Which Culture Developed A Road System Rivaling That Of The Romans

Ch. 1 Review Questions – U.S. History

Identify which of the following Native peoples constructed residences in cliff dwellings that are still standing today. 2.Which civilization in the Western Hemisphere was responsible for the development of the first writing system? 3.Can you name the culture that created a road system that rivaled that of the Romans? The Aztec, Inca, and Maya civilizations differed significantly from the society of the Native peoples of North America in a number of ways. 4. 5.The series of efforts by Christian forces to reclaim the Holy Lands from Muslims was referred to as the campaign.

  1. The Aztec, Inca, and Maya civilizations differed significantly from the society of the Native peoples of North America in a number of ways. Five. The series of efforts by Christian troops to recover the Holy Lands from Muslims is referred to as the

6. grew prosperous as a result of commerce with the East. The Spanish compelled these two religious communities to either convert or flee in 1492, and they chose to depart.

  1. The relationship between Jews and Muslims, Christians and Jews, Protestants and Muslim, Catholic and Jewish

Eighth, what was the operation of feudal society in Europe? How did this system function as a mutually supporting system? 9.What led Christopher Columbus to assume that he might reach the Far East by sailing west? What exactly were the issues with this plan? In the Islamic world, the city of rose to prominence as a center of knowledge and trade. 11.1 Which of the following does not represent a kind of slavery that has been practiced in Africa for a long period of time?

  1. When people who require supplies or protection do so, the system is known as a slave system. When debtors repay those whom they owe by offering themselves in slavery, the system is known as a servitude system. a system in which individuals are viewed as chattel—that is, as personal property that can be bought and sold
  2. A system in which people are enslaved for the rest of their lives solely on the basis of their race

What culture developed the only writing system in the Western Hemisphere? – JanetPanic.com

Olmec writing is the earliest known writing system in the Western Hemisphere.

Which culture developed a writing system?

In the course of human history, whole writing systems appear to have been established at least four times independently: first in Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq), where cuneiform was employed between 3400 and 3300 BC, and then shortly after in Egypt, approximately 3200 BC.

Which culture developed the only complete writing system in the Americas?

Several writing systems existed in ancient Mesoamerica, including the sole real pre-Columbian writing system in the New World. The most well-known type of writing is Mayan hieroglyphics, which dates back to 400 BCE to 1600 CE. It is logographic (i.e., it employs a single letter, symbol, or sign to represent a full word), and it has signs that indicate syllables in the words.

Which culture developed a road system rivaling that of the Romans *?

The cuneiform script, which was developed in Mesopotamia, present-day Iraq, around 3200 BC, was the earliest written language. The only writing system that can be traced back to its earliest ancient origins is also the only one that has survived to the present day. This technique of counting and documenting items using clay tokens served as a predecessor to the development of the cuneiform writing.

Which two religious groups did the Spanish force to either convert or leave in 1492?

A little more than two months later, they approved a decree that effectively announced the cessation of toleration for another religious minority on their territory. After a court ruling on March 30, they declared that all Jews living in Spain must either convert to Christianity or leave the country. And those Jews had only four months to make their decisions before they were forced to convert.

What does Reconquista mean in English?

: a second or fresh conquest of anything that has already been conquered, particularly: Conquest is the process of recovering something.

With the approach of Mexico City, his pulse raced with anticipation. Here, he would finally see his idol, the general, and learn from him when the reconquest and punishment of Tejas would commence.

Why did Islam fail in Spain?

Deterioration and deterioration The breakdown of Islamic control in Spain was caused not only by increased hostility on the part of Christian nations, but also by disputes among Muslim rulers who were unable to cooperate.

Who are the original Moors?

The Moors, who were descended from a mixture of Arab, Spanish, and Amazigh (Berber) ancestors, founded the Islamic Andalusian civilisation and later settled as refugees in the Maghreb (a area of North Africa) between the 11th and 17th centuries.

Where did the black Moors come from?

It was initially used to characterize Berbers and other people from the old Roman province of Mauretania, which is now part of North Africa, and was derived from the Latin word “Maurus,” which means “Maurus.” After some time, it began to be applied more and more to Muslims who lived in Europe.

What exactly is a Moor?

It was initially used to Berbers and other people from the old Roman province of Mauretania, which is now part of North Africa, and was derived from the Latin word “Maurus.” After some time, it began to be applied more and more to Muslims who lived in European countries.

When did the Moors get kicked out of Spain?

The Ministry of Defense (MoD)

Why do trees not grow on moors?

The moors do have trees planted in them, but only in cloughs and on the moorland borders. We do not plant trees on blanket bog, since tree roots penetrate deeply into the peat and cause it to dry out. If left in good condition, blanket bogs are soggy, nutrient deficient, and acidic, making them unsuitable for the growth of trees in their natural habitat.

Who owns Dartmoor?

Ownership and access are important considerations. More than half of Dartmoor National Park (57.3 percent) is privately held property, with the Forest of Dartmoor being the majority of this territory and owned by the Duke of Cornwall in the first instance.

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Does Benjamin Mee still own Dartmoor Zoo?

Dartmoor Zoological Park was purchased by Benjamin Mee in August 2006, and the zoo reopened in July 2007. Benjamin Mee later wrote a book about his experiences, titled We Bought a Zoo (2008), which is available on Amazon.

Date opened 1968
Memberships BIAZA
Website dartmoorzoo.org.uk

How old is Dartmoor?

The elevation is 30 metres (98 feet) above sea level. Dartmoor is composed primarily of granite, a sedimentary rock that was formed around 295 million years ago. On Dartmoor, there are around 160 tors to be found.

How was Dartmoor created?

The processes that resulted in the construction of the Dartmoor tors began some 280 million years ago when the granite that makes up Dartmoor cooled and crystallized from molten rock at a temperature of 900 – 1000 degrees Celsius, according to geological evidence. The minerals that make up granite crystallized into tightly interlocking grains, resulting in the hard rock we know today.

Are tors man made?

It was around 280 million years ago that the processes that resulted in the construction of the Dartmoor tors began when the granite that formed Dartmoor cooled and crystallized from molten rock at 900–1000 degrees Celsius. Gravel is formed as a result of the crystallization of the minerals that make up the hard rock granite.

US HISTORY Flashcards

Which of the following is correct? cliff dwellings, which are still standing today, were erected by Indians. Which civilization produced the sole writing system in the Western Hemisphere? Which civilization created a road system that was comparable to that of the Romans? It was during this period that Christians made a succession of unsuccessful attempts to recapture the holy territories from Muslims that they got wealthy trading with the East. The Spanish compelled these two religious communities to either convert or leave the country in 1492.

  • Identify which of the following does not apply to a type of slavery that has traditionally been practiced in Africa.
  • What exactly were the issues with this plan?
  • What was it like to live in a feudal society in Europe?
  • Peasants plowed the land and toiled in the fields.
  • Knights were compensated and peasants received protection from the lord of the manor.
  • Maya: -Belize, Honduras, and Guatemala are three of the most dangerous countries in the world.
  • What exactly does the phrase “restoration” relate to?

What was the most prevalent religion in Pennsylvania?

Slave labor was the most common kind of work in the colonies.

That he would establish a catholic absolute monarchy as a result of his actions What was the extent of New England’s dominion?

The result of the great revolution is still up in the air.

His successors were William III and Mary II.

Bostonians toppled the royal governor of Massachusetts, Edmund Andrews, in 1775.

Protestant resurgence that placed an emphasis on emotional and experiential religion rather than book learning Is there anything that the Enlightenment did not teach us?

A fraternal association in London that pushed for enlightenment was founded in 1793.

Greater influence in Europe and the rest of the globe In the French and Indian War, who were the most important combatants?

What was the impetus for the French and Indian War?

The conflict for this territory prompted the war that ultimately brought France’s position in North America to an end.

Taking steps to lessen the threat of French privateers What was the purpose of the Spanish construction of Castillo de San Marcos?

When the Pueblo revolution of 1680 failed to achieve independence, Native Americans sought to protect their sovereignty via peaceful means.

However, this was only temporary, as the Spanish continued to attack in order to gain control of the region.

Which religious organization accompanied the French settlers to Canada and attempted to convert the indigenous people to Christianity?

How did they do in comparison to Spanish colonists?

However, unlike Spanish missionaries, the French attempted to convert Indians to Catholicism, but they were far more accepting of their differences.

What was the fundamental reason behind Bacon’s uprising?

What is not true about the Puritan faith is as follows: Men were the only ones who could take part.

They fostered the spread of colonization.

They looked to African slaves as a source of low-cost labor to meet their needs.

The transatlantic trip that African slaves took to reach the United States.

What impact did European muskets have on Native Americans’ way of life in the Americas?

Compare and contrast the perspectives of Europeans and Indians on property.

Europeans viewed land as something they might possess, and they erected fences and other markers to demarcate their own parcels of land.

Which country was responsible for the establishment of the first colonies in the Americas?

What factors influenced the authors of probanzas de meritos in their decision to write in the manner that they did?

The paper was written in this manner in order to win royal approval.

When and where did the protestant reformation have its start?

It is the mission of the Church of England to eradicate any remnants of Catholicism from the church of England What changes in the Catholic Church did Martin Luther and John Calvin advocate for, and how did they accomplish them?

The reason why New England did not undertake more aggressive endeavors to conquer the new globe before the late 16th to early 17th centuries is unclear.

What was the primary objective of the French in their colonization of the Americas?

The French had no issue with the Indians, and they were friendly to them.

God, honor, and riches were important to the Spaniards.

By providing service to the Spanish monarchy What is the most accurate description of the Columbian exchange?

An interchange of plants, animals, and illnesses occurs between Europe and the Americas, and this is known as the Transatlantic Exchange. What caused illnesses such as small pox to have such a devastating effect on Indians? Indians lacked immunity to illnesses brought by Europeans.

Chapter 1 – The Americas, Europe, and Africa before 1492 Flashcards by Jamie Williams

what is your choice from among the options below? cliff dwellings, which are still standing today, were erected by Indians. Which civilization produced the sole writing system in the western hemisphere? Which civilization developed a road system that was on par with that of the Romans, or even better? This term refers to a series of Christian army attempts to retake the holy lands from Muslims. They became wealthy through trade with the East. During the Spanish Inquisition of 1492, these two religious groups were forced to either convert or leave the country entirely.

  1. Identify which of the following statements does not describe a type of slavery that has traditionally been practiced in Africa.
  2. Which issues did this plan have that needed to be addressed?
  3. What was the organizational structure of European feudal society?
  4. Farming/working on the land was done by peasants.
  5. Knights were compensated and peasants were protected by the lord of the manor.
  6. -improved the calendar and written language through trial and error Beginning with the Olmec, the Aztec civilization began.
  7. It is rich in resources, bathed daily, has access to potable water, and has a garbage collection system.

the discovery of Machu Picchu Indians of North America: -distributed widely Mogollon, Hohokan, and Anasazi are the three main groups of Pueblo people.

When did religion become the most popular in Pennsylvania?

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Slave labor was the most common type of labor in the colonies.

Specifically, that he would establish a catholic absolute monarchy in the country.

New England colony James II established as a consolidated entity.

The overthrow of James II.

The 1689 Bill of Rights set limits on the future power of the monarchy and outlined the rights of parliament and Englishmen in the United States of America Bostonians deposed royal governor Edmund Andrews in the state of Massachusetts.

The first big awakening occurred during which time period.

Who were the Freemasons, and why did they have such a big impact on society?

When you think about British imperialism from 1688 to 1763, what was the principal purpose you think about?

In the French and Indian War, who were the primary combatants?

Which events led to France’s involvement in the war with India?

However, France opposed Britain’s title to the region and constructed fort Duquesne to protect it.

When the Spanish destroyed Fort Caroline, what was their ultimate goal?

What was the purpose of the Spanish construction of the Castillo de San Marcos in Mexico City?

When the Pueblo revolution of 1680 failed to achieve independence, Native Americans sought to protect their independence via peaceful means.

A Dutch system of distributing parcels of land in New Netherland in order to stimulate colonization was in place at the time.

(Source: Wikipedia) Is there a difference in religious expectations held by the French and Dutch colonists?

In terms of religious freedom, the Dutch were the most lenient.

When it came to the Chesapeake colonies’ most profitable product, it was Bacon’s revolt was primarily motivated by what?

A group of individuals were responsible for the founding of the Plymouth Colony.

It was restricted to men only.

colonialism was promoted by them They employed the indenture system.

In what paragraph did you find yourself in the middle?

The answer is not something that Europeans brought over and introduced to the Indians.

Having links to Europeans gave tribes with European connections a considerable edge in fights with other tribes since muskets were far more effective than bows and arrows in most situations.

Europeans viewed land as something they might possess, and they erected fences and other markers to demarcate their own parcels of ground.

When did the first colonies in the Americas begin to be established?

Consider the following factors while interpreting these materials today: a.

To understand the conquistadors’ culture, we must first understand their historical backdrop.

To completely purge the Church of England of all remnants of Catholicism.

It was necessary to publish Bibles for the general population because of the sale of indulgences and the imposition of mass taxes.

It was internal disputes in England that drew attention away from the increasing catholic threat in Scotland and Ireland.

Particularly for furs, traders engage in trading.

When it came to the Indians, the French had no beef.

God, honor, and riches were what the Spanish desired.

This is accomplished by service to the Spanish monarchy What is the most accurate way to characterize the Columbian exchange of ideas?

Europe and the Americas are collaborating on a project that will see an interchange of plants, animals, and illnesses. What caused illnesses such as small pox to have such a devastating effect on Native Americans? No immunity to European illnesses existed in the Indian population at that time.

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Belief Systems Along the Silk Road

During the course of history, religious beliefs of the peoples of the Silk Road underwent significant transformations, which were mostly caused by the consequences of travel and commerce along the Silk Road itself. For more than two thousand years, the Silk Road served as a network of highways for the transportation of goods and the transmission of religious views throughout Eurasia and Asia. Religions practiced along the Silk Road around the beginning of the first century BCE were vastly different from those that would subsequently develop in the region.

  • Christianity wasn’t even going to be around for another hundred years.
  • More than seven centuries would elapse before Islam would be established.
  • Many people in the Middle East worshipped the gods and goddesses of the Greco-Roman pagan pantheon, which was derived from Greek and Roman mythology.
  • A large number of Jewish merchants and other immigrants had colonized territory outside of the old kingdoms of Israel or Judea, and they had erected their own houses of worship in towns and cities throughout the region.
  • It was created by the Persian scholar Zoroaster in the sixth century BCE and is still practiced today.
  • Greek colonies in Central Asia that were left behind following the fall of Alexander the Great’s kingdom had, by the first century BCE, mostly converted from Greco-Roman paganism to Buddhism, a faith that would soon spread throughout the world as a result of the Silk Road.
  • The former religion never went beyond India and Southeast Asia, but the later finally spread throughout the world.

Until recently, there was no official state worship of Confucius in China, nor was there any Buddhism, nor was there any structured religious Daoism.

When trans-Eurasian commerce began to be conducted on a regular basis, the religious beliefs of the peoples of the Silk Road changed dramatically from what they had been.

A network of routes that connected Eurasia for two thousand years, the Silk Road served as a conduit for the transportation of people and the propagation of religious beliefs.

Trading companies that traveled the Silk Road routinely established shrines and temples dedicated to their own religious ideas and practices everywhere they went in order to retain their own religious beliefs and customs when they were far away from home.

The mechanics of the dissemination of ideas along the Silk Road are characterized by a significant, though little-noticed, distinction between two major types of religions: monotheistic and polytheistic.

To put it another way, they are either actively seeking new members to join the faith from groups other than the present membership group, or they aren’t.

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Religious participation is a birth right rather than a matter of conversion in the latter case of non-proselytizing religions, where membership in a religion often coincides with membership in an ethnic group, so that religious participation is a matter of birth rather than conversion; conversion is often only accomplished through marriage into the faith, and in extreme cases conversion is rejected as an impossibility.

  • Zoroastrianism, Manichaeism, Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam are examples of proselytizing faiths; non-proselytizing faiths include Hinduism, Judaism, and Shinto are examples of non-proselytizing faiths.
  • Some of these religions traveled along the trade routes, greatly expanding their areas of influence, while others did not migrate from their home countries, or did so only to establish enclaves of the faithful in other regions.
  • Buddhism had already expanded from its beginnings in north eastern India to the areas that are today Pakistan and Afghanistan by the 1st century BCE, when it was still a relatively new religion.
  • Because of Buddhism’s universalism, it was able to transcend boundaries of space, language, and ethnicity with relative ease.

After the arrival of Buddhism in China was officially acknowledged by the imperial court in the mid-1st century CE, and the faith spread throughout the country as a result of both official and private support for the construction of temples and monasteries, Buddhism eventually became the official religion of China.

  1. Buddha’s teachings extended from China to Korea and Japan by the 6th century CE, and it continued to hold a dominating position in China until its collapse under the Tang dynasty in the 9th century.
  2. Buddhism interacted with religious Daoism in China as well, particularly from the third century CE forward.
  3. It promised believers immortality or rebirth in a heavenly pantheon, and it gathered a library of sacred scriptures that rivaled Buddhism’s in scope and depth.
  4. Chinese Chan Buddhism (also known as “Zen” in Japanese) owes a debt of gratitude to Buddhist-Daoist syncretism to a significant extent.

Through the efforts of the major Christian apostles, Christianity was transformed from a regional phenomenon in the region that today comprises Israel and Palestine in the century or so after 50 CE to a rapidly expanding, proselytizing religion in the region that today comprises Israel and Palestine.

Christianity moved eastward as well as westward, resulting in a variety of changes in teaching and worship practices from one location to the next as a result of this spread.

This name comes from the teachings of Nestorius, a 5th-century patriarch of Constantinople who outraged the Roman and Byzantine cultures with his unorthodox doctrines, which included claiming the Virgin Mary as the “Mother of God.” A famous inscribed stela (standing stone tablet) in Xi’an commemorates the official arrival of Nestorian missionaries in China, which dates back to 781 and commemorates the spread of Nestorian Christianity throughout Persia, India, and China.

  1. Nestorian Christianity spread throughout the world, bringing with it the Syriac language and script (which is the basis of the writing systems of several Central Asian languages).
  2. Another Middle Eastern religion that was influential on the Silk Road for a period of time was Manichaeism, which was founded by the Persian prophet Mani in the 3rd century CE and was practiced along the route for a period of time.
  3. He saw himself as the spiritual successor to Zoroaster as well as the historical Buddha, Jesus, and other great ancient religious teachers.
  4. Manichaeism rose to prominence as a challenger to Christianity in the Middle East and Mediterranean North Africa, and spread over the Silk Road (though it had little or no impact on China and East Asia).
  5. As Islam spread from the Middle East to northern China’s westernmost provinces, the faiths of the Silk Road were challenged and eventually displaced by the spread of Islam, which is now recognized as the predominant religion in the countries spanned by the old Silk Road.
  6. In accordance with Muslim tradition, Muhammad received a series of revelations when he was 40 years old, which were recorded in the Quran, which is considered by Muslims to be a faithful recording of the entire revelation of God delivered through Muhammad.
  7. Although the initial expansion of Muslim rule and authority into neighboring regions, which occurred after the Prophet’s death in 632, was the result of conquest, the actual process of converting the peoples of these regions to Islam was a lengthy one.
  8. On the whole, with a few notable exceptions, the process of conversion to Islam was a peaceful experience.
  9. One group of devotees who embody this process well in the Silk Road context are the Sufis, who are committed to spiritual life and unity among traditions, and whose teachings of Islam are present in all of the vernaculars and cultures of the Silk Road peoples.
  10. These include the advancement of philosophy and science, the development of law and history, the development of literature and the arts, as well as the expressions of the devotional and creative spirit of Islam in music and dance.

That pluralism continues to deny the existence of the vast majority of Muslims who live along the ancient Silk Road. Asian Muslims constitute approximately 560 million people, or nearly half of the total number of Muslims living throughout the world.

Roman Roads

The roads built by the Romans were legendary. Some Roman roads are still in use today, over 2000 years after they were first constructed. The roads built by the Romans were of exceptional quality. Why did the Romans devote so much time and effort to the construction of roads? Rome made a substantial amount of money via commerce with the rest of Europe. In certain cases, this commerce entailed the transportation of goods by water. Roads were utilized more regularly by the Romans. Furthermore, with so much of Western Europe captured by the Romans, the Romans need roadways to transport their armies rapidly from one location to another.

When the Romans landed in England, they discovered that there were no routes to follow.

It was not uncommon for these tracks to be in bad shape due to the fact that they were frequently located on high terrain and exposed to all weather conditions.

The straightness and quality of construction of Roman roads were legendary.

The Romans did not have a compass or maps to assist them in the construction of roadways.

A groma is a surveying instrument that was used by surveyors.

In addition to the wood, lead weights were added to the ends of each piece of wood.

Once the surveyor was satisfied that he had drawn a straight line, wooden stakes were driven into the ground to record the location of the straight line in question.

Again, drainage was aided by the fact that Roman roads were typically built higher than the surrounding earth’s elevation.

The Romans were able to depend on the troops’ acquired knowledge and competence as a result of this.

Throughout the empire, Roman roads were extensively used.

A wealthy merchant could afford a cart drawn by horses to transport his goods.

As soon as the Romans departed Britain, the Britons did not utilize their roads to get anywhere.

In addition, because they had not been using the roads when they were constructed, the Britons were ill-equipped to maintain them in excellent condition.

It was possible to go by car from London to York (through Lincoln), from London to Wroxeter, from London to Dover, and from Exeter to York (via Bath, Cirencester, and Lincoln) via the main routes.

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