Which Native North American Culture Produced Large Burial Mounds In Ohio


what artistic form is common to maya, toltec, and aztec cultures? – ArtRadarJournal.com

Hopi kachina figurines, such as this one, have a long history of serving a purpose. They are the ones who teach children about holy traditions.

Which Native American culture produced large burial mounds in Ohio?

A. and B. are two of the most important people in the world. The first and second are true. According to Mark Lynott, former manager and supervisor of the Midwest Archaeological Center, “the Hopewell constructed huge complexes of earthen mounds, walls, ditches, and ponds in the southern flowing drainage systems” of the Ohio River basin around 500 AD.

What was the Aztecs main form of art?

Poetry was considered to be the highest form of art in Aztec society. There were a number of poems composed by the Aztecs. Their poetry frequently dealt with mythology or the gods, but they also dealt with ordinary life in other instances. The poetry they wrote were sometimes referred to as “flowers and melodies.”

What did the Maya and the Aztec have in common?

The Mayans and the Aztecs were both polytheistic god worshippers, and both built pyramidal temples to commemorate their deified gods. Human sacrifice was also done by the Mayan and Aztec civilizations as part of their sacred rituals.

What kind of art did the Mayans create?

Many different types of Mayan art exist, including stone sculpture, architecture, pottery, wood carving, and paintings on walls, to name a few examples. Mayan artisans achieved an exceptionally high degree of excellence in stone sculpting and masonry.

What are the characteristics of Aztec art?

It may be used to embellish paintings, ceramics, and furniture, among other things. There are several additional creative goods available, including knives, headdresses, clothes, architecture, statues, masks, shields, and jewelry, amongst other things. Symbols had an essential part in the art of the Aztec civilization. The Aztecs were well-known for using animals like as snakes, deer, jaguars, birds, and fish as emblems in their art.

What kind of monument can be found at Borobudur Java?

It was designated in 1991 (15th session) as a part of the Borobudur Temple Compounds. BorobudurTypeCulturalCriteriai, ii, vi

What Stone is Borobudur made of?

In all, the base of Borobudur extends 402 feet from north to south and 383 feet from east to west; the structure’s current height is 95 feet above ground. It is composed of over two million stones of volcanic andesite, a blue-gray volcanic stone that is found in abundance in the area.

What is the significance of Borobudur?

A remote mountain in central Java is home to the world’s biggest Buddhist monument, which draws visitors from all across Southeast Asia and beyond to pay homage to the Buddha. Beyond being the world’s biggest Buddhist monument, Borobudur is a priceless ancient hub of Mahayana Buddhism pilgrimage and education, as well as the world’s largest Buddhist monument.

What is the material of Borobudur?

A remote mountain in central Java is home to the world’s biggest Buddhist monument, which draws visitors from all across Southeast Asia and beyond to pay homage to the monument. Additionally, Borobudur is a priceless old hub of Mahayana Buddhism pilgrimage and education, in addition to being the world’s tallest Buddhist monument at 1,300 meters high.

What is one characteristic of Acoma pottery quizlet?

The world’s biggest Buddhist monument, located on a remote mountaintop in central Java, draws pilgrims from all across Southeast Asia and beyond.

Borobudur is a priceless old hub of Mahayana Buddhism pilgrimage and education, in addition to being the world’s biggest Buddhist monument.

What characteristic feature of native cultures on the northwest coast of North America is seen in this Tlingit community house?

Native cultures throughout the Pacific Northwest Coast of North America have many similarities, and the Tlingit communal home embodies many of those similarities. This Hopi kachina statue is of excellent craftsmanship and reasonable price. What is the customary purpose of a figure of this caliber? They are the ones who teach children about holy traditions.

What material was traditionally used to glorify the king of Benin?

Among the arts of Africa. It is mostly made of brass and ivory, and it serves as an enduring memorial to one of West Africa’s most important dynasties, the Osu. It was formed as a regal art form for the aim of praising the heavenly king, or Oba, and paying tribute to previous rulers.

Which Native North American culture produced large burial mounds in Ohio?

While there is no specific Native American tribe known as the “Hopewell culture,” there is a distinct set of artifacts and burial customs linked with sites in southern Ohio that date back to ancient periods that are associated with this civilization. The numbers one to four hundred.

What symbolic function does the Maori meeting house in New Zealand share with the Yoruba House post from Nigeria?

The Maori meeting house in New Zealand and the Yoruba house post in Nigeria both have a symbolic purpose in their respective cultures. Historically, both societies have placed a great significance on ancestors’ lines of descent.

Which Native North American culture produced large burial mounds in Ohio quizlet?

What aspects of American culture contributed to the construction of massive burial mounds in Ohio? The fireplace was constructed of stones, and the implements were straightforward. What do the moai statues on Easter Island represent? In the Hopi tradition, there is a creature known as a kachina.

What is one characteristic of Acoma pottery making?

Typical qualities of Acoma pottery include thin walls, fluted rims, hand-painted animal images, geometric designs in subdued warm hues, and unglazed surfaces – all of which differentiate Acoma pottery from other types of pottery.

What did the Maya and Aztec empires have in common?

It was possible to find parallels between the cultures of the Maya, the Aztecs, and the Incas, all of which formerly flourished in Central and South America. The practice of farming was established, social institutions were established, armies were created, and a plethora of gods were worshipped. The three civilizations were quite diverse in their approaches to life.

What is a codex style of painting?

Codix-style painting is a type of painting in which text is used instead of images to create the artwork. Applying a white slip over which light brown washes are painted, and then outlining pictures with dark brown or black ink are the steps involved in this technique.

What is generally meant by the term expressionism in art?

Expressionism is a style of painting in which reality is depicted as it has been distorted, resulting in a representation of the artist’s inner sentiments or ideas.

What is another thing the Olmec Aztec and Mayan cultures have in common?

An further resemblance is that they all utilized a calendar to forecast eclipses and organize religious rites, as well as to decide when to produce and harvest crops, as well as when to go to war (particularly the Maya and Aztecs), and they all used writing to communicate.

What was the purpose of the kachina ceremony?

When ogres appear in a ceremony, they serve the aim of disciplining young children by scaring them into being decent citizens. Each ogre has his or her unique personality and duty within the ritual; they serve as disciplinary kachinas, enforcing the rules of the game.

Social gatherings like this are a wonderful way for friends and family to get together and enjoy the dance and feasts that have been prepared especially for this occasion.

What do Hopi dolls represent?

The Hopi term for kachina is the same as the word for spirit, which is kachi. Kachina dolls are related with Ketsinam because they are a representation of nature spirits. Ketsinam was revered by tribes in the southwestern United States as an embodiment of nature. This includes the rain, crops, animals, ancestors, and other elements.

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What is the purpose of the kachina religious practices?

The kachinas, by the power of their dance, produced rain for maize, beans, and squash, assisted in the development of prosperous communities, served as a source of gratitude, and gave many benefits of life to the people.

What is Acoma pottery used for?

Acoma has a high artistic value, but it was initially intended to have a useful purpose as well. One can utilize a clay pot for a variety of purposes, including storing, cooking, and serving. While hunting or camping for lengthy periods of time, the men of Acoma would carry water jugs in their packs to keep hydrated. A number of additional pots were used to store seeds for planting the next year.

What are Acama pots?

The Acomas’ traditional pottery is made from clay mined from the surrounding hills. The thin walls of Acoma pottery are made feasible by the use of a clay that, when burned using traditional procedures, can readily generate thin walls. Acoma pottery is manufactured in the United States.

What do you mean expressionism?

It is a type of art in which the artist shows not objective fact but rather the subjective feelings and reactions that are produced by things and circumstances in society, rather than the objective reality shown by the artist.

How do you identify expressionism in art?

The following traits can be found in expressionist art. Expressionist art is defined as art that communicates emotion and meaning rather than conveying reality in its depiction. As artists, we each have a unique method of “expressing” our feelings via our work. While attempting to portray emotion, we frequently misrepresent or exaggerate our observations.

What is expressionism art examples?

  • The Scream is a scream. Edvard Munch’s The Blue Reiter, by Wassily Kandinsky
  • In This Season of Peace, by Franz Marc
  • Horses in huge blue colors by Edvard Munch
  • In This Season of Peace, by Wassily Kandinsky Franz Marc is the artist. The picture of a lady reclining with her knees drawn up is dated 917
  • The portrait of a guy is dated 919
  • The address is 913 Street, Berlin
  • The nighttime view of a home is dated 912

What is expressionism in art appreciation?

Expressionism is a style of painting in which reality is depicted as it has been distorted, resulting in a representation of the artist’s inner sentiments or ideas. Ndinsky’s Assisi ndinsky. The Cossacks fought in the years 1910 and 1911. The tate is a slang term for a woman who is pregnant. “Oskar Kokoschka” is a painter who is well-known.

Hopewell culture

Home Prehistoric Period in World History Native American culture in North America Alternative titles include: Builders of mounds The Hopewell civilization is a significant ancient Indian civilisation that flourished in the east-central region of North America. It thrived from around 200 BCE to 500 BCE, mostly in what is now southernOhio, with similar populations in Michigan, Wisconsin, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Pennsylvania, and New York, among other states. The term comes from the Hopewell property in Ross county, Ohio, where the first site, which consisted of a series of burial mounds surrounded by huge banked earth enclosures, was discovered and investigated.

  • Investigations later revealed that the habit of erecting earth mounds was widespread and had a variety of objectives that varied substantially from one another.
  • Despite the fact that they grew corn (maize) and probably beans and squash, the residents continued to rely on hunting and fishing, as well as obtaining wild nuts, fruits, seeds, and roots.
  • The earthworks may have acted as defensive fortifications at times, but they were more frequently used as burial mounds or as the foundations for temples and other structures, according to archaeological evidence.
  • Which archaeological site is known by the name “the mound of the dead,” which is said to mean “the burial mound”?
  • Take the quiz to find out.
  • Even more impressive were the effigy pipes, which were carved in stone and polished to look like birds, fish, and other animals and were displayed throughout the city.
  • Copper sheet was widely employed, and silver and meteoric iron, as well as gold, were incorporated into a variety of decorations and utilitarian pieces as well.

Trade routes were evidently well established, as material from as far away as the Rocky Mountains, the coasts of the Gulf of Mexico, and the Atlantic Oceanhave been discovered in Hopewell sites, and articles that have been identified as having been manufactured by the Hopewell Indians have been discovered in locations as far away as the southeastern United States.

The number and quality of fine products and mounds both fell, and the inhabitants appeared to have become less sedentary and more loosely structured as a result of this. Elizabeth Prine Pauls has revised and updated this article several times since it was first published.

Native American art – Midwest and Great Plains

The existence of a thriving textile arts tradition in the prehistoric Middle West is well documented, but the scope and development of this art form have been lost in the hundreds of years of history from which so few examples have survived. Basketry and wood examples are also difficult to come by. However, only a small number of these perishable things have survived to demonstrate that these arts had been mastered, and there aren’t enough examples to allow researchers to assess their aesthetic progress.

  • Pottery has also been discovered, but not of the greatest grade, as well as copper and mica decorations.
  • The sheer number of items discovered is mind-boggling.
  • The purpose of every piece of masonry that has been discovered is now unknown to scholars, however it is clear that most of the archaeological treasure was of a ceremonial character, indicating a highly structured culture.
  • TheSerpent Moundin Ohio is an example of this type of tradition.
  • Atop the Cahokia Mounds, near Collinsville, Illinois, Monks Mound is the largest prehistoric earthen structure in the New World.
  • Serpent Mound is a type of mound.

Tom Till/SuperStock Photographs Some of the most significant cultural expressions from this region were those of the Adena, Hopewell, Oneota, and Old Copperculturepeoples; their art was elaborate, making extensive use of sculptured stone pipes, polished ornaments made of both stone and copper, and incised shell decorations, among other techniques.

  1. It was through this that the buckskin and beaded outfits, feathered warbonnets, vibrant porcupine quill adornment, and painted shields that have come to represent the American Indian in the imaginations of the majority of people came to be created.
  2. When it came to art, the arts of the Plains Indian differed greatly from tribe to tribe; certain peoples appear to have possessed higher aesthetic sensibility, which is proven by their sensitive and imaginative achievements in the arts.
  3. Due to the predominant use of buffalo leather as a container, even less pottery and basketry was created.
  4. Although a certain pattern may appear to be merely a brightly colored adornment to the uninitiated, it was actually the guardian spirit of the owner to the initiated.
  5. Commercial dyes and trade colors eventually took the place of these natural dyes and colors.
  6. It is a unique art form that can only be found in North America.
  7. However, in the latter half of the twentieth century, the craft of quillwork had a rebirth.

They are frequently narrative in nature, such as the Winter Counts, which were painted records that recorded tribe history via the use of yearly symbols, and the personal history paintings on hide that describe the achievements of the owner, among other things.


The dimensions are 116 x 87 cm.

As well as beautifying the property and the individual, the Plains Indian enhanced his or her appearance by meticulous hair styling, face painting, and garment enhancements.

For rare occasions, the Plains Indian would create elaborately painted gear.

Whenever the feathered regalia or the fringed buckskin were worn as intended, the movement of their user and the wafting of the Plains air gave the garments a vibrant elegance and color.

Far West, Northeast, Central South, and Southeast

Prior to the arrival of humans on the continent, the central south and southeast were part of the most artistically fascinating section of the continent’s northern hemisphere. These temples, mounds, and monuments were a wonder of the ancient world, and one can clearly appreciate the mythology that built up around the riches that were obvious when the Spanish came and that are still being discovered in archaeological investigations. It is the beautifully carved shells, incised gorgets, and intricately decorated clothing ornaments that bear witness to the highly developed civilizations that once existed, as well as the carved stone statues of ancestor figures or deities that bear witness to a strong affinity with ancient Mexico, and the numerous bird and animal pipes that are displayed in museums throughout the country.

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Bowl of diorite from the Middle Mississippian period Bowl in the shape of a crested wood duck made of Middle Mississippian diorite and found in Moundville in the United States around 1500CE; it is now on display at the George Gustav Heye Center for American Indian Studies at the National Museum of the American Indian in New York City.

  • The Museum of the American Indian and the Heye Foundation in New York provided the images for this piece.
  • A significant amount of textiles, albeit in shards, has also been preserved.
  • The claywork, on the other hand, appears to have been where the greatest amount of life has been represented.
  • A confident and graceful execution of exuberant shapes, delicately etched surface lines, and bold, forceful patterns was achieved, and this confidence and elegance is still in demand among modern art students.
  • Enough of the astonishingly vast amount of work has remained to provide an outstanding indication of the artistic heights that were achieved.
  • Tribes were exterminated or dispersed as a result of conflict, sickness, and enslavement, or their social system was so upset that their regular interests were destroyed and their resources were diverted to ensuring their continued existence.
  • Rather than serving a client who was more concerned with the object’s exterior appearance than with its purpose, artists were now serving a consumer who was more concerned with the object’s external appearance than with its function.
  • Almost all of the indigenous arts of the southeastern United States have either been lost or are being pursued in a much less active manner now.
  • Basketry is the most active and, perhaps, the most successful art form today, with contemporary artists who are on a par with or better than their predecessors in every aspect of their craft.

Throughout North America’s northern hemisphere, the Pomo, Hupa, Yurok, and Karok peoples developed basketry to its pinnacle, with weaves so tightly composed as to provide a watertight container, baskets so small that they measure less than one-eighth inch (three millimetres in diameter), enormous grain-storage baskets, and delicately woven “gift” baskets with the feathers of birds interwoven that provided not only an opportunity for the The Chumash, Mono -Paviosto, Washoe, and Panamint, among others, demonstrated that they were no less talented.

  • The tribes of the Eastern Woodlands are divided into three groups: those from the Southeast (described above), those from the Great Lakes region, and those from the Northeast.
  • When significant amounts of this type of beading became accessible at the turn of the nineteenth century, it became extremely popular among crafters.
  • Fabric, particularly ribbon, appliqué is a popular craft in the Great Lakes area, where it is particularly popular.
  • Pottery was nearly non-existent in this area.
  • A little amount of pottery was manufactured, although it was of poor quality and in small quantities.

Woodland basketry was prevalent, although it was not of the same high quality as that seen in other parts of the world. It was mostly of the splint-weave variety, and when it was embellished, the ornamentation consisted of stamped or painted vegetable-dye motifs.

Alaska and Northwest Coast

It may appear improbable that the residents of the frigid Arctic areas would be particularly interested in art; not only is there a scarcity of raw materials to work with, but the constant necessity to ensure a food source would appear to leave little time for creative pursuits. Despite this tough climate, some of the most innovative and funny American Indian sculptures have come from this region. During the long winter nights, theEskimo had plenty of time to work with the ivory that came from walruses and whales, among other things.

  • Being made from tusks or teeth as the starting material, the form was somewhat influenced by these things.
  • To add emphasis to the lines, black pigment derived from charcoal fires was rubbed into them.
  • Ancient ivory carvings have also been discovered, demonstrating a refined and formal style that dates back thousands of years.
  • Amulet made of Dorset ivory Amulet made of stylized ivory from the Dorset civilization, discovered in Labrador or Quebec, Canada.
  • Among the most distinguishing characteristics of Eskimo art is the warm and generous sense of humour that pervades it.
  • Its surrealistic portrayal is most likely a reflection of the Eskimo’s recognition that, because living in the Arctic is so demanding, a sense of humour is essential for maintaining psychological well-being.
  • In the Eskimo’s artistry, a large part of it was his or her ability to meticulously put together minute parts to form a whole—as well as his or her skill in forging the tools necessary to carry out the procedure, many of which were works of beauty in their own right.

While several tribes created wooden masks and adorned them with colorful creativity, no North American primitive group took the art of creative characterisation to such a high level of sophistication and perfection.

These masks display a unique blend of realistic, inventive, and mystical characteristics that are only seen in Eskimo art.

Height is 31 centimeters.

Since around 1950, art collectors have been known with a stone art style that makes use of deposits of gray and green soapstone, orsteatite, that may be found in the region of Hudson Bay and other locations.

They are a reflection of the Eskimo’s natural sculptural abilities, and they owe their inception and promotion to non-American Indian organizations that have collaborated closely with a number of the crafts groups in the region.

shaman figure made of walrus ivory KINUGUMIUT PEOPLES: Incised walrus ivory shaman figure, around 1890; on display in the George Gustav Heye Center for the American Indian in New York City’s National Museum of the American Indian.

9 centimeters in height. The Museum of the American Indian and the Heye Foundation in New York provided the images for this piece.

Serpent Mound

Serpent Mound is the world’s biggest remaining effigy mound (a mound in the shape of an animal) from the prehistoric era, and it is located in the United States of America. It has been excavated several times since the late 1800s at Serpent Mound, which is 411 meters long (1348 feet long) and is located in southern Ohio, but the origins of the Native American building are still a mystery. Construction of the National Historic Landmark, also known as the Great Serpent Mound, is thought to have begun about 300 B.C.

What Is Serpent Mound?

Like a large sinuous snake, Serpent Mound has a coiled tail at the west end, a head at the east end, and seven twisting coils in between, as suggested by its name. In all, the snake spans a quarter-mile and measures 1.2 to 1.5 meters (3.9 to 4.9 feet) in height and 6.0 to 7.6 meters (19.7 to 24.9 feet) in width. Its length is 1.2 to 1.5 meters (3.9 to 4.9 feet) and its breadth is 6.0 to 7.6 meters (19.7 to 24.9 feet). A high plateau overlooking OhioBrush Creek in Adams County, Ohio, Serpent Mound is about 73 miles east of Cincinnati on a high plateau overlooking OhioBrush Creek.

The crater is known as Serpent Mound crater and it measures 8 to 14 kilometers (5.0 to 8.7 kilometers) in diameter.

Purpose of Serpent Mound

Serpent Mound may have had a spiritual function, considering that snakes were adored by many indigenous civilizations throughout North and Central America, with many believing that the serpentine reptiles possessed magical abilities. Additionally, the presence of tombs and burial mounds in the vicinity of the site suggests that Serpent Mound’s architects may have built the construction to serve a significant burial or funerary purpose, such as guiding spirits. In contrast, the mound itself does not contain any tombs or archaeological items.

In this way, it is possible that ancient peoples utilized the building to record the passage of time or the seasons.

This alignment shows that Serpent Mound may have had another purpose, such as serving as a type of compass to assist in determining true north.

Great Serpent Mound Excavations

A Harvard archaeologist named Frederic Ward Putnam excavated at Serpent Mound in the late nineteenth century, marking the beginning of modern scientific digs at the site. Because of these early excavations, archaeologists have determined that Serpent Mound belonged to one of two Native American cultures: the Early Woodland Adena culture (500 BC to 200 AD) and the Late Prehistoric Fort Ancient civilization (500 B.C. to 200 AD) (1000 to 1650 A.D.). When Putnam first began digging trenches in Serpent Mound and its surrounding earthen mounds in 1887 to 1889, the archaeologist recognized that people from two different time periods had occupied the Serpent Mound area.

He ascribed the effigy to a previous set of people (the Adena).

Serpent Mound, on the other hand, does not contain any items that may be used to identify it, although the surrounding conical mounds do.

In the 1940s, archaeologist James Bennett Griffith examined these objects and determined that they belonged to the Adena culture, so attributing the effigy to that civilization.

However, Griffith concluded that the more recent civilisation was unlikely to have erected Serpent Mound, especially given the effigy’s resemblance to other Adena earthworks in the Ohio Valley, such as Portsmouth Works (a mound complex in Scioto County, Ohio).

Adena Culture or Fort Ancient?

When a study team reopened one of Putnam’s excavations in the mid-1990s, they were able to gather charcoal from three different areas above and below what they believed to be the mound base. They used radio carbon dating to discover that the samples—as well as Serpent Mound—date back to around 920 A.D., which is approximately 1400 years later than previously assumed. Because this new information is based on the first direct dating of the edifice, it is believed that the effigy was created during the Late Prehistoric (Fort Ancient) era.

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and 44 B.C.

based on a number of different charcoal samples.

Considering that other neighboring monuments have also shown indications of repair or modification by prehistoric tribes, including the Fort Ancient people, the study team concludes that the Fort Ancient people most likely modified and/or renovated it.

Serpent Mound Preservation

Additionally, Putnam was in charge of the restoration and preservation of the effigy, which he oversaw alongside his excavation work at Serpent Mound. More specifically, his efforts assisted in raising funds for Harvard University to acquire the land, which was later transformed into a public park by the Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History until 1900. Eventually, Serpent Mound was purchased by the Ohio State Archaeological and Historical Society, which is now known as the Ohio History Connection, and the site is continuously maintained by the organization.

In addition to several other Ohio American Indian earthworks, Serpent Mound is being evaluated for inclusion on the UNESCO World Heritage List.


Herrmann and colleagues (2014). “A new multistage construction chronology for the Great Serpent Mound, located in the United States of America.” The Journal of Archaeological Science is a peer-reviewed journal dedicated to the study of archaeology. Keith A. Milam is the author of this work (2010). In southern Ohio, an impact crater known as Serpent Mound has had its diameter increased. The Ohio Journal of Science is a publication dedicated to scientific research in Ohio. The Serpent Mound has a connection to Ohio history.

Ohio History Central, Serpent Mound, and the Ohio History Connection are all located in Columbus, Ohio.

Serpent Mound Crater, Ohio; Meteorite Impact Craters in the United States of America.

American Indian Art: Characteristics, History, Museums

American Indian Applied Art18th Century Tlingit Culture:Helmet and collar made from woodleather, copper and shell.American Museum, Madrid.American Indian Ceramic ArtEffigy head pot, Nodena Site, from theMississippian culture (c.1400-1650) Introduction The discovery of the American continentin the 15th century brought Europeans into contact with cultures whosepeoples practised a way of life and anancientartstabilized millennia before, sometimes living under Neolithicconditions well into modern times.

The North American Indian was primarilya hunter and food gatherer.

His way of life was bound to conflict with the newsettlers from Europe, whose agricultural enclosures drove the Indian fromhis home ground.

For too many 19th century Americans livingin the large cities and towns of the east coast, the nearest they gotto nativeAmerican art was the pictures ofFredericRemington(1861-1909) – the famous portrayer of the Cowboy West -and the frontier landscapes ofThomasCole(1801-48),GeorgeCaleb Bingham(1811-1879),FredericEdwin Church(1826-1900), andAlbertBierstadt(1830-1902).

A pot made by an Indian artist of the south-west hasa break in the encircling line of the jar, the ‘exit trail of life’, becausethe pot has a life of its own.

To put it another way, Native AmericanIndian art was not intended to be appreciated purely for itsaesthetics:it had a specific role to play in pictorializing the values and eventsof the Indian way of life, while serving basic needs like warmth and shelter.For an iconic painting (by a non-Indian) which reflects some of the environmentalvalues of the American frontier states, like New Mexico, see:Cow’sSkull: Red, White, and Blue(1931, Metropolitan Museum) byGeorgiaO’Keeffe(1887-1986).

  1. Early WoodlandArt The North American continent was firstpeopled by hunters who crossed from Siberia across the Bering Straitsabout 25,000 years ago.
  2. Although there were several distinct cultureswithin the region, they all buried their dead in earthen mounds, whichhas led to the preservation of much of their art.
  3. The Woodland Period spanned roughly twothousand years: c.1000 BCE – 1000 CE, and is usually dividied into threeperiods: early, middle, and late.
  4. During the Middle Woodland culture, twoareas in particular developed a strong culture ofvisualart, the Hopewell near Ohio (100-500 CE) and the Mississippian (800-1500CE) (see below).
  5. Many of these objects have been found in burial mounds togetherwith stone tobacco pipes decorated with bird imagery, and ornaments ofstone, flint, mica and pearl.
  6. In addition, they produced a widerange of jewellery andsculpturein softstone, wood, and even human bone.
  7. It encompasses tribes like the Caddo, Choctaw, MuscogeeCreek, Natchez and Wichita.

Mississippian culture artifacts include shellchokers and cups, small-scale figurativestonesculpture, copper plates like the Wulfing cache, and ceremonial masks.[To compare ceremonial masks from other ancient cultures, see:AfricanArtas well asOceanic Art.] Late Woodland Art Woodland artists developed a many-sideddesign of visual decoration that depicted and appeased the supernaturalspirits who inhabited the flowers, animals, the sky and the stars.

  • Animalslike the otter and the muskrat became clan symbols, and medicine bagswere made from their pelts to appease the essences of Nature.
  • The encounters between this woodland cultureand the first European colonists from the 16th century onwards led inmany instances to the complete destruction (by warfare or disease) orremoval further west of the woodland peoples.
  • South-East AmericanIndian Culture Pre-Columbianart- mostly wooden artifacts, including some dating back to 8,000BCE – have been discovered in Florida.
  • They includeanimal carvings, face masks, tablets, plaques and human effigies fromthe unique Key Marco Hoard, uncovered by archeologists in 1896, whichincluded some of the finest Neolithic Native American Indian art everfound in the United States.
  • Indian Art of thePlains The plains area of North America extendsfrom west of the Mississippi river to the Rocky mountains, and from theSaskatchewan river in Canada to central Texas.
  • It was here, in Oklahoma, that a unique pieceofprehistoric art- the Cooper BisonSkull, the oldest painted object in the history of Native American Indianart – was discovered, dating to thePaleolithiccultureof 10,900-10,200 BCE.
  • For more about very early cultures, see also:Prehistoric Art Timeline.

Many of the tribes, the Sioux, theCommanche and the Blackfeet were warrior societies with a complex systemof honours and rewards signified by pipes, feathered bonnets, horse-hairand scalp-fringed war-shirts, and medicine hoops, all decorated with signsand emblems.Face paintingas wellas all-overbody paintingwas practisedas battle and hunting scenes were painted on to skin robes and rawhide,with paints made from coloured earths.

  • Other forms of Indianbodyartincluded tattoos and piercings.
  • A hundred and twenty thousand beads have been counted ona single Commanche cradle.
  • In the Plateau region,also called the Intermontaine and upper Great Basin, tribes like the Yakama,Umatilla, Cayuse, Paiute, Shoshone and Washoe, practice weaving, beadingand basket-making.
  • Examples of woven baskets and blankets, pottery, jewellery (notedfor its use of turquoise, jet, and spiny oyster shells), cottonwood carvings,silversmithing and sand-painting survive and flourish.
  • Thisunique form ofsand artwasallegedly an inspiration for the invention ofactionpaintingby the famous 20th century artistJacksonPollock(1912-56).
  • The designs are formed by sprinklingcoloured powder made from earths, rocks and charcoal, spread on the floorof the medicine lodge.
  • Colours are sifted through thumb and forefingerand the design is from memory.

A particular highlight is the ancient settlement at Chaco Canyonin New Mexico.

A highly expressive art ofwood-carving developed amongst these peoples that ranks with the sculpture of the restof the world in its variety and its stylistic vigour.

A visual vocabulary of animal eyes, ears, paws, tails andfins recalled past, present and future in one of the most elaborate ritualsof the native Americans.

[To compare Native American Indian totem poles withthe pole art of Africa, see:African Sculpture.]This powerful iconography is also present in Northwest Coast Transformationmasks, blankets, baskets, bracelets and canoes.

Copper and iron(largely obtained from whaling ships) were fashioned into fighting knives,masks and tools.

However,ivory carvingand wood sculpture,festival masks, sealskin and woven bags decorated with magical naturalsymbols, are all featured within the traditionaltypesof artpractised by the Inuit.

1540: Indians make first contacts withEuropeans.1565: Spaniards colonize Florida.1587: Colony of Virginia is founded.1620: Mayflower lands in New England.

1638: Puritans set up first Reservations, at New Haven, Connecticut.

1832: Justice John Marshall decrees that state law does not apply to Indians.1832: Commissioner of Indian Affairs set up in War Department.

1837: Smallpox epidemic breaks out on the Plains.1862: Uprising of Sioux in Minnesota.1864: Sand Creek massacre leads to outbreak of Indian Wars.

End of Plains Indianculture.1871: Congress enacts law banning further treaties with the Indians.1876: Defeat of General Custer at Little Big Horn.

1934: Wheeler-Howard Act passed to safeguard Native Indian Culture.See also:Historyof Art Timeline(2,500,000 BCE – present)National Museumof the American Indian Operated under the umbrella of the SmithsonianInstitution, the National Museum of the American Indian is devoted todepicting the history, life, culture and visual arts of native Americans.One of thebest art museumsof its type,it comprises three resources: the National Museum of the American Indianin Washington DC; the George Gustav Heye Center, in New York City; andthe Cultural Resources Center, in Suitland, Maryland.

The foundation ofthe museum led to the amalgamation of the collections of the Museum ofthe American Indian in New York City (est 1922), and the Smithsonian Institution.

It offers a range of undergraduatedegree courses in visual communications, studio art and museum studies.

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