 1958.
  • Photo courtesy of the United Nations The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, as well as the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights, both come into force in 1976, building on the successes of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
  • They set forth commonplace rights such as the right to life, equality before the law, freedom of speech, the right to work, social security, and education, among other things.
  • The scope and specialization of international human rights accords have grown in recent years, both in terms of the issues addressed and the socioeconomic groups who have been designated as needing to be protected.

Universal Values

The fundamental principles of human rights, which were first articulated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), such as universality, interdependence and indivisibility, equality and non-discrimination, as well as the notion that human rights entail both rights and obligations on the part of duty bearers and rights owners, have been reaffirmed in a slew of international human rights conventions, declarations, and resolutions over the years.

Today, every member state of the United Nations has ratified at least one of the nine main international human rights treaties, with 80 percent having ratified four or more of them, so demonstrating the universality of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and international human rights.

How Does International Law Protect Human Rights?

International human rights legislation imposes duties on states, which they are required to comply with. States who become parties to international treaties therefore have obligations and responsibilities under international law to respect, defend, and fulfill human rights, among other things. The need to respect indicates that states must refrain from interfering with or restricting the enjoyment of human rights, as defined by international law. Individuals and groups are required to be protected against human rights violations under the responsibility to protect, which is a legal requirement.

Governments commit to putting in place domestic measures and laws that are consistent with their treaty commitments and responsibilities when they ratify international human rights treaties.

Individual and group complaints mechanisms and procedures for human rights abuses are available at both the regional and international levels to assist in ensuring that international human rights standards are respected, implemented, and enforced at the local level in cases where domestic legal proceedings fail to address human rights abuses.

Indo American Cultural and Religious Foundation of Arizona

The impact on the score is greater. The Program Expense Ratio is calculated by dividing Program Expenses by the total amount of expenses (average of most recent three 990s). This metric represents the percentage of a charity’s total costs that is spent on the programs and services that the organization was established to provide. Good financial stewardship extends beyond financial indicators to encompass the appropriate use of finances in the achievement of the stated goal of the organization.

This is why our methodology awards zero points to both financial measures in circumstances when the Program Expense ratio is less than 50 percent.

Program Expense Percentage

70% or higher Full Credit
60% – 69.9% Partial Credit
Below 50% Zero Points for Both Program Expense percentage AND Liabilities to Assets

IRS Form 990 is the source of this information.

Board Composition

The impact on the score is greater. Charity Navigator searches for a board of directors that has at least three members, with more than half of those members described as independent (not salaried).

Many industry professionals believe that the presence of an independent governing board is essential in order to allow for complete discourse and variety of thought on topics of governance and other organizational problems. IRS Form 990 is the source of this information.

Independent Audit or Financial Review

The impact on the score is greater. An audit, review, or compilation gives critical information on the financial accountability and correctness of a company’s financial records. Organizations are rated based on their total revenue amount, which is as follows:

Total Revenue Amount

$1 million or higher Expected to complete an audit
$500,000 – $1 million Expected to complete an audit, review, or compilation
Less than $500,000 No expectation (removed from scoring methodology)

IRS Form 990 is the source of this information.

Liabilities to Assets Ratio

Having a smaller impact on the score The ratio of total liabilities to total assets is calculated by dividing total liabilities by total assets (most recent 990). This ratio serves as a predictor of an organization’s solvency and/or long-term viability, among other things.

Liabilities to Assets Ratio

Less than 50% Full Credit
50% – 59.9% Partial Credit
60% or more No Credit

As a result of their Program Expense Ratio being less than 50 percent, this organization receives zero points for both financial measures (Liabilities to Assets Ratio and Program Expense Ratio). IRS Form 990 is the source of this information.


Having a smaller impact on the score As part of its accountability and transparency assessment, Charity Navigator searches for a website address on the Form 990. Nonprofits operate in the public interest, and the public disclosure of their actions is an important component of their operations. IRS Form 990 is the source of this information.

Conflict of Interest Policy

Having a smaller impact on the score As part of its accountability and transparency measures, Charity Navigator checks the Form 990 to see if the organization has a conflict of interest policy in place. Whenever an organization considers engaging into a transaction that may benefit the private interests of an officer, director, and/or key employee of the organization, this policy protects the organization and people it serves as a result, as well as those it serves. IRS Form 990 is the source of this information.

Board Meeting Minutes

Having a smaller impact on the score According to Charity Navigator, the Form 990 should provide confirmation that the organization has put in place this procedure as an accountability and transparency tool. If the events that take place at a board meeting are officially recorded, it is ensured that a contemporaneous document will be available for future reference. IRS Form 990 is the source of this information.

Document Retention and Destruction

Having a smaller impact on the score As an accountability and transparency tool, Charity Navigator checks to see if the organization has a document preservation and destruction policy in accordance with the Form 990. This policy defines standards for the management, archiving, and destruction of documents, as well as for document backup and recovery. These rules encourage proper record-keeping practices that are conducive to data integrity. IRS Form 990 is the source of this information.

Whistleblower Policy

Having a smaller impact on the score As an accountability and transparency metric, Charity Navigator examines for the presence of a whistleblower policy on the Form 990, which is submitted to the IRS.

This policy includes processes for dealing with employee complaints, as well as a confidential mechanism for employees to report financial or other sorts of mismanagement to the appropriate authorities. IRS Form 990 is the source of this information.

Kosciuszko Foundation – American Center of Polish culture

The Kosciuszko Foundation Tuition Scholarships provide financial assistance to American students of Polish heritage who are pursuing graduate-level courses, such as master’s and doctoral degrees, at colleges and institutions throughout the United States of America. Scholarships range in value from $1,000 to $7,000 each year. The funding is exclusively available for full-time study in the United States and at English-language medical schools in Poland. Under the Kosciuszko Foundation’s Tuition Scholarship program, students from all disciplines and majors are eligible to receive scholarship support.

  • Residents of Amsterdam, NY
  • Residents of the Chicago, IL area for studies towards MD, DO, DDS, DVM, and DVM degrees (Polish American Medical Society – Chicago)
  • Residents of Chicopee, MA
  • Residents of New Hampshire
  • Residents of Connecticut
  • Residents of Wisconsin
  • Residents of Illinois
  • Residents of Indiana
  • Residents of Iowa
  • Residents of Kansas
  • Residents of Michigan
  • Residents of Minnesota
  • Residents of Missouri
  • Residents of North Dakota
  • Residents of Nebraska
  • Residents of South Dakota
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  • Citizens and legal permanent residents of the United States
  • Must be of Polish heritage
  • Graduate level studies (Masters, Ph.D.)
  • GPA of 3.0 or above
  • Must be a citizen or legal permanent resident of the United States

During any given academic year, only one member of an immediate family is eligible to earn a tuition scholarship. The number of tuition scholarships awarded to a single individual over the course of his or her study is restricted to two. Students can reapply for support at any time; however, scholarship renewals are not guaranteed at this time.

Selection Criteria

The completeness of the application, recommendations from instructors and professors, academic performance and achievements, the applicant’s interests and motivation, the applicant’s essay, and engagement in the Polish American community are all taken into consideration. The necessity for financial assistance is taken into consideration. Scholarships from the Kosciuszko Foundation are given out on a competitive basis.

Application Procedure

The following materials are required for a proper application submission:

  • Documents required: A – Scholarship Application (A1) and Financial Information Form (A2)
  • B – Statement of Purpose/essay
  • C – Transcripts of Records
  • D – Two Letters of Recommendation
  • In the case of an admission letter, this should be included in E. F – Documentation of Polish ancestry
  • G represents a photograph
  • H represents a curriculum vitae. I – A non-refundable application cost of $40, which includes a Checklist

Important Remarks on the Accompanying Documents:

  • A-Application forms may be found by clicking on the Click Here to Apply button below. Please submit a Financial Information Form that has been completely filled out (Pages 1 and 2). Candidates for graduate and doctorate programs should give budgetary estimates for the top three institutions they want to attend on Page 2 of their application. B- Submit a Statement of Purpose on your behalf. Introduce yourself, your major and minor, relevant academic and extracurricular activities, and short and long-term objectives with your partner. You will have three pages to write your statement, which will be double spaced. Fill in the blanks with your full nameTU23and page numbers for each page of your essay Submission of official transcripts of studies is required. To be eligible for graduate level courses, a current college senior must submit official transcripts from their undergraduate freshman, sophomore, and junior years (up to and including Summer 2022).
  • An authentic transcript is one that has been provided directly to the Kosciuszko Foundation from the institution or school where you are enrolled. In most cases, an official transcript is printed on official transcript paper and includes the embossed or raised seal of the university or institution in addition to the date and the signature of the registrar. Official transcripts are typically supplied in a sealed envelope with the registrar’s signature stamped over the seal of the envelope
  • Transcripts submitted by students will not be accepted. It is acceptable and deemed official to submit electronic transcripts to the Foundation provided they are supplied securely through an agency recognized by your university and sent directly to the Foundation. In addition to Transcript Network by Credentials Solutions, LLC, Transcript Services at Parchment, Credentials eScrip-Safe, and the National Student Clearinghouse, the Foundation also accepts electronic transcripts from the following sources:
  • D- You’ll need two private letters of recommendation to complete the application. To be considered official, letters must be written on university letterhead and originate from professors or teachers with whom you have recently studied. Letters can be sent to the Foundation by the USPS or e-mail
  • However, recommendation letters must be sent directly from the professor or school office to be considered. Students’ recommendation letters will not be considered on this occasion. A letter of recommendation that is not related to academics will be considered as an optional third letter of support. It is possible for an employer or supervisor, leader or official of an organization with which you are involved, or another individual who can speak to relevant activities, talents, and/or appropriateness for scholarship financing to submit a letter on your behalf. The following instructions are for recommenders who desire to send letters by e-mail: 1. Save your papers as TU 23 -Last name of the candidate, first name of the LOR, and last name of the professor
  • E-mail a copy of your letter of admission to [email protected]. For the academic year Fall 2022/Spring 2023, this requirement is only applicable to students who will be joining graduate programs or commencing doctorate studies for the first time. The deadline for submission of admission letters is May 31st. Submissions sent as soon as possible are welcomed. F- Submit documentation proving your Polish background. You may trace your genealogy back to an ancestor who was born in Poland by using copies of official documents such as birth certificates, passports, citizenship papers, and other official documents. Make a note of any names that stand out and arrange the documents in chronological order. Save all of your papers into a single file and save the file using the file naming conventions indicated below to avoid confusion. To establish Polish ancestry, only one line of descent is required. If you do not have the documents indicated above, a letter from a prominent member of the community confirming your Polish origin will be accepted in lieu of the paperwork. In addition, letters from relatives will not be accepted because they are not official documentation
  • A photograph of yourself that is appropriate for inclusion in the Kosciuszko Foundation Newsletter should be sent. It is recommended that you use a passport-style photo (headshot)
  • H- Submit a copy of your curriculum vit Include honors, accomplishments, membership in groups, events, and Polish clubs, among other things, in your resume. The $40 non-refundable application fee must be submitted to the KF along with the Checklist, which must be sent through USPS. The only forms of payment accepted are checks and money orders made payable to the Kosciuszko Foundation
  • All other forms of payment are not accepted.

Students who desire to reapply for scholarship assistance should keep the following points in mind: Re-applying for scholarship funds means competing against a new group of applicants. All items should be updated. with the exception of confirmation of Polish ancestry:

  • 1. Update your application and financial information form
  • 2. Update your Statement of Purpose to reflect any new or extra recent activities such as internships, volunteer programs, or new developments/ directions in your studies
  • 3. Update your application and financial information form
  • 4. C – Submit official transcripts indicating grades earned during the interim time period. Please keep in mind that certain students may be required to submit grades for the Fall 2022 semester. The letter of recommendation
  • And two private letters of recommendation E – If relevant, a letter of admission
  • And In order to be considered for a renewal scholarship, you must upload to the KF a letter stating your status as the applicant who is applying for the scholarship. Indicate the academic year for which you previously applied and request that your heritage papers be pushed up to the current application cycle, if applicable. During the Fall 2022/Spring 2023 semester, we will transfer your proof of ancestry file to your new file. G – a photograph
  • H – an updated curriculum vitae
  • I – an application fee and checklist

Prepare the following items before submitting your application on-line:

  • Your essay, evidence of ancestry, a photograph, and a curriculum vitae
  • Identifying numbers for green cards and naturalization certificates (for non-citizens)
  • Start and finish dates for high school and college, degrees earned or projected to be earned, graduation dates or predicted graduation dates

Notes on further information:

  • All supporting papers should be named in accordance with the following convention: TU23-Your Last Name-Your First Name TU23-Your Last Name-Your First Name -An explanation of the file’s contents. Examples of descriptions include: Financial Information Form (FIF)
  • Financial information
  • Essay
  • And others. University Initials and Initials of Admission
  • Heritage
  • Ancestry
  • Photo and Curriculum Vitae and other descriptive phrases of a similar nature Documents may be saved in the.doc,.docx, and.pdf file formats, among others. Photographic file types that are acceptable include.png,.jpg, and.jpeg
  • If we have any questions or need clarification, we will contact you through e-mail or phone
  • Please answer as soon as possible. In order to be considered for a scholarship, applications must be completely completed
  • Please do not staple your check or money order to the Checklist. Make sure you allow yourself enough time to finish the online application form without stopping to rest. This means that you will not be able to save your answers and come back to finish the form at a later time. Only one application is required, and we will consider you for any KF tuition scholarships for which you are eligible. If you are experiencing technical issues, please call us at the number listed below.
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Awards for scholarships are made on the basis of the information you provide in your application form. candidates with suitable funding, which may define or limit subject area, state of residency, and/or other variables. candidates with suitable funding A change in subject area, university, and/or degree pursued after receiving a scholarship notice must be informed to the Kosciuszko Foundation Grants Department. Failure to do so may result in your scholarship being re-considered in order to find an acceptable fund.

Documents that must be submitted online include: A1- Application form (in English) B- Personal Statement/Essay F- Documentary evidence of Polish ancestry Item # G: Photograph Item # H: Curriculum Vitae Documents to be sent by the United States Postal Service or e-mail: A2- Financial Information FormC- Official TranscriptsD- Letters of RecommendationA2- Financial Information FormC- Official Transcripts Admission letters sent through e-mail Documents to be submitted through the United States Postal Service: I- Application cost of $40 plus a checklist Send physical copies of your materials to the Grants Department.

  • The Kosciuszko Foundation, Inc.
  • Send your queries and supporting documentation to: [email protected] (e-mail address).
  • 412.
  • Notification of a Scholarship Letters for the academic year Fall 2022/Spring 2023 will be mailed out in June 2022, according to the university.
  • If you have moved or changed your address since submitting your application form, you must submit aChange of Address Form by May 31st [email protected]_.
  • When the application time has ended, send us an email and ask to be added to the Tuition Scholarship mailing list, which will be created.
  • I currently reside in Chicago, Illinois.
  • I currently reside in Portsmouth, New Hampshire.

When a new application has been posted and the scholarship application period has begun, an email will be issued to the applicants. In order to prevent the notice from being sent to your Spam bin, please [email protected] to your address book, white list, or safe senders list.

Return to Tuition Scholarships

On September 14, 1789, the proposed Articles of Amendment to the Federal Constitution were published. Thomas Greenleaf published the book in New York in 1789. The Rare Book and Special Collections Division of the Library of Congress is home to a wide range of rare books and special collections (035) The Magna Carta had a significant impact on both the United States Constitution and the constitutions of the several states, and it continues to have an impact today. However, its effect was formed by the interpretation of Magna Carta that eighteenth-century Americans gave to the document.

Most state constitutions include declarations of rights that are designed to provide individual citizens with a list of protections and immunities from the state government, in part because of this heritage.

Incorporating certain provisions that were thought to have descended from rights secured by Magna Carta at the time of its adoption, both the state declarations of rights and the United States Bill of Rights were recognized as deriving from Magna Carta.

Many wider American constitutional foundations, such as the philosophy of representative government, the concept of a supreme law, and judicial review, have their origins in an eighteenth-century reading of Magna Carta.

Journal of the Continental Congress

It was during the first Continental Congress’s meetings in September and October 1774 that the colonists’ rights were asserted in a Declaration of Rights and Grievances, which claimed for them the liberties guaranteed to them under “the principles of the English constitution, and the various charters or compacts.” For the colonists, maintaining their self-government, independence from taxation without representation, the right to have one’s case heard by a jury of one’s fellow countrymen, and the enjoyment of “life, liberty, and property” without arbitrary intervention from the monarch were all important goals.

There is a sign of unity on this title page, which was accepted by the Congress: twelve arms reaching out to grab a column with a liberty cap affixed to its summit.

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State Constitutions

When the Continental Congress met in May 1776, it proposed that the assemblies of each colony draft a new state constitution that was “adequate to the demands of business.” Provisions protecting individual rights from governmental action were incorporated into every constitution drafted by these newly independent states. Among the rights enshrined in them were freedom of religion, freedom of the press, prohibition of high bail or penalties, right to a jury trial, and protection against loss of life, liberty or property without due process of law.

When it comes to the final of these rights, the wording of Magna Carta’s Chapter 29 is frequently used, like in line twelve of the state constitution of North Carolina, for example.

  • “North Carolina” in The Constitutions of the Several Independent States of America, the Declaration of Independence, the Articles of Confederation between the Said States.London: J. Stockdale, 1782.Law Library, Library of Congress (032)
  • The Constitutions of the Several Independent States of America, the Declaration of Independence, the Articles of Confederation between the Said States.London: J. Stockdale, 1782.Law Library, Library of Congress (032)
  • The Constitutions of the Several Independent

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Pennsylvania’s Constitution

Pennsylvania’s constitution, which was drafted during the summer of 1776 by Benjamin Franklin (1706–1790), George Bryan (1731–1791), James Cannon (1740–1782), and others, borrowed language from the Stamp Act Congress, the First Continental Congress, and the Declaration of Independence. Franklin, George Bryan, and James Cannon were among those who worked on the document. With the creation of what has often been referred to as the most democratic constitution in the United States, the writers of the Constitution of the United States intended to balance the disproportionate influence held by a tiny group of Pennsylvania landowners.

All free males who paid taxes were given the right to vote under the Pennsylvania constitution.

Jefferson’s Copy of the Federalist Papers

The Federalist Papers were a collection of eighty-five papers written by James Madison (1751–1836), John Jay (1745–1829), and Alexander Hamilton (1745–1829) that were published anonymously in order to garner support in New York for the United States Constitution’s adoption. A federal bill of rights was not ratified by the Constitutional Convention, despite extensive approval of declarations of rights in state constitutions. This was despite widespread adoption of such declarations in state constitutions.

84, the United States does not require the inclusion of a bill of rights because “here, strictly speaking, the people lose nothing; and because they retain everything, they have no need of explicit reservations.” A collection of essays written in support of the new Constitution, as agreed upon by the Federal Convention on September 17, 1787, published as The Federalist: A Collection of Essays, Written in Support of the New Constitution, As Agreed Upon by the Federal Convention on September 17, 1787, Vol.


and A.

The Library of Congress’s Rare Book and Special Collections Division houses Thomas Jefferson’s Library, as well as other rare and special collections (034) Make a note of this item: /

Madison’s Copy of the Proposed “Bill of Rights”

A number of protections from the English Bill of Rights and Magna Carta were incorporated into the proposed amendments to the Constitution proposed by Congress in 1791, particularly the Virginia Declaration of Rights of 1776, which incorporated a number of protections from the 1689 English Bill of Rights and Magna Carta. The fifth through tenth articles of the proposed amendments, which correspond to the fourth through eighth amendments to the United States Constitution as ratified, are the most direct expressions of this tradition, guaranteeing prompt justice, a jury trial, proportionate punishment, and due process of law, among other things.

Articles of Amendment to the Federal Constitution that have been proposed. September 14, 1789, New York, New York: Thomas Greenleaf. /”>Page 2 of the Rare Book and Special Collections Division of the Library of Congress (035) Make a note of this item: /

George Washington’s Draft of the United States Constitution

The Committee of Style was chaired by William Samuel Johnson, and members included James Madison, Rufus King (1755–1827), Alexander Hamilton, and Gouverneur Morris (1752–1816), a delegate from Pennsylvania who is credited with providing the preamble phrase “We the people of the United States”—a simple phrase that anchored the new national government in the consent of the people rather than a confederation of states.

The Committee of Style was chaired by William Samuel Johnson, and members included Article II of the United States Constitution is depicted here, which explains the powers that have been granted to the executive branch of the federal government.

Document featuring annotations by George Washington and Convention Secretary William Jackson on a printed sheet of paper.

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