Orientation with a Humane Mindset Humane Orientation is number six. According to the definition, “humane orientation” is “the extent to which an organization or society supports and rewards individuals for acting in a fair and altruistic manner toward others, as well as for being friendly, giving, loving, and kind to others” (House et al, 2004,p. 569). According to House et al. (2004), Table 18.1, p.570, the following features distinguish civilizations with a high and low humanitarian orientation: Societies with a HIGH HUMANE ORIENTATION exhibit features such as.
- The interests of others are significant
- People are driven largely by a desire to belong and to be associated with others. Society’s members have a responsibility to promote the well-being of others. The use of child labor is restricted by governmental policy. People are asked to be sensitive to all types of racial prejudice
- Nevertheless, this may be difficult.
LOW ORIENTATION TO HUMAN BEINGS Some features of societies are as follows:
- It is necessary to consider one’s own self-interest. Power and material possessions are the primary motivators of people
- The state offers social and economic assistance for the well-being of individuals
- And Child labor is considered to be a low-importance issue. There is a wide range of sensitivity to various sorts of racial prejudice.
Activity Please see the following article for additional information on Humane Orientation and Application to Leadership: Cornelius N. Grove (2005). GLOBE Research findings reveal significant differences in business values and practices around the world. Make a note of it in your course journal. Sirje Virkus received his bachelor’s degree from Tallinn University in 2009.
Results – Confucian Asia GLOBE Project
China, Hong Kong, Singapore, Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan are all part of the GLOBE Confucian Asia cluster, which also includes South Korea. The societies that belong to this cluster have relatively high scores on the societalcultural practicedimensions of Power Distance, Institutional Collectivism, and In-Group Collectivism, compared to the cultures that do not. The scores on Performance Orientation are best described as high-medium, but they are significant since they are among the highest scores of all cultural clusters, making them particularly noteworthy.
- Future Orientation and Uncertainty Avoidance are societal cultural aspects that are evaluated in the center of the range, although slightly higher than the others.
- According to the high score for Institutional Collectivism, these cultures foster the collective allocation of resources and the participation in collective action.
- The Confucian Asia cluster demands greater Performance Orientation, Future Orientation, and Humane Orientation in terms of social ideals (i.e., what individuals in society feel should be the case).
- Notwithstanding its desire for greater Gender Egalitarianism, it has a value score that is below the average of the other clusters, despite this desire.
- Societies in this cluster, when comparing their collective social practices and beliefs, express a desire to reduce their degree of power differentiation from that which now exists, but which is still greater than that of the other groups.
- Their members should be more kind, fair, pleasant and compassionate to one another as well, according to the group’s goals.
- They prefer somewhat greater levels of established conventions, rituals, and bureaucratic routines in order to reduce the likelihood of future occurrences being unpredictable.
- However, both dimensions are rated slightly less favourably than the average of the other clusters.
- The attributes of team-oriented leaders, such as their ability to form great teams and their ability to use their administrative and interpersonal abilities to create cohesive working groups, are also valued by these societies.
- The Humane-Oriented Leadership score for excellent leadership is higher than the scores for the majority of the other clusters, as is the Autonomous and Self-Protective Leadership score for outstanding leadership.
- Overall, the Confucian Asia cluster is listed as having one of the lowest scores on Participative Leadership dimensions, but is regarded as having one of the greatest scores on Self-Protective Leadership aspects when compared to other clusters.
An individual who is performance-oriented, charismatic, and slightly team-oriented, but not extremely participatory in their leadership style, would be an excellent example of a Confucian Asian cluster exceptional leader.
Dimensions of Cultural Difference and Their Effect
- Define cultural difference in terms of its aspects
- Identify the implications of cultural differences on global business
Cultural Differences and Global Business
Managers who are considering expanding their operations into foreign markets must be aware that the circumstances they are accustomed to in their own country may be different in other nations. For example, Wal-first Mart’s worldwide growth was into Mexico, which was its first international expansion. Wal-Mart stores in Mexico were designed in the same manner as those in the United States, with a stand-alone store surrounded by enormous parking lots as the model. However, it quickly discovered that there was an issue.
- Customers had to walk through the parking lot to get to the store, and they could only purchase items that they could carry back to the bus stop on their own.
- Problems such as those experienced by Wal-Mart are easy to detect, and in many cases, they are also simple to resolve.
- Understanding cultural differences is particularly crucial for managers, who must be able to relate to and encourage their people in order to effectively lead and motivate them.
- He conducted his investigation among more than 100,000 employees of a multinational firm spread over 40 different nations.
- In these investigations, nine dimensions were established that characterize distinctions between national cultures.
- Let’s take a closer look at each of them.
- Distance between two points of power. The degree to which individuals tolerate an unequal allocation of power and status privileges is referred to as power distance (or power distance gap). The rule of law is more respected in nations with a high power distance, and people are expected to follow the laws. There is also more tolerance for concentrated power in countries with a high power gap. The electricity gap between India, Mexico, and the Philippines is very large. United States, Australia, and Israel have low power distance, which is also known as Uncertainty Aversion. Uncertainty avoidance is a term used to describe the degree to which people are uncomfortable with risk, change, and ambiguity. In nations with a high level of uncertainty avoidance, there is a greater focus placed on norms, structure, order, and predictability. France, Japan, and Costa Rica, for example, are countries that place a high value on avoiding ambiguity. Uncertainty avoidance is low in the United States, India, and Sweden, whereas performance orientation is high in these countries. The degree to which innovation, high standards, and exceptional performance are fostered and rewarded is referred to as performance orientation. Countries with a high level of performance orientation place a high emphasis on materialism and competition, and they intend to spend in training to help their citizens improve their performance. Assertiveness is strong in the United States and European nations
- Argentina, Russia, and Greece have low assertiveness
- And performance orientations are high in Argentina, Russia, and Greece. In contrast to being cooperative and compassionate, assertiveness is defined as the degree to which individuals are strong, confrontational, and aggressive in their behavior. Communication is straightforward and plain in nations with a high level of assertiveness, such as the United States, Germany, and Mexico. In this environment, individuals are encouraged to take the initiative, and relationships are likely to be competitive. Switzerland and New Zealand are among the countries with the lowest levels of assertiveness. Managers in these nations are more inclined to seek agreement and cooperative decision-making
- They are also more likely to be future-oriented. Future orientation refers to the degree to which delayed gratification and long-term planning are prioritized over immediate satisfaction and short-term advantages. Countries with a high degree of future orientation favor long-term investments above short-term consumption in order to maximize future returns. It is analogous to the ability of humans to postpone satisfaction when faced with a choice. Higher levels of future orientation are found in Canada, Switzerland, and Malaysia
- Lower levels of future orientation may be found in Poland, Argentina, and Russia
- Humane Orientation. An indicator of a country’s humane orientation is the extent to which justice, selflessness, generosity, and compassion are fostered and rewarded. Individuals are responsible for promoting the well-being of others in countries with a strong humane orientation, as opposed to the state providing social and economic support. The Philippines, Ireland, and Egypt have a high humane orientation, whilst France, Germany, and Singapore have a low humane orientation. Institutional Collectivism is a type of collectivism that exists within an institution. Individual integration into groups and organizations is measured by the degree to which organizational and social institutions promote people to become members of those groups and organizations. In nations with a high level of institutional collectivism, the distribution of resources and the taking of collective action are promoted. Group loyalty is promoted, even if it means sacrificing one’s ability to pursue one’s own objectives. Sweden, Japan, and Singapore are examples of nations with a high level of institutional collectivism, whereas Germany, Argentina, and Italy are examples of countries with a low level of institution collectivist. In the United States, low institutional collectivism has resulted in arguments about the right work-life balance
- In-Group Collectivism has resulted in questions about the appropriate work-life balance. It is the extent to which individuals demonstrate pride, loyalty, and togetherness in their organizations or families that is referred to as in-group collectivism. Those living in nations with high levels of institutional collectivism identify with their families or organizations, and their actions are dictated by their roles and responsibilities. Individuals who are members of a group are distinguished from those who are not members of the organization. India, Egypt, and China are examples of nations with strong institutional collectivism
- Sweden, New Zealand, and Finland are examples of countries with low institutional collectivism
- Gender Egalitarianism is another important factor to consider. Gender egalitarianism refers to the extent to which male and female equality is realized in a given society. Countries with a high level of gender equality give greater chances for women and have a higher proportion of women in positions of authority. Sweden, Poland, and Costa Rica are among the countries with the highest levels of gender equality. Japan, Italy, and Egypt are among the countries with the lowest levels of gender equality. Women often have a lesser social and economic standing in these nations, as well as in the culture.
Germany and Poland have cultural features that are comparable to one another, as seen in the following chart. A comparison of cultural traits between Germany and Poland using data from the GLOBE 2004 research is presented.
Effects of Cultural Differences on Global Business
When businesses wish to grow globally, they must be cognizant of the cultural variations that exist. Managers must be sensitive to the cultural context in which they operate in order to be effective. There have been several instances of advertising that had imagery or statements that were considered to be objectionable to some cultures. For example, when Pepsi altered the color of its vending machines from dark “Ice” blue to light “Ice,” the company saw its leading market dominance in Southeast Asia eroded by Coke.
- Managers must also take into consideration various modes of communication.
- Giving a superior the news that he has made a mistake is, for example, seen as insulting in many cultures.
- In the United States, an appointment is defined as the time at which someone is anticipated to come at a location.
- The importance of cultural variations must be recognized and accommodated by global management.
- The impact of cultural variations on the fundamental functions of management, on the other hand, is less clear.
- Yes and no are the correct answers.
- What managers do in Germany, the United Kingdom, the United States, Japan, and Brazil is precisely the same as it is in any other country.
Planning, organizing, leading, and controlling are the four fundamental management functions that we have identified and described. Consider the potential impact of the GLOBE cultural aspects on these fundamental managerial functions.
- Planning. The ability to prepare for the future and the ability to avoid uncertainty have a big influence on how firms plan. The current state of the organization is analyzed, and adjustments necessary to achieve future goals are planned for in cultures with a high level of future orientated thinking and behavior. In a culture with a low future orientation, the past of the organization is taken into consideration, and planning is centered on conserving traditions while going forward in the organization. In nations with a high level of uncertainty avoidance, planning will be extremely careful, and only plans with a low chance of failure and a high degree of assurance of outcomes will be taken into consideration. Planning will be considerably more flexible in nations with a low level of uncertainty avoidance. The plans will acknowledge that the future is unpredictable and will anticipate that problems will be addressed as they arise
- The process of organizing Firms’ organizational structures are influenced by two factors: performance focus and institutional collectivism. Organizations focused on teams and collective efforts would most likely be the most effective in nations with a high degree of institutional collectivism. In nations with low levels of institutional collectivism, hierarchical organizations with clearly defined lines of power and well defined roles are more likely to be effective than decentralized arrangements. Organizations in high-performance orientated cultures would be built on the successes of individual employees. Individual objectives would be established, and success would not be evaluated solely on the basis of reaching predetermined objectives, but rather on how well one does in comparison to others. In nations with a low performance focus, cooperation and collaboration would be prioritized above competition. Organizational outcomes-based goals would be more successful
- This is the case in leadership. When it comes to leadership, power distance and a humanitarian approach are crucial concerns. People would expect leaders in high power distance nations to be more directive, and they would want laws and processes to be well established. For example, in nations with a short power distance, leadership would have to be more collaborative, and people would challenge norms and procedures that they did not believe were fair or appropriate. Motivation would be influenced by a more humane approach to life. Leaders in cultures with a high level of humane orientation would be expected to be supportive and empowering. Contributions to the organization and to individuals inside the company would be a motivating factor for people to work in the organization. Leaders in cultures with a low level of compassionate orientation would be expected to be explicit in their expectations. People would be driven by their earnings and benefits, and they would oppose anything that jeopardized their well-being or way of life. Gender equality may also play a role in this situation. Female leadership would not be automatically recognized in low gender equitable countries, and women would have to exert their power
- They would be in charge of the household. Power distance and assertiveness have an impact on the ability of organizations to be governed successfully. Managers in nations with a high level of assertiveness would be directive and dictatorial. They would exercise control over the situation by closely monitoring and punishing the situation. Managers in a low-assertiveness country would be expected to be more tolerant of their employees and to exert control over them through encouragement and discipline. It is expected that authoritarian and directive managers will be more effective than participatory managers in nations with significant power distance.
Companies that choose to do business on a worldwide scale are exposed to a variety of risks and dangers. The advantages of globalization may be realized, however, when businesses conduct thorough study into the environment and plan and prepare for cultural differences. In the next part, we will discuss ways that managers might employ to deal with cultural differences.
Leadership made in Germany: Low on compassion, high on performance
As part of the GLOBE project, we interviewed 457 middle managers from various industries, including telecommunications, food processing, and banking, to gather information about German culture and leadership. The most prominent German cultural value is the emphasis on results rather than process. In German cultural traditions, strong degrees of uncertainty avoidance and assertiveness are combined with low levels of compassionate orientation to form a distinctive characteristic. Compassion is lacking in the workplace, and interpersonal relationships are clear and harsh.
According to the findings of the GLOBE project, which used data from 61 nations, the traits given to a country’s remarkable leaders are highly correlated with the country’s cultural values and traditions.
Ineffective German leaders, strong performance orientation, low compassion, low protectiveness of self, low team orientation, great autonomy, and high involvement are the characteristics of effective German leaders.
Germany’s economic achievements in the second half of the twentieth century appear to have been attributed to a leadership style that was “tough on the issue, tough on the individual.” As a strategy for dealing with the issues of globalization in the twenty-first century, it does not appear to be very promising.
Taking a “tough on the problem, soft on the person” leadership strategy appears to be the best formula for success among German executives.