Collection and Inoculation of Blood Specimens for Routine Culture (Bacterial, T.B. or Fungus)
Whenever feasible, it is preferable to get a peripheral sample rather than a sample from a line, unless there is a suspicion of a line infection. When collecting several blood samples from a single line, always draw the blood culture first and then the rest of the samples. Do not discard any of the blood that has been drawn. Make use of this early blood in the line since it may be the most reliable source if an organism is detected.
- Prescriptions for laboratory services
- Name labels
- Safety Lok Blood Collection Set/Saf-T E-Z Set
- Angel Wing
- Blood Culture Bottles*
- Prescriptions for laboratory services Skin prep kit (ChloraPrep One-Step FreppTM)
- Gauze and paper tape
- Unsterile examination gloves
*PLEASE NOTE: Mycobacterial cultures require different containers than other cultures.
- Adults with suspected bacteremia should have two sets of blood culture bottles drawn (one for aerobic bacteria and one for anaerobic bacteria) from two different venipuncture sites. There is a limit of four cultures. It is necessary to inoculate the aerobic bottle first since there is approximately 0.5 cc of air in the line of the collection set and it is sometimes difficult to extract 8-10 cc of blood per bottle (15-20 cc/set) when using the aerobic bottle. The aerobic bottle is the one that must be inoculated with brief samples since it contains the most bacteria. On the label, little lines signify roughly 5 cc, and there is a fill line that is marked by a line in the middle of the label. It is critical not to underfill or overfill the bottles, since this might have a negative impact on the outcome. One aerobic (yellowtop) bottle per pediatric/neonatal patient, as directed by the physician, is required. Amount of blood recommended per bottle: 1 to 2 cc of blood
- Blood Culture for Tuberculosis: two heparin-coated (green top) or two SPS-coated (yellow top) Vacutainers each. No more than once every 24 hours
- No more than once every 48 hours
- In order to test for fungus, one aerobic (bluetop) blood culture bottle must be used.
- Confirm the patient’s identify by checking the requisition and labels to ensure that they match the name bracelet
- Provide the patient with an explanation of the procedure. Choose a location for the venipuncture
- Remove the cap(s) off the bottle(s) and wipe the bottle top(s) with a prep pad with 70 percent alcohol
- Preparation of the skin and collection of specimens/inoculation:
- Identify the vein that will be utilized
- FreppTM should be removed from the bundle. When you hold the applicator in your hand, with the ChloraPrep One-Step FreppTM sponge facing downwards, gently press the wings to release fluid for a regulated flow. In order to soak the sponge, place it on the specified venipuncture site and depress once or twice. For at least 30 seconds, use a back and forth friction scrub technique. Allow approximately 30 seconds for the area to dry once it has been prepped. Continue with the collecting of blood
- It is not necessary to clean off since doing so will infect the location.
- Maintain a “hands-off” attitude during the preparation process. To palpate above and below the needle insertion site if it is required to contact the cleaned site, prep the glove finger in the same manner as before with a fresh prep pad and just palpate above and below
- A. Drawing on the Periphery 1. Perform the venipuncture using the butterfly Safety E-Z Collection Set and a “male” Angel Wing, as directed by the manufacturer. Blood should “flash” back into the tubing at the end of the tube. 2. Start with the aerobic bottle and then attach the blood culture bottles to the adapter. Collect 10 cc of blood into each vial and set it aside. Note: Collect blood in the aerobic bottle first since there is approximately 0.5 cc of air in the line of the butterfly, and in the event that less than 10 cc is collected, collect blood in the aerobic bottle second. A notation should be included on the request if less than 10 cc of blood is obtained from an adult patient since this might result in a false negative test result. c. Drawing a Line The following are the two approaches for drawing from a line: 1. Directly attach the “male” angel wing to the clave connection by inserting the wing directly into the connector. OR Secondly, insert the syringe into the clave and draw back the specimen. Then, remove the syringe and insert a “female” angel wing into the syringe. Place the blood in the appropriate containers. After the operation is completed, use an alcohol prep to remove any blood that may have accumulated on the gray stopper of the blood culture bottles. Label the bottle(s) with the patient’s name, patient number, the time and date, and the location of the specimen collection site, such as “right arm” or “left arm,” if appropriate. When drawing lines, always specify which line and/or port is being drawn. Position the label vertically on the bottle, and DO NOT place the label over the bar code on the blood culture vial (unless otherwise specified). Note: After the culture is taken from the identified patient, apply the patient label to the bottles at the bedside
- If further blood cultures are necessary, pull the extra tubes after the blood cultures are obtained.
|TYPE OF CULTURE||CONTAINER||AMOUNT OF BLOOD||ROUTE|
|Aerobic||Blue top Bottle||8-10 cc. Blood||Peripheral Or Line|
|Anaerobic||Fuchsia top Bottle||8-10 cc. Blood||Peripheral Or Line|
|Fungus||Blue top Bottle||8-10 cc. Blood||Peripheral Or Line|
|TB or AFB or Mycobacterium||2 green Vacutainer Tubes (Heparin)||7-10 cc. Blood||Peripheral Or Line|
|Pediatric Blood Culture||Yellow top Bottle||1-2 cc. Blood||Peripheral Or Line|
Updated on November 24, 2017
|Background: Properly obtained blood cultures are important to identify organisms and to ensure proper antimicrobial/antifungal coverage while minimizing false positive results.Principle Preparation of the skin for venipuncture is important to prevent contamination of blood cultures by bacteria that normally lie on the skin and to prevent introduction of these bacteria into the patient’s bloodstream.Patient Identification: Follow the HFHS Patient Identification Policy (HFHS Administrative Policies – Clinical Practice) to properly identify the patient.Follow the Department of Pathology specimen labeling policy to properly label each bottle with patient identification and collect time and date before the blood is drawn. Specimen Logistics Blood cultures should be drawn prior to initiation of antimicrobialtherapy.Preparation of skin prior to blood culture collection is important toprevent contamination of sample. At least two (2) sets of blood cultures should be obtained (each setincludes one (1) aerobic and one (1) anaerobic bottle).Each set of blood cultures are to be drawn from two separatevenipuncture sites at approximately 15 minutes apart.If two separate venipunctures are not able to be drawn, the providermust be notified, and collaboration should be done to determine if two sets arenecessary. Central lines (includes dialysis lines and Mediports) and PeripherallyInserted Central Catheters (PICCs)shouldnotbe used to obtain blood cultures due to the high probability ofcolonization and the likelihood of false positive results.Central lines from outside facilities may be cultured for up to two (2)calendar days (as opposed to 48 hours), after admission by provider order onlyfor a positive blood culture to be considered present on admission.Blood culture volume is essential. There is a 3% increase in sensitivityfor every extra mL collected. Blood culture bottles require 8- 10 mLs. to beaccurate. After positive blood cultures have been identified wait at least 48hours to draw any additional blood cultures. Surveillance blood cultures should not be routinely done.KEY POINT: Neutropenic (ANC1500 µL) orthrombocytopenic (Platelets30,000 µL) patients suspected of having ablood stream infection are to have peripheral blood culture attempted twicebefore considering drawing a blood culture from a central line or PICC. It isimperative that cultures in these patients are drawn within an hour ofsuspected infection has been identified.Do not send catheter tips for culture.Escalation orderof blood culture sites, General Practice Unit:|
- Hospital Expert/IV team
- Arterial puncture by Rapid Response team (if available)
- Notify provider
- Peripheral venipuncture
- Hospital expert/IV team
Order for escalation of blood culture sites in the Intensive Care Unit:
- Venipuncture on the periphery
- Arterial puncture
- Unit expert
- Arterial line
- Hospital expert/IV team
- Notify provider
Preparation: Gather the necessary equipment:
- A tourniquet, a 70% alcohol swab, 2 percent chlorhexidine with a 70% isopropyl alcoholapplicator, aerobic and anaerobic blood culture flasks, and a tourniquet are all required. Vacuette
- Butterfly set, clean gloves, dressing, pen, and labels are all included.
Preparation of the blood culture bottles includes the following:
- Remove the cap from each blood culture vial and use a different alcohol swab to scrape the top of each bottle for 30 seconds
- Allow for natural drying.
- Once the tops have been washed, do not fan or blow on them. Once the tops have been cleansed, do not touch them.
Preparation of the patient
- Provide the patient with an explanation of the procedure. Hand hygiene should be practiced. Set up a tourniquet.
- The tourniquet should not be left on the patient for more than one minute.
- Prior to washing the skin, palpate and identify the appropriate place. Take off the tourniquet.
Obtaining the Culture: Collecting the culture with a butterfly set and a vacuette
- Assemble the blood culture drawing equipment and make arrangements for the materials that will be required
- Hand hygiene should be practiced. Put on a pair of clean gloves
- Set up a tourniquet. Apply 2 percent chlorhexidine to the skin using a 70% isopropyl alcohol applicator for 30 seconds, scrubbing the skin from the center outward.
- Allow for at least 30 seconds of drying time (the skin must be completely dry prior to venipuncture)
- Once the skin has been washed, avoid using a fan or blowing it. Once the spot has been cleaned, do not palpate it.
- Venipuncture should be performed. Butterflyset and vacuette should be used for venipuncture procedures. Completely fill the aerobic bottle first, then the anaerobic bottle (see Appendix A for the proper amount of fluid to use). Fill each bottle with 10mLs at a time until it is full. Keep an eye on the volume because the bottle may overfill. Remove the tourniquet, maintain pressure, and apply the dressing. After removing the gloves, wash your hands thoroughly. While at the patient’s bedside, label cultures with a bedside labeling equipment or handwrite the site of draw on the label with a pen. (See Appendix B for more information.) Send to the lab in accordance with operational unit guidelines
When should blood be obtained from a vascular access device (VAD)? Blood should not be drawn from a VAD unless it is thought that the patient has line-related sepsis. Confirm that the doctor’s order for a blood culture specifies that a line draw be performed. It is more probable that blood cultures collected from lines may be contaminated; consequently, proper care should be taken to prevent contamination. In the case of drawing a blood culture from a VAD, it should always be followed by drawing a blood culture from a peripheral location.
Follow the directions for bottle preparation and blood culture volume volume as given in the preceding section.
Without the use of an adaptor, it is not possible to draw straight from the bottle.
If it is not possible to get a peripheral blood culture and a culture from an IV line must be performed, the following procedures must be followed for obtaining bloodcultures from peripheral IVs, central lines, and PICCs:
- Dispose of the needleless connection and replace it with a fresh, sanitary one.
- Squeeze out the excess alcohol from the hub for at least 30 seconds and let it to dry
- Because the bottle cannot be pulled straight from the site, please contact the lab for any extra adapters. Take no more than one set from this access at any given time. If a second set is required, wait 15 minutes before changing the unnecessary connection and repeating the operation.
The number of blood cultures taken and when they are taken are important considerations.
|Suspected acute primarybacteremia or fungemia, meningitis, osteomyelitis, arthritis, or pneumonia||Obtain 2 sets at the sametime by separate venipuncture immediately following the clinical events thatprecipitate the blood culture.|
|Fever of unknown origin||Obtain 2 to 3 blood culturesets initially at the same time by separate venipuncture.Then, 24 to 36hours later, obtain two more sets of cultures immediately before the expected(usually afternoon) temperature elevation.|
|Suspected bacteremia or fungemiawith persistently negative blood cultures||Consider alternative bloodculture methods designed to recover rare or fastidious microorganisms (e.g.Isolator tube)|
|Infective endocarditis||Obtain 4 blood culture setsduring the first 1-2 hours of evaluation.If all are negative 24 hourslater, obtain 4 more sets.From patients who have received antimicrobialagents within 2 weeks prior to admission, obtain two separate blood cultures oneach of three successive days.Request extended incubation if Brucellaor Bartonella is suspected.|
Blood Sample Contamination Fast Facts
Who should be subjected to a blood culture examination? Patients with fever, chills, leukocytosis, septic shock, suspected endocarditis, or prior to initiating antimicrobial therapy in the elderly or immunocompromised patients are frequently subjected to blood cultures. Blood culture tests are performed immediately upon arrival in a hospital in the United States to rule out the possibility of a community-acquired bloodstream infection (BSI). A BSI that occurs during a patient’s hospitalization is considered a preventable adverse event, and reimbursement for the patient’s care may be threatened.
- A blood culture is used to evaluate whether or whether a patient has a bloodstream infection, commonly known as bacteremia or septicemia, by examining the patient’s blood.
- Blood is a sterile fluid by its own nature.
- As a best-case scenario, a blood culture test will offer an aetiological diagnosis as well as the chance to do antimicrobial susceptibility testing to advise appropriate antimicrobial therapy, which is an essential element of antibiotic stewardship.
- Unfortunately, contamination of blood cultures is a recurring concern when it comes to obtaining valid test findings.
- What is the purpose of requiring two specimens from two different locations?
True bloodstream infection (in which both specimens will be positive with the same organism) and contamination are distinguished by the presence of a positive result in one specimen and a negative result in the other (in which only one specimen will be positive.) Can skin antisepsis prevent the contamination of blood culture specimens?
- Before collecting the blood culture, it is possible to disinfect the patient’s skin surface using an aseptic procedure that is followed exactly.
- The butterfly needle cored out a skin plug from the specimen, and even if skin antisepsis is followed, bacteria inside the dermis layer, which are not reachable by surface disinfection procedures, may be transported into the specimen.
- According to research, utilizing a device, also referred to as “a waste,” to prevent the initial flash of blood, which can be as little as 0.15ml, from entering the container can significantly minimize the number of contaminated culture samples.
- How can I keep skin antisepsis intact when extracting a blood culture from a patient?
- Maintain a “hands-off” approach following the prep process and refrain from palpating the region after antisepsis to avoid spreading infection.
- In order to obtain the best possible blood culture collection, how will I know whether I am appropriately positioned in the vein?
- Keep an eye out for the blood to “flash” back into the tube to check that you have reached the vein.
A blood culture set is comprised of two bottles, one of which is an aerobic bottle and the other of which is an anaerobic bottle.
Adults should have 8-10 mL of blood collected every bottle.
Pediatrics and newborn blood collection are handled in a different way at different facilities.
For example, a one-month-old infant will require 1ml of formula, but a two-month-old baby will require 2ml of formula, and so on.
Using the Aerobic Bottle, collect 1 mL minimum to 4 mL maximum for patients less than 9 kg, and the Anaerobic Bottle, collect 4 mL minimum to 10 mL maximum for patients more than 9.1 kg.
Do the culture bottles need to be disinfected before to use?
Even with the dust top in place, blood culture vials are not considered sterile for use in research.
In which blood culture bottle do I start with the most recent sample?
The aerobic bottle is the one that must be inoculated with brief samples since it contains the most bacteria.
It is critical not to underfill or overfill the bottles, since this might have a negative impact on the outcome.
Blood culture bottles must be kept upright in order to prevent backflow of the broth medium and to guarantee that the proper volume of blood is being supplied to the culture.
Some blood culture bottles contain a “fill line” that may be used to assist you determine the volume you need to collect.
What is the average number of blood culture tests required per patient?
There is a limit of four cultures.
What is the procedure for diagnosing a laboratory-confirmed bloodstream infection?
What is the most effective way of collecting blood cultures?
Blood specimens taken from existing intravascular lines should be avoided because they have a higher risk of contaminating the specimen.
Is there a recommended sequence for the collection of lab specimens for the patient if there are additional lab specimens scheduled for the patient?
In the event that extra blood is necessary for other laboratory testing, the additional tubes should be drawn after the blood cultures are collected.
Do I shake the vials with the specimens I’ve collected?
Don’t move them at all.
What should the labeling of a blood culture specimen look like?
When drawing lines, always specify which line and/or port is being drawn.
What role do contaminated blood cultures have in the reporting of false positive CLABSI results?
Contaminated blood cultures pose a major threat to the accuracy of laboratory results.
With over 1.2 million contaminated blood cultures happening in the United States each year, the frequency of needless CLABSI reporting, as well as the accompanying costs, are considerable.
These individuals who have been incorrectly diagnosed with a CLABSI are frequently treated with unneeded antibiotics, increasing their risk of secondary infection, including C.
When antibiotics are used inappropriately, they are the primary cause of antimicrobial resistance, which has become a substantial and rising global concern.
In addition to the expenses involved with CLABSI reporting, it is estimated that blood culture contamination results in over $1 million in needless expenditures to an average-sized hospital each year.
|Test Name||Blood CultureAerobic/Anaerobic|
|Alternate Name(s)||(Information Unavailable)|
|Specimen Type||BLOOD CULTURE SETS Two sets of blood culturesfrom separate venipuncture sites, drawn within a 24 hour period and prior to antibiotic therapy, are recommended. If endocarditis is suspected, collect a third set. Venipunctures at least 30 minutes apart is the preferred method.Adult sets -consists of 1 aerobic bottle with a green flip cap and 1 anaerobic bottle with a orange cap. Second set consists of one aerobic bottle.(3 bottles in total).Pediatric collection -consists of a single bottle that has a yellow cap. Two bottles should be collected. ** See note below**Check the expiry date, on the container prior to use. There is a growth sensor in the bottom of the bottle. The sensor should be olive green, this also should visually be inspected prior to use.Gradations on the side of the bottle may help to measure volume of blood being introduced.IMPORTANT Bottles for adults should be inoculated with 8 to 10 mL per bottle. *Caution* – there is a strong draw on these bottles. DO NOT EXCEED the maximum 10 mL per bottle.Pediatric bottles should be inoculated with 2 to 4 mL.**Although the optimal conditions indicated above comply with best practice and manufacturer guidelines, it is recognized that with premature babies and other newborns it may not always be possible to perform more than one collection. In this case, it is imperative that the one bottle collected has the required minimum volume of 2 ml as the incidence of false negative results is high with the low volume collection***In any venipunture the blood cultures are always the first collected.|
|Collection Container||Blood Culture Bottles(also known as BacT/Alert bottles)|
|Container Information||AerobicAnaerobic Paediatric|
|Collection Information||Blood can be collected by venipuncture or intavascular cathetersSite selection – Select a different site for each culture drawn.Avoiddrawing blood through indwelling catheters unless blood cannot be obtained by venipuncture or if diagnosis of catheter sepsis is suspected. (Do not palpate the vein without gloves on)Wash hands and don gloves.Apply tourniquet.Site Preparation – select vein appropriate for venipuncture. After selection has been made, remove tourniquet and cleanse the venipuncture site with the 0.5% chlorhexidine-70% isopropyl combination swab in a circular motion from the center of the puncture site outward covering a circular area of 1 1/2 to 2 inches in diameter for a minimum of 30 seconds. Allow to air dry and do not touch after cleansing.Culture Bottle Preparation – Flip cap off. Clean rubber septum with 70% alcohol. Allow to dry.Indicate on the blood culture label 10ml mark from the level of the media in each bottle prior to attempting collection. Blood will then be collected to this line.Clean tops of any other tubes to be collected.Vacutainer Collection – This method is preferable for adults.Perform venipuncture and collect vacutainer specimens for other tests first using adapter cuff. Use of insert is optional. Collect blood culture bottles. Inoculate aerobic bottle first so as not to introduce air into the anaerobic bottle which is inoculated second.Butterfly Needle Set – Preparation of site and bottles is the same as for vacutainer collection. Collect blood culture bottles.Needle/Syringe System – This method is preferred for children. Preparation of site and bottles is the same as for vacutainer collection. Collect blood in syringe, change needles and inject up to the pre-marked lines on the bottles. Inoculate aerobic bottle first so as not to introduce air.Gently mix bottles to avoid clotting.Labeling – Both blood culture bottles in the set must have the same collection number. Affix one large collection label to each of the bottles in the space provided. Do not cover the bottle bar code. Send all remaining labels in the specimen bag with the blood culture set.Initial the barcode labels and affix to bottles. Indicate the time of collection on the lead label.Apply band aid to venipuncture site.Dispose of any collection system needles in accordance with standard precautions. Adapter cuffs and inserts are not disposable. Clean and sterilize these by disinfecting in bleach.Remove gloves and wash/disinfect hands between each patient.Transport to laboratory promptly.Second set to be collected 30 minutes later.|
|Routine Turnaround Time||Preliminary: 48 hours Final: 5 days|
|Stat Turnaround Time||Preliminary: 48 hours Final: 5 days|
|Reference Interval||(Information Unavailable)|
|Critical Values||Positives are reported to designated health care provider upon detection.Cultures are incubated for 5 days.|
|Lab Process Notes||The blood culture instrument used for detection of bacterial growth monitors the samples once every 10 minutes. Gram stain will be performed when growth is indicated.Recovery of organisms depends mainly on volume of blood collected and frequency of collection. Blood cultures should be collected prior to antimicrobial therapy.A single set should be discouraged as it is difficult to interpret results.When drawing simultaneously from an indwelling cather/PICC and a peripheral site. A complete set is draw from the line (1 aerobic bottle with a green flip cap and 1 anaerobic bottle with a orange cap) and a single aerobic bottle is drawn from the peripheral site.|
|Storage and Transport||The specimens should be transported as soon as possible to the lab.|
|Test Referred To||On site, BGH laboratory|
PROCEDURE: DRAWING BLOOD CULTURES
- Make sure there is an order (communication order) or an indication backed by a Medical Directive
- Otherwise, proceed to step 2. All new admissions should have their pan culture indications reviewed. If a patient has previously had a positive culture with questionable relevance (e.g., suspected contamination or following removal of a line with a positive culture when therapy was not commenced), cultures should be redone. Patients receiving a hypothermia program whose temperature is over goal for an extended period of time should be cultured. Consult with your doctor about the necessity for empiric antimicrobials. Patients who have blood cultures that are positive for staph aureus (either resistant or sensitive SA) or yeast should have blood cultures repeated every 2 days until the cultures are negative, at which point the patient should be discharged. Consult with your doctor about the need for more cultures. When dealing with some blood stream illnesses, it is important to rule out endocarditis (e.g., staph aureus). When yeast is isolated from blood, it is typically necessary to check with an ophthalmologist to rule out the possibility of intraocular involvement. Consult with your physician.
Notes:Many patients are admitted with sepsis as a differential diagnosis; prompt cultures are indicated. This should Ideally occur prior to antimicrobial therapy initiation but should not delay treatment.Staph aureus in the blood is associated with endocarditis. Staph aureus and yeast can be difficult to eradicate. Line removal is generally required (including tunneled catheters).Blood cultures are typically repeated until they become negative.The time when the cultures are first negative helps to determine the duration of antimicrobial therapy.
- Blood cultures taken at the time of line insertion are referred to as “venipunctures” in some circles. Once a line has been accessed for blood samples in the past, it cannot be used for venipuncture samples again. While waiting for a line to be placed, do not postpone blood culture collecting if a patient is hypotensive or suffering from shock. Obtain two peripheral cultures and begin antibiotic treatment as soon as possible
- It is important not to postpone antibiotic therapy in a patient who is suffering from shock if blood cultures cannot be collected rapidly.
It is possible to consider blood cultures collected at the moment of line placement to be “venipunctures.” As soon as a line has been accessible for blood samples in the past, it can no longer be used for venipuncture samples. While waiting for line installation, do not postpone blood culture sample if a patient is hypotensive or in shock. Acquire two peripheral cultures as soon as possible and begin antibiotic treatment immediately. The delivery of antibiotics should not be postponed if blood cultures cannot be acquired rapidly in a patient suffering from shock.
- Collection of blood cultures from a peripheral Stab and from each indwelling line (arterial, central line, PICC) should be done once. Each batch of blood cultures comprises of one anaerobic and one aerobic vial of blood cultures. Within 15 minutes, all cultures from all places should be pulled together. The cultures collected from dialysis lines should also be cultured
- However, the cultures must be drawn by a nurse who has been approved to do CRRT or hemodialysis. As much as feasible, acquire blood cultures from the distal lumen of multilumen central venous catheters
- Whenever a patient has a central venous catheter (for example, a Portacath for oncology), it must be accessed by a Vascular Access or Oncology nurse
- Otherwise, the patient will not be able to get treatment.
3.If the patient has a previously established line that is being removedand obtain cultures from the line and at least one other site and send the tip for culture (done semiquantitatively).NOTE:ACatheter Associated Bacteremia (CAB)assessment will only be performed if a venipuncture sample is included (and labeled as a venipuncture sample). It required lab notification for appropriate setup of cultures.If any indwelling line becomes positive more than 2 hours before the venipuncture culture first became positive, the blood stream infection (bacteremia) is unidentified as a CATHETER ASSOCIATED BLOOD STREAM INFECTION.If all blood cultures become positive within a 2 hour window, the infection is not considered to be catheter associated.All samples must go to the lab at the same time so that they can be setup together.A newly established line can be considered a “peripheral stab” ONLY if it is newly established and has not been previously used for blood drawing.
If the sample is drawn at the time of insertion, identify this as a “peripheral culture” in the lab orders.If a peripheral culture cannot be obtained, report this under “Comments” in Power Chart (see item 7) and document in the AI flow sheet.
covers the actual organism).The initial pre antibiotic blood culture is often the only one that shows the causative organism.TIP Cultures:A positive tip culture with15 CFUs of an organism is used to identify that the catheter is the likely source of the positive culture (indicates high burden of organism attached to the catheter tip).
- Log in to Power Chart with your own user ID and password. Choose “Blood Culture” as shown below (please note that there is no “s” at the end of the culture name when entering it)
- Figures 3, 4, and 5 illustrate how to enter the specimen information.
Notes:Power Chart will not allow 2 identical lab tests to be ordered with the same time.
Samples drawn at the time of line insertion may be labelled as “venipuncture” if needed for the purpose of obtaining a CAB assessment.
- Select “Order Comments Folder” from the drop-down menu. “CAB” should be typed in. Venipuncture samples must be obtained within 15 minutes of the line sample. It is possible to get the requisite “venipuncture” sample by starting a fresh line. ‘Venipuncture’ must be the name of the procedure. It will not be possible to do a CAB evaluation without first collecting a venipuncture sample in the lab. To ensure that each set of cultures is properly documented, every effort should be taken to get a venipuncture.
If the indwelling line is being removed, send cultures and a tip culture, but DO NOT request CAB assessment.CAB (Catheter Associated Bacteremia) assessment provides a “time to positivity result”. If an indwelling line becomes positive by2 hours earlier than the peripheral sample, it suggests increased colonization of the catheter. If both the peripheral and line cultures become positive within 2 hours, it suggests bacteremia.Click to viewCatheter Associated Bacteremia algorithm(only available from within LHSC).CAB assessment is not needed if the catheter is being removed.
A colony count15 plus a positive blood culture is indicative of Catheter Associated Bacteremia.
Collect a 10 ml sample for EACH bottle (discard volume is included in 10 ml sample)Ensure that air does not enter the anaerobic bottle during collection.Remove non-sterile gloves and perform hand hygiene.Send samples down to lab in a biohazardous bag.Notes:Citrate may have antiseptic properties; a discard sample is required (e.g., for hemodialysis catheters).The back and forth scrubbing loosens bacteria and provides more effective disinfection of the site.The prep must dry to activate the antimicrobial properties.The Centre for Disease Control (CDC) recommends cleaning injection sites with 70% alcohol or iodophors.
Chlorhexidine is recommended for skin preps and has not been studied for injection sites.
Select one of the small square barcodes and place on each bottle.Verify that the label name and patient are correct.Verify that the label matches the correct sample (e.g., arterial samples and arterial labels).Sign sample requisition and record time sample was drawn.Notes:Samples will be discarded by lab if unsigned.