Which Describes A Religious Or Spiritual Aspect Of Paleolithic Culture

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Question Answer
Which describes a religious or spiritual aspect of paleolithic culture? a cyclical view of time that emphasized regeneration and disintergration
WHich of the following is not a requirement for developing agriculture anything other than good soil, water, aun, and seed
which of the following describes a feature of cheifdoms? the collection of tribute from commoners
what role did women play in agricultural village societies? farming and textile work
archaeologists and anthropologists believe that humans invented agriculture
during the time of the agricultural revolutionthe fertile cresent was. the first to experience full agriculture
crops spread more slowly in the Americas as compared to Eurasia in part because. the north/south orientation of the american continents
which of the following was an important development during the paleolithic period? humankind spread to inhabit all parts of the globe
Which factor contributed to the Agricultural Revolution? a need for additional food
Which of the following explains why some regions did not make the transition to an agricultural way of life? enviromental conditions were not suitable for farming
which of the following was a result of the Agricultural Revolution? higher risk of disease and famine
the development of early towns allowed for. individual jobs, shemas became religious tenders, trade
which of the following describes a feaature of pastorial societies? animal husbandry
what common feature did pastoral and agricultural societies share? organization of societies based on kinship
which form of society during the Age of Agriculture is considered to have a distinct elemant of inequality cheifdoms
what is another name for the Agricultural Revolution neolithic revolution
humans is the paleolithic era already had the knowledge to do which of the following? making pottery
which of the following is the earliest evidence that gethering and hunting peopleswere starting to make the transition to agriculture sickles
the Clovis culture of North America disappeared from the archaeological record around the same time as many species of large animals became extinct
the old sumerian period is also called The Ubaid Period
which of the following is usually considered a feature of civilization states that use force to compell obidience from subjects
the early dynastic period was characterized by. common warfare
when Sumerian city states went to war, what were they fighting over? access to land and water
in a Sumerian city state, who was considered the ruler and sovereign of the city local chief god
how did an Ensi communicate with the city god go to room in temple chief god would tell Ensi what he wanted done
in a Sumerian city state, what was the tax rate on temple land? tax free
in a Sumerian city state, the people could use the Common Land if. you must give the crops you grew 30% to the city god
in theory, but not in practice, who had success to the clan’s land? groups of families/ extended families
over time, who came to control and own the clan land? lugal
which of the following provides evidence of interaction and exchange among the first civilizations and surrounding regions in the ancient world? horse drawn chariots
over time the Lugals of Sumer became humanity’s first kings
the effort required to irrigate land allowed for the development of. government
which of the following first civilizations did not rely on grain based agriculture? Peruvian civilizations
whcih of the following provided the primary economic foundation for civilizations? water
which of the following human accomplishments emerged with the First Civilizations? complex tools
the rulers of which first civilizations based their authority on the mandate of heaven? the Zhou Dynasty
in the first civilizations slaves were drawn from which pools of people unskilled
which of the following is an example of how social class affected gender roles? men were supperior to women
which of the following is an example of a way that the rulers in the first civilizations displayed their power? monuments
which of the following contributed to the declining power of the Egyptian Pharaohs by 2400 B.C.E? invasion from outsiders Hykos

Chapter 1.rtf – Name Date Choose the letter of the best answer A B C D 1 Which describes a religious or spiritual aspect of Paleolithic culture An

Name: Date: Choose the letter that corresponds to the best answer. 1.Which of the following best describes a religious or spiritual aspect of Paleolithic society? A)An outlook that sharply distinguished between the material and spiritual worlds B)A single belief system based on monotheism and animism C)A cyclical view of time that emphasized regeneration and disintegrationD)The worship of masculinity, as reflected in universally male images and statues 2.The Agricultural Revolution occurred independently in various parts of the worldbetween 3.What was a feature of society during the Paleolithic era?

The Austronesian migrants to the Pacific islands, on the other hand, were not like those who migrated to the Americas.

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5.Which of the following describes a feature of chiefdoms?

Page 1

Global Exam 1 Flashcards

A religious or spiritual part of Paleolithic civilization may be described by which of the following words? A cyclical concept of time that placed emphasis on the processes of regeneration and breakdown When it came to society during the Paleolithic age, what stood out the most? Which of the following characteristics of chiefdoms best defines it? Ordinary people have contributed to the collection of homage. When it came to agricultural village society, what was the role of women? Farming and textile work were both done by female laborers.

  • Both countries had social systems that were largely equal and had minimal class differences.
  • Lower sea levels linked with the Ice Age resulted in the formation of land bridges, which enabled humans to travel to many different parts of the world.
  • The preponderance of feminine representations When it comes to the Paleolithic period, which of the following constituted a significant development?
  • When it came to the Agricultural Revolution in the Americas, what separated it from the Agricultural Revolution elsewhere?
  • Which of the following best describes why certain regions were unable to make the shift to a more agrarian way of life?
  • Generally speaking, which of the following is regarded to be a characteristic of “civilization”?
  • One or more of the following First Civilizations did not rely on grain-based agriculture for their subsistence.

Which of the following human achievements first appeared with the arrival of the First Civilizations?

Which of the following characteristics was more characteristic of Egyptian civilisation than of Mesopotamian civilization?

Which country now occupies the land of ancient Mesopotamia in the modern era?

How did gender relations in the First Civilizations differ from today’s society?

Which of the following depicts a method in which class divisions were manifested in the First Civilizations of the world?

They were powerful nations that had the ability to coerce resources from their citizens.

For the first time since the fall of the Roman Empire, the process of empire construction in China was preceded by precedents.

The concept of an east-west split is a myth.

This statement reflects the fundamental contrast between what the Roman Empire and the Han dynasty regarded to be the key to effective governance.

The similarities and differences between India’s and Western Europe’s political histories are numerous.

Which leader’s conquests were instrumental in the worldwide transmission of Greek civilization throughout the Hellenistic period?

How did different Paleolithic communities vary from one another and how did they develop over time?

Diet, dress, the government, and social groups are all important considerations.

The Agricultural Revolution marked a watershed moment in human history, one that was both decisive and progressive.

Committed to a crop-growing site, sophisticated thinking, group decision-making, susceptible to assault, and without food if crops fail to bear fruit, among other characteristics.

Why did it arise at such a late point in the history of the human race?

The Ice Age did not produce favorable farming conditions.

What is the best way to utilize it?

“For the most part, civilizations were held together by force.” Do you agree with this evaluation, or do you believe that there were more processes of integration in place?

When compared to previous Paleolithic and Neolithic communities, to what degree did civilizations reflect “development” was debatable.

People who make things and organize them.

There was slavery and a social class structure in place.

Searching for food, following animals, getting away from bad weather, being curious, and avoiding natural calamities are all things that people do.

Men farmed and women collected; men and women had specialized jobs; men and women tamed animals; men and women formed culture, religion, and governance.

formed centralized society centered around a charismatic leader, legal code was obeyed by everyone, big area, simple to conquer and develop, and The essential traits of the civilizations that arose in Mesopotamia and Egypt were as follows: What made them different from prior civilizations?

What factors influenced the development of empires in the first place, and what benefits and drawbacks did they have over prior civilizations?

The five stages of civilization, as well as their persistence and evolution over the duration of the first several millennia of organized human society, are discussed here.

Hunter-gatherers, agriculturalists, cities, governments, and empires are all examples of historical periods. We’ve come a long way from where we started.

prehistoric religion

The beliefs and activities of Stone Age peoples were based on prehistoric religion.

General characteristics

The MiddlePaleolithic Period is credited with the discovery of the world’s oldest known graves. Body parts and stone tools were buried with the bodies in holes in the earth, with the corpses occasionally being given extra attention and protection from other animals. In other situations, the results convey the appearance that the dead were to be “held onto,” which is not correct. That implies, in any event, a belief in some type of life after death, whether or whether that means that the dead should be cared for tenderly or that their return should be feared.

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Is it possible that aluminum was the first metal to be worked in prehistory?

This quiz will test your understanding of prehistory and beginnings, covering everything from Neanderthals to the origins of the Maori people.

Other burial customs, such as secondary burials, in which the bodies were first allowed to rot completely and then the bones were buried, or the burning of dead, are examples of practices that have been adopted (evident from theNeolithic Period).

It is even possible that the increase in the discovery of grave goods, which may include other human remains in some cases, is evidence not of a shift in religious beliefs, but rather of increased needs of the dead in the afterlife, i.e., needs after death that are dependent on one’s economic and social standing in life.

Beyond the burial of the entire corpse, it is critical to consider how the body’s various organs, particularly the skull, will be interred.

At contrast, solitary or several human skulls and long bones have been discovered in a single location dating back to much older eras (for example, associated with Peking man).

The same technique has been observed to have happened in the Upper Paleolithic and even later times, but it is not feasible to deduce an evolved ancestor worship directly from such extended links between the living and the dead in such a short period of time.

In Palestine, evidence of ancestorcult practices dating back to the 7th millennium BC was discovered in a separate room containing several skulls, some of which had plaster modeling of faces similar to that found on the ancestral skulls preserved by modern agrarian peoples in South Asia and Oceania.

  1. In most cases, the practice of complex skull cults is associated with the worship of ancestors.
  2. The megalithic (giant stone) burials that arise in diverse locations around the world from the Neolithic Period onward are a particularly significant type of burial.
  3. On large part, it is likely that the activities of the megalith builders were founded in thoughts about the dead and ancestor cults, to which their stones provided a unique level of endurance and a colossal shape.
  4. A common error, however, would be to seek a consistent interpretation of all megalithic monuments or to talk of a separate megalithic religion as though they were all of the same kind.

La Roche aux Fées is a small town in Quebec. Interior of La Roche aux Fées, a megalithic gallery cemetery from the Neolithic Period that was built around 3000 BCE in Essé, Ille-et-Vilaine, France. Image courtesy of the author. D. Lesec/Ziolo et al.

Cannibalism

Pieces of human corpses, as well as the bones of other creatures, have been discovered dispersed over archaeological levels dating back to the Paleolithic Period, some of which have been fractured or burnt. This is frequently seen as proof of cannibalism, although alternative interpretations are also plausible (e.g., the action of carrion-eating animalsturning up the bones to the surface and thus causing their burning by later fires at the same place). To be sure, the discoveries allow for the interpretation of cannibalism; nevertheless, they do not necessarily or fundamentally demand it; rather, they allow for that explanation if one proceeds from the preexisting assumption that cannibalism occurred at the time of the discovery of the remains.

  1. Cannibalism appears almost exclusively in the practices of agrarian peoples, i.e., in a later cultural stage, according to ethnological studies.
  2. Even if cannibalism occurred on a massive scale during the Paleolithic period, it could not be explained by conceptions that arose at a cultural stage that was significantly different from the present.
  3. Instead of solitary human bones spread across a town, human remains are occasionally discovered in waste pits or in holes and tunnels that functioned as sacrifice places, often in combination with traces of meals.
  4. The fact that this inferred behavior took place in the sphere of agrarian societies makes it more viable to draw analogies with contemporary cannibalism, where the meaning is typically the acquisition of the abilities and other characteristics of the victim.

What changed during the axial age: Cognitive styles or reward systems?

The ‘Axial Age’ (500–300 BCE) is the time period during which most of the major religious and spiritual traditions in Eurasian nations first formed. However, despite the fact that the Axial Age has recently been the subject of increased interest1,5 its existence is still very much in doubt. Because the nature of the Axial Age, as well as its spatial and chronological limitations, are still up in the air, the existence of the Age is being called into doubt. This is the conventional approach to the Axial Age, which characterizes it as a shift in cognitive style, from mostly narrative and analogical thinking to a more analytical and introspective mindset, which is presumably owing to the increased use of external memory resources.

6 In this section, we will analyze these two alternate definitions of the Axial Age in more detail.

Axial Age theory was developed in response to the observation that the origins of most current world religions (Buddhism, Hinduism, Daoism, Jewish tradition, Christianity, Islam) can be traced back to a specific period of Antiquity around 500 to 300 BCE, and that this period is also the first in human history to have seen the appearance of thinkers who are still a source of inspiration for modern religious and spiritual movements: Socrates, Pythagoras, Buddha 7 The religions of Egypt, Greece, and Mesopotamia, on the other hand, have had little discernible influence on contemporary religious and spiritual life.

  1. As a result, the Axial Age was defined in relation to contemporary faiths and the contemporary world.
  2. Socrates, Confucius, and Buddha are considered to be more contemporary than the residents of early chiefdoms and archaic empires, and so more relatable to current people.
  3. 7 This atheoretical definition has the effect that it is difficult to determine when the Axial Age began and when it came to a close.
  4. While the Axial Age was once considered a distinct period, most historians studying on the period today believe that Homer’s epic poems (theIliad and the Odyssey) are more or less identical to previous epic poetry created in pre-state cultures.
  5. In a similar vein, Jaspers advocated that Zarathustra be included in the list of axial leaders, most likely because Zoroastrianism was the most widely practiced religion at the period (owing to the expansion of the Persian empire) and because it is believed to have impacted the Hebrew faith.
  6. 7 8-10 The fact that the Axial Age is defined in such a vague and atheoretical manner is not an issue in and of itself.
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Science, philosophy, anthropology, history, and sociology have all proposed theories of the Axial Age in order to argue that this period represents a genuine transformation in human history (because its thinkers have inspired so much of modern spirituality), rather than the axial religions having been arbitrarily bundled together because of mere temporal coincidence, rather than the axial religions being arbitrarily bundled together because of mere temporal coincidence.

To far, the majority of scholars have claimed that the axial transformation was primarily cognitive or intellectual in character.

2,3,11,12 To give an example, Jaspers originally opposed the terms’mythos’ and ‘logos,’ and defined reflexivity as both a state of general consciousness and a state of “thinking about thinking”: “Previously unconsciously accepted ideas, customs, and conditions,” Jaspers explains, “were subjected to examination, questioned, and ultimately liquidated.” 7 He says that this fundamental questioning of tradition resulted in the establishment of monotheism in the eastern half of the Eastern Mediterranean and the emergence of philosophy in the western portion of the same region.

For what they believe to be the psychological underpinnings of the axial movement, philosophers and religious historians have offered a number of different terminology.

4 Over the last few years, Robert Bellah3 has claimed that the axial change may be explained by using Merlin Donald’s theory of cognitive change (14,15).

According to Bellah, the Axial Age refers to the period of transition from mythological to theoretic culture in human history.

Indeed, a number of the features attributed to theoretic culture by Donald appear to have played a crucial role in the Axial Age, as characterized by the traditional cognitive approach to historical development (Fig. 1).

References

First, there was the big transformation: the birth of our religious traditions, which was led by K. Armstrong. Anchor 2006. 2. J.P. Rnason, S.S. Eisenstadt, and B. Wittrock, Axial Civilizations and World History, vol. 4, Brill Academic Publishing, 2005. [Source: Google Scholar] 3.R.N. Bellah, Religion in Human Evolution: From the Paleolithic to the Axial Age, Cambridge University Press, 1997. The Harvard University Press published this book in 2011. 4.Bellah RN, Joas H., and others The Axial Age and its Consequences are discussed in detail.

Melville House published in 2011.

Baumard; A.

Morris; P.

It is increased affluence that is responsible for the emergence of ascetic wisdoms and moralizing religions.

Routledge;2010.

8.

IB Tauris & Co.

Tenth, the dawn and twilight of Zoroastrianism, by R C Zaehner, The Sterling Publishing Company, Inc.

The origins and variety of axial era civilizations, according to the Eisenstadt SSN.

Schwarz BI.

1-7 in Daedalus (1975), volume 104, number 2.

The University of Missouri Press published this book in 2001.

explains the three phases in the evolution of culture and cognition that led to the modern mind.

15.

Creel HG, NortonCompany, 2001, page 16.

and other studies in the history of Chinese culture are available.

Christianizing the Roman Empire (Penguin, UK,1991.18) by Robert MacMullen (AD 100-400).

Gombrich, R.

Olivelle P., The Asrama System: The History and Hermeneutics of a Religious Institution (London: Routledge, 2006), page 20.

Oxford University Press.

University of Hawaii Press; 2003.22.Brown PRL.The body and society: Men, women, and sexual renunciation in early Christianity.

Baumard N, Boyer P.

Curr Dir Psychol Sci2013,224(2013): 295-300;M.Economy and society; an outline of interpretative sociology.

M.

M.

Confucianism and Taoism are two of the world’s oldest religions.

Yang CK provides an introduction to this work, which has been translated and edited by Gerth Hans H. Collier Macmillan, New York, 1964.27. M. Weber, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, Cambridge University Press, 1998. The Roxbury Pub first opened its doors in 1998.

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