- 1 205 quiz Flashcards
- 2 Developmental Theory – Vygotskian Theory
- 3 BIBLIOGRAPHY
- 4 Influential Theories About How Children Grow and Develop
- 5 Background
- 6 Freud’s Psychosexual Developmental Theory
- 7 Erikson’s Psychosocial Developmental Theory
- 8 Behavioral Child Development Theories
- 9 Piaget’s Cognitive Developmental Theory
- 10 Bowlby’s Attachment Theory
- 11 Bandura’s Social Learning Theory
- 12 Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory
- 13 A Word From Verywell
- 14 Lesson and Quiz One Flashcards by Yvonne lambert
- 15 Contextual Perspectives: A Broad Approach to Development
- 16 Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory: Changes in thought with guidance
- 17 Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Systems Theory
- 18 Contribute!
205 quiz Flashcards
The first phase in the scientific method consists of the following: Naturalism in the study of human development refers to genes that humans inherit from their parents. According to Bronfenbrenner, the life-span view takes into consideration development from what phrase did he use to express the influence of a particular period in history on a person’s development? Who was the developmentalist who was the first to explain the interplay between culture and education in his or her writing? Individual’s behaviour may be studied in a systematic and objective manner through scientific observation.
stage is the first stage of psychosexual development.
According to social learning theory, learning happens as a result of seeing and copying other people.
Sally is assisting her mother in the preparation of a cake.
- In accordance with VYgotsky, Sally is participating in From lowest to highest on Maslow’s hierarchy, the right sequence of requirements is physiological, social, love and belonging, self-esteem, self-actualization, and self-actualization.
- The primary purpose of the zygote’s outer cell is to protect the zygote throughout the germinal phase.
- After healthy newborns are born, they normally are able to breathe on their own and cry when the umbilical chord is severed from their mother.
- According to research,.
Developmental Theory – Vygotskian Theory
Born in 1896 in Orsha (now in Belarus), Lev Semenovich Vygotsky grew up in Gomel, the Russian Empire’s western provinces, as part of a rich Jewish family. He was educated at Gomel’s Institute of Psychology. His academic education took place at Moscow University, despite the fact that under the reign of Czar Nicholas II, harsh rules were in place restricting the number of Jewish persons who could obtain postgraduate degrees in Russia. His undergraduate and graduate studies were mostly in medicine and law.
- A former schoolteacher who later became an instructor at a teacher training institution, Vygotsky decided to pursue a career in psychology.
- Around one hundred books and articles were written by Lev Vygotsky during that time period, many of which have only lately been published and/or translated into the English language.
- He has been credited with developing many of the concepts in his early articles with the help of his pupils, including the most notable of whom are Alexander Luria, Alexei Leontiev, Daniel Elkonin, and Alexander Zapororzhets, as well as others (both in Russia and throughout the world).
- The first publication of his work in the West was the translation ofThought and Language, which was published in 1962.
- This brief page summarizes the fundamental theories pioneered by Vygotsky and his followers, as well as an overview of modern Vygotskian educational endeavors taking place in Russia and the United States, in a concise and accessible format.
- It is Vygotsky’s notion that human development–both child development and the growth of the entire human race–is the outcome of interactions between individuals and their social environment that is at the heart of this theory.
- Many of these cultural objects have a dual purpose: not only do they facilitate the integration of a growing kid into the culture, but they also have the potential to alter the very process by which the child’s mind is being developed.
- It is common for children to learn how to utilize these cultural skills through interactions with their parents, instructors, or more experienced peers throughout the course of their development.
- Higher mental functions are those that are intentional, self-regulated, and mediated by communication.
According to Vygotsky, although all human beings are capable of developing these functions, the specific structure and content of higher mental functions are determined by specific social interactions, which are in turn determined by culture in general and by each individual’s unique social situation of development, according to Vygotsky.
- In his opinion, language is both the most significant mental tool and a channel through which other mental skills may be learned more effectively.
- Private speech, also known as self-talk, has its origins in social speech, which is the first kind of communication that is aimed towards other individuals.
- Rather than speech that is governed or directed by a more skilled individual, it now becomes speech directed to oneself.
- The use of private communication reaches its peak during the preschool years and then begins to decline.
- As Vygotsky noted in his “law of the development of higher mental functions,” the evolution of speech–from social to self-directed to internalized–exemplifies the route taken by all higher mental functions throughout time.
- When it comes to child development and education, Vygotsky’s method is a natural extension of his overall approach to the development of higher mental processes.
- Child development, according to Vygotsky, develops spontaneously and is driven by the processes of maturation, and that schooling has no impact on this process.
A more intricate and dynamic link between learning and development, he suggested, is regulated by what he named a child’s zone of proximal development (ZPD) (ZPD).
The Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) is the area between a learner’s level of independent performance (commonly referred to as developmental level) and the level of supported performance–what the youngster can do with assistance.
By witnessing supported performance, one may determine a learner’s potential for the maximum degree of functioning at the time of observation.
When we provide help to learners inside their ZPD, we are assisting them in their development.
Teachers are also investigating strategies to engage the student in a shared or cooperative learning experience by participating in the learner’s Zone of Proximal Development.
According to David Wood’s How Children Think and Learn (1998), “Byremindingchildren, we are assisting them in recalling and exploiting those components of their prior experience that we (as experts) but not they (as novices) recognize to be important to what they are now attempting” (p. 97).
Applications in Contemporary Russia
There are just too many examples of work being done in modern Russia that is consistent with Vygotsky’s cultural-historical paradigm to be included in a short essay. One may argue that the majority of Vygotsky’s theories, suppositions, and insights were developed further, tested in empirical investigations, and frequently applied into practical applications. Some of these concepts were used as beginning points for new theories, such as the theory of phases in child development established by Daniel Elkonin, which was based on Vygotsky’s notions of psychological age and leading activity and was founded on the ideas of leading activity and leading activity.
Most of these theories have characteristics that may be traced back to Vygotsky, including beliefs in the social and cultural determinants of child development, as well as beliefs in the potential of education to influence this developmental trajectory.
A number of preschool and kindergarten curricula based on theories developed by Alexander Zaporozhets and his student Leonid Venger, as well as the “developmental education” system developed by Daniel Elkonin and his student Vasili Davidov, which has been implemented in curricula for school-aged children from primary grades through high school, are examples of such initiatives.
Applications in the United States
As previously said, this item focuses on only a few examples of Vygotsky-inspired educational work that has taken place in the United States of America. Consider the work of Michael Cole and colleagues in The Construction Zone: Working for Cognitive Change in School, as well as Roland G. Tharp and Ronald Gallimore’s 1988 book,Rousing Minds to Life: Teaching, Learning, and Schooling in a Social Context, for other viewpoints. The following are brief summaries of two such cases: Tools of the Mind, an early childhood education program, and Reciprocal Reading, which is utilized with older children, are two examples of programs that are available.
- This first example might be seen as a transitional model in several ways.
- An early childhood education paradigm called Tools of the Mind, created by Elena Bodrova and Deborah Leong, has been developed (1996, 2001).
- The program, which is being implemented in Head Start, preschools, and kindergartens, emphasizes on play, which is the most important activity for children of this age.
- Listening and reading in exchange.
- It was presented in the mid-1980s by Annemarie Sullivan Palincsar and Ann Brown and has been in use since since.
- Reading and listening activities are designed to teach children how to engage with text and, as a result, how to govern their own thoughts about the text as they read and listen (when being read to).
- This curriculum shares this idea (intrasubjective).
- These ways for interacting with the text are most frequently employed by readers and listeners in an automated and soundless manner, respectively.
- The students and their instructor read a piece of shared literature together in order to participate in reciprocal teaching conversations.
- The students and the instructor take turns leading the discussion of sections of the book, including tactics to aid in their discussion of the text as they go.
- By using these previously unnoticed tactics and becoming an important part of what is being taught in their capacity as “teacher,” children subsequently discover new ways of engaging with the text.
The use of the tactics for the purpose of reaching a shared understanding of the meaning of the text under discussion is the ultimate goal of the conversation, according to the participants.
The authors, B ODROVA, E LENA, and L EONG, D EBORAHJ, published their findings in 1996. The Vygotskian Approach to Early Childhood Education: Using Tools of the Mind Merrill Corporation, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey. The authors, B ODROVA, E LENA, and L EONG, D EBORAHJ, published their findings in 2001. Instruments of the Mind: A Case Study of the Vygotskian Approach in Early Childhood and Primary Classrooms in the United States The International Bureau of Education of the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization is based in Geneva, Switzerland.
- “Toward the Solution of the Problem of Stages in the Mental Development of the Child,” says the author.
- “Stages of Development of Mental Acts,” by G AL’PERIN and P IOTRY AKOVLEVICH, published in 1969.
- Basic Books is based in New York.
- Activity, Consciousness, and Personality are all interconnected.
- M ICHAEL C OLE and D ENIS N EWMAN, P EG RIFFIN and G RIFFIN, P EG, 1989.
“Reciprocal Teaching of Comprehension Fostering and Monitoring Activities,” by P ALINCSAR, A NNEMARIES ULLIVAN, and B ROWN, A NNL, was published in 1984.
“First-Grade Dialogues for the Acquisition and Application of Knowledge.” ‘Contexts for Learning: Sociocultural Dynamics in Children’s Development,’ edited by Ellice Forman, Norris Minick, and C.
Oxford University Press is based in New York.
In Rousing Minds to Life: Teaching, Learning, and Schooling in a Social Context, the author explores the relationship between education and social context.
L EVS EMENOVICH, V YGOTSKY, L EVS EMENOVICH, 1962.
Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press.
Mind in Society: The Development of Higher Psychological Processes, edited by James V.
Harvard University Press is located in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Problems with psikhikian razvitya (Collected works: Vol.
Problems of mental development).
L EVS EMENOVICH, V YGOTSKY, L EVS EMENOVICH.
Volumes 1 and 2 of L.
Vygotsky’s Collected Works are available.
W ERTSCH and J AMESV edited the book in 1984.
W OOD, DAVID, et al., 1998. Second edition of Blackwell Publishers’ How Children Think and Learn: The Social Contexts of Cognitive Development (Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers).
Influential Theories About How Children Grow and Develop
Child development theories are concerned with understanding how children change and grow during the span of a child’s childhood. Such theories are concerned with a variety of dimensions of development, including social, emotional, and cognitive development. The study of human development is a vast and diverse field of inquiry. Individual development is something we all have firsthand experience with, yet sometimes it may be difficult to comprehend how and why people grow, learn, and behave in the ways that they do.
Is their conduct influenced by their age, their familial bonds, or their particular temperaments and personalities?
In trying to better understand human development, a number of distinct theories of child development have emerged, each of which attempts to explain a particular component of the process.
Theory of development provides an organized way of thinking about the processes of human growth and learning. But why do we study development in the first place? What can we learn about human development from psychological theories of growth? In case you’ve ever wondered about the factors that influence human mind and behavior, knowing these ideas can give valuable insight into individuals and societies alike.
How Our Understanding Has Changed
Throughout much of human history, the process of child development from conception to maturity has been generally overlooked or dismissed. Children were frequently treated as though they were miniature copies of adults, with little consideration given to the numerous advancements in cognitive ability, language usage, and physical growth that occur between childhood and adolescence, among other things. After a long period of stagnation, interest in the study of child development eventually resurfaced in the early twentieth century, although it was mostly focused on aberrant behavior.
How We Come to Understand Changes
What is the significance of studying how children develop, learn, and change? Children’s cognitive, emotional, physical, social, and educational development are all important to grasp since it helps us to completely appreciate the changes that occur in their brains from birth to early adulthood. A few important theories of child development are characterized as grand theories because they seek to describe every element of development, frequently through the use of a stage-by-stage methodology.
There have been several hypotheses on child development suggested by thinkers and academics throughout the years. In more modern ideas, the developmental phases of children are described, as well as the normal ages at which these growth milestones occur.
Freud’s Psychosexual Developmental Theory
Sigmund Freud’s work is credited with establishing psychoanalytic theory. By studying patients suffering from mental illness in his therapeutic practice, Freud came to the conclusion that childhood events and unconscious desires had an impact on their conduct. Freud believed that conflicts that arise at each of these phases might have a long-term impact on one’s personality and conduct. One of the most well-known big theories of child development was offered by Sigmund Freud. In accordance with Freud’s psychosexual theory, childhood development takes place in a succession of stages that are focused on distinct pleasure zones of the body at different times.
- His idea proposed that the libido’s energy was concentrated in distinct erogenous zones at different times of the sexual cycle.
- So, what occurs as the youngsters progress through each stage?
- When each stage is successfully completed, the formation of a healthy adult personality can take place.
- However, while some theories of child development claim that personality changes and grows throughout one’s life, Freud felt that it was early events that had the most significant influence in defining one’s later development.
Through the first half of the twentieth century, psychoanalytic thought exerted a tremendous amount of influence on society. Those who were inspired and influenced by Freud went on to construct theories that built on Freud’s concepts and added to the body of knowledge. Erik Erikson’s beliefs, among those of the neo-Freudians, have become possibly the most well-known. With his eight-stage theory of psychosocial development, Erikson described how people grow and change throughout the course of their lives, focusing on social interaction and conflicts that emerge at different phases of growth and development.
Erikson felt that social connection and experience were more important factors in development than sexual attraction as a motivating factor in growth.
Individuals are confronted with a developmental conflict at each level, which might have an influence on their subsequent functioning and continued development.
Children and adults go through a developmental crisis at each stage, which acts as a significant turning point in their lives. Successfully navigating the difficulties of each stage results in the development of a psychological virtue that lasts a lifetime.
Behavioral Child Development Theories
Behaviorism is a school of thought that emerged in the first half of the twentieth century and has since grown to become a dominant force in the field of psychological research. Psychology, according to behaviorists, needed to narrow its focus to only observable and quantifiable behaviors in order to become a more scientific discipline. Every aspect of human behavior can be explained by considering environmental influences from a behavioral perspective, according to this viewpoint. B.F. Skinner and other behaviorists, such as John Watson and B.F.
- Behavioral theories of child development, which are based on the theories of theorists such as John B.
- These theories are limited to the study of observable behaviors.
- This theory differs significantly from other child development theories in that it does not take into account internal thoughts or feelings of the child.
- Classical conditioning and operant conditioning are two of the most important types of learning that have emerged as a result of this approach to development.
- Operant conditioning is a method of changing behavior that makes use of reinforcement and punishment.
Piaget’s Cognitive Developmental Theory
In cognitive theory, the growth of a person’s mental processes is taken into consideration. Furthermore, it investigates how these cognitive processes impact our understanding of and interaction with the outside environment. Jean Piaget, a cognitive development theorist, developed one of the most significant theories of cognitive development. Although it may seem obvious now, Piaget developed a concept that has had a significant impact on how we think about child development: children think differently than adults.
It also examines how these cognitive processes impact our perception of and interaction with the outside environment, among other things.
- An infant’s awareness of the world is confined to his or her sensory perceptions and motor activity during the Sensorimotor Stage, which occurs between the ages of two months and two years. Behaviors are restricted to basic motor responses induced by sensory inputs
- They are not complex. When a kid is between the ages of 2 and 6, he or she is in the pre-operational stage, which is when they are learning to communicate. This stage is characterized by children’s inability to comprehend concrete reasoning, their inability to cognitively manipulate knowledge, and their inability to appreciate the perspectives of others. In this stage, children get a more complete comprehension of mental functions. It occurs between the ages of 7 and 11, and it is characterized by the following characteristics: Children learn to reason rationally about tangible experiences, but they have difficulties comprehending abstract or hypothetical notions later on. The Formal Operational Stage is a span of time between the ages of 12 and adulthood during which people learn to think abstractly about abstract topics. During this stage, skills such as logical thinking, deductive reasoning, and systematic planning are also developed.
Bowlby’s Attachment Theory
Children’s social development is the subject of a considerable lot of scientific investigation. One of the oldest ideas of social evolution was presented by John Bowbly, who lived in the 18th century. Bowlby felt that early interactions with caregivers play a critical part in a child’s development and continue to have an impact on social relationships throughout a person’s life. Bowlby’s attachment theory proposed that infants are born with an inbuilt urge to create bonds with their caregivers or caregivers with them.
These attachments are characterized by distinct behavioral and motivational patterns, in addition to the other characteristics.
Children make every effort to remain close to and attached to their caregivers, who in turn provide a safe haven and a solid basis from which to explore the world around them.
Secure attachment styles are more likely to form in children who get consistent support and care, whereas ambivalent, avoidant, or disordered attachment styles are more likely to develop in children who receive inconsistent support and care.
Bandura’s Social Learning Theory
The work of psychologist Albert Bandura served as the foundation for social learning theory. Bandura argued that the conditioning and reinforcement process could not fully explain all of human learning and that other explanations were needed. As an illustration, how can the conditioning process account for acquired behaviors that have not been reinforced by classical conditioning or operant conditioning? According to social learning theory, behaviors may be taught through observation and modeling as well as direct instruction.
According to Bandura’s child development theory, observation is a fundamental component of learning, but this observation does not necessarily have to take the form of viewing a live model in order for learning to occur.
Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory
In the same year, another psychologist named Lev Vygotsky published a seminal learning theory that has gone on to become extremely important, particularly in the field of educational psychology. Vygotsky, like Piaget, felt that children learn best when they are actively involved and have hands-on experiences. His sociocultural hypothesis also stated that the development of higher-order functions was the result of interactions with parents, caregivers, peers, and the larger cultural context. According to Vygotsky, learning is a social process that must take place in a group setting.
This theory of child development also established the notion of the zone of proximal development, which is defined as the gap between what a person can achieve with assistance and what they can do on their own in a given situation.
A Word From Verywell
In order to better understand and explain distinct elements of child development, some of psychology’s most well-known thinkers have produced theories to aid in the exploration and explanation of these many aspects. Despite the fact that not all of these ideas are widely accepted today, they have all had a significant impact on our knowledge of childhood development. Nowadays, psychologists frequently draw on a range of ideas and views in order to better understand how children develop, behave, and think as they get older.
In truth, a comprehensive knowledge of how children change and grow throughout the period of childhood necessitates the examination of a wide range of elements that impact both physical and psychological development.
The way children develop physically and cognitively is determined by their genes, their environment, and the interplay between these two factors.
Lesson and Quiz One Flashcards by Yvonne lambert
- Provide an overview of Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory of cognitive development Explain the bioecological model developed by Bronfenbrenner.
Contextual Perspectives: A Broad Approach to Development
Individuals’ relationships with their physical, cognitive, and social environments are taken into consideration from contextual views. They also look at the impacts of society, culture, and the environment on growth. We shall concentrate on two key thinkers who were among the first to advocate for this viewpoint: Lev Vygotsky and Urie Bronfenbrenner. He was a Russian psychologist who is most known for his sociocultural theory, which he developed in the 1920s. According to him, social connection is crucial to children’s learning since it allows them to go through a continual process of scaffolded learning through such social interactions.
He categorized the many components or levels of the environment that have an impact on a child’s growth and development.
Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory: Changes in thought with guidance
Figure 1: Lev Vygotsky, the creator of sociocultural theory, which stresses the role of setting in cognitive development (source: Wikipedia). Modern social learning theories are derived from the work of Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky, who developed his theories in response to contradictory methods in psychology at the time of his creation (Kozulin, 1990). Vygotsky’s views are most widely known for emphasizing the significance of social interactions and culture in the development of higher-order cognitive skills, which he coined the term “social constructionism.” His theory is particularly significant for the insights it gives into the dynamic “interdependence between individual and societal processes in the creation of knowledge” that is shown by his work (John-SteinerMahn, 1996, p.
Although Vygotsky’s primary goal was to get a better understanding of higher psychological processes in children, his concepts have wide-ranging implications and practical applications for students of all ages and stages of development.
Despite the fact that we are discussing these concepts independently, they are strongly interconnected, nonhierarchical, and interconnected.
Vygotsky argued that thinking has social origins, that social interactions play a critical role in the development of higher-order thinking skills, and that cognitive development cannot be fully understood unless the social and historical context in which it is embedded is taken into consideration.
- “Every function in the child’s cultural development emerges twice: first, on the social level, and later, on the individual level; first, between individuals (interpsychologically), and then within the kid (intrapsychologically),” he went on to add.
- 57; Vygotsky, 1978, p.
- Working with others on a range of activities allows a learner to adopt socially shared experiences and their accompanying impacts, as well as to gain beneficial tactics and information (ScottPalincsar, 2013).
- In particular, it is important to note that these culturally mediated functions are considered as being integrated in sociocultural activities rather than as being isolated.
Rather than the transfer of distinct cultural information or abilities, development is defined as the “transformation of involvement in a sociocultural activity” (Matusov, 2015, p. 315).
Scaffolding and the Zone of Proximal Development
Fig. 2: A diagram of the relationship between the two figures. Vygotsky believed that through play and collaboration with others, children may develop cognitively in their knowledge of the world and learn what is necessary in society in order to succeed in life. While agreeing on a number of points with Piaget, Vygotsky was of the opinion that each individual had both a set of inherent talents and a set of prospective abilities that may be achieved if given the correct direction from other people.
However, whereas Piaget’s theories of cognitive growth assume that development through certain stages is biologically determined, originates in the individual, and occurs before cognitive complexity, Vygotsky’s theories of cognitive development propose that learning is the driving force behind development.
- Have you ever had to teach a youngster how to do something?
- Most likely, you talked to them and detailed what you were doing while you exhibited the skill, and you allowed them to participate in the process with you.
- This is referred to as scaffolding.
- Instead than evaluating pupils based on what they are doing, they should be evaluated based on what they are capable of doing if given the correct instruction.
- According to Piaget’s theory of development before learning, we should ensure that new concepts and problems are not offered until learners have gained the necessary intrinsic ability to comprehend them.
Watch this video to discover more about Vygotsky’s theory of sociocultural development and how it applies to contemporary issues. This link will take you to a transcript of the lecture “Vygotsky sociocultural evolution | Individuals and Society” (opens in new window).
Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Systems Theory
Another psychologist who recognized the importance of the environment on development was Urie Bronfenbrenner (1917-2005), an American psychologist who developed the ecological systems theory to explain how the inherent characteristics of a child and their environment interact to influence how they will grow and develop. The term “ecological” refers to a natural environment, and human development is seen in this concept as a long-term alteration in one’s perception of and interaction with the environment.
- Each of these systems will inexorably interact with and impact the other in every element of the child’s existence, from the most intimate to the most wide, at some point.
- In contrast, he merely accepted biology as a factor in the development of a person’s potential, with this potential being realized or not by environmental and social factors.
- The input provided by those individuals is also influenced by the cognitive and bodily condition of the individual in question.
- Themesosystems are comprised of broader organizational structures such as schools, families, and religious institutions.
- For example, religious beliefs and customs within a family may foster an environment in which the family feels stigmatized, which has an indirect influence on the child’s perception of themselves and others.
- Exosystem refers to the broader settings of the community that both impact and are influenced by the smaller contexts of the community.
- Furthermore, macrosystems, which are cultural components such as global economic circumstances, conflict, technological trends, values, ideologies, and a society’s responses to the global community, have an impact on the community.
- All of this takes place within the framework and timeline of the appropriate historical period, orchronosystem.
- This system is made up of all of the experiences that a person has had during his or her whole life.
- When it comes to ecology, Brofenbrenner focuses on the interaction between individuals and their surrounding environments, including micro-, meso-, exo-, and macro-environments.
The chronosystem, or the historical backdrop and era, which provides the framework for all of the other systems is not depicted in this illustration. Environmental occurrences, key life transitions, and historical events are all included in the chronology system.
In this brief video, Professor Rachelle Tannenbaum of Anne Arundel Community College discusses and provides instances of Brofenbrenner’s theory of hedonic adaptation. You can read the transcript for “Bronfenbrenner’s ecological theory” by clicking on the link below (opens in new window).
The bioecological model is a theory that contends that several layers of the environment interact with biological potential in order to impact the course of development. The chronosystem is comprised of the environmental events and changes that take place during a child’s existence, as well as any socio-historical events that take place. A theory that analyzes the interaction between persons and their physical, cognitive, and social environments is known as the contextual view. systems with a secological structure theoretical framework based on the work of Urie Bronfenbrenner, which emphasizes the necessity of studying a child in the context of different surroundings, which is divided into five levels of external impact.
- exosystem: the wider circumstances in which the community exists, such as its values, history, and economic situation.
- The mesosystem consists of bigger organizational systems such as the school, the family, or religious institutions.
- A method in which adults or capable peers model and explain how to handle an issue, and then step aside to provide help as required.
- The difference between what a student can perform without assistance and what they can do with assistance is known as the zone of proximal development (ZPD).
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