- 1 Hellenistic Greece
- 2 Macedonian Expansion
- 3 The Hellenistic Age
- 4 Hellenistic Culture
- 5 Hellenistic Art
- 6 The End of the Hellenistic Age
- 7 The Hellenistic Period-Cultural & Historical Overview
- 8 Society, ThoughtReligion
- 9 The Arts
- 10 Conquered Greece
- 11 Footnotes
- 12 6.4 The Spread of Hellenistic Culture – Teaching California
- 13 A Portrait Of Jesus’ World – Hellenistic Culture
- 14 What was the significance of the Hellenistic culture?
- 15 Hellenistic Culture:
- 16 Answer and Explanation:
- 17 Political developments
- 18 History of Greece: Hellenistic
During the year 336 BCE, Alexander the Great rose to the throne of the Greek state of Macedonia as its ruler. Alexander had established an empire that spanned from Greece all the way to India by the time he died, 13 years later. That brief but thorough empire-building drive altered the course of history: it extended Greek ideas and culture from the Eastern Mediterranean to Asia, and it changed the course of history. This time period is referred to as the “Hellenistic period” by historians. (The term “Hellenistic” originates from the Greek wordHellazein, which literally translates as “to speak Greek or identify with the Greeks.” It lasted from Alexander’s death in 323 B.C.
The Greek city-states were weak and disorganized near the end of the classical period, about 360 B.C., as a result of two centuries of conflict. (First, the Athenians fought against the Persians; then, during the Peloponnesian War, the Spartans fought with the Athenians; and finally, the Spartans and the Athenians battled against one another, as well as against the Thebans and the Persians.) All of this conflict made it possible for another, hitherto unexceptional city-state to come to power: Macedonia, which was ruled assertively by King Philip II during the period of the Great Schism.
Philip and the Macedonians began to expand their dominion to the north and west of the country.
- King Philip’s generals were also the first to employ the phalanx, a large and terrifying infantry formation that is still in use today.
- Sadly, however, this was not to be; in 336 B.C., King Philip was slain by his bodyguard Pausanias while attending his daughter’s wedding, thereby preventing him from taking advantage of the gains of his triumphs.
- The new Macedonian monarch marched his men across the Hellespont into Asia, where they were met with fierce resistance.
- They conquered vast swaths of western Asia and Egypt, and they continued their advance into the Indus Valley.
The Hellenistic Age
In the end, Alexander’s empire was doomed to failure and was not meant to last for very long. His generals (known as the Diadochoi), when Alexander died in 323 BC, split up the provinces that he had conquered and divided them amongst themselves. By the late fifth century, the parts of the Alexandrian empire had united to form three formidable dynasties: the Seleucids of Syria and Persia, the Ptolemies of Egypt, and the Antigonians of Greece and Macedonia. Despite the fact that these dynasties were not politically connected (after Alexander’s death, they were no longer a part of any Greek or Macedonian empire), they had a great deal in common culturally and historically.
Kingship was absolute in the Hellenistic nations, which were controlled by kings.
Having a global perspective on the world, these rulers were particularly interested in accumulating as much of its wealth and treasure as they possibly could.
It was they who brought in the ivory, gold and ebony from India; the furs and iron from the Far East, the wine from Syria and Chios, the papyrus, linen, and glass from Alexandria; the olive oil from Athens, the dates and prunes fromBabylon and Damaskos; the silver and copper from Cyprus; and the tin from as far away as Cornwall and Brittany.
They made substantial contributions to museums and zoos, as well as to libraries (such as the famed libraries of Alexandria and Pergamum) and universities, among other endeavors.
The mathematicians Euclid, Apollonios, and Archimedes, as well as the innovators Ktesibios (the water clock) and Heron, all studied at Alexandria’s university (the model steam engine).
People, like products, were free to travel throughout the Hellenistic kingdoms. Koine, or “the common speech,” is a variety of colloquial Greek that was spoken and read by nearly everyone throughout the old Alexandrian empire. A cultural force that brought people from all over the world together, Koine allowed them to speak with anybody in this cosmopolitan Hellenistic environment, regardless of their origin. Many others, on the other hand, felt alienated in this new political and cultural scene at the same time.
There were a large number of individuals who joined “mystery religions,” such as cults dedicated to the goddesses Isis and Fortune, which promised its adherents immortality and personal fortune.
Diogenes the Cynic lived his life as a protest against commercialism and cosmopolitanism, and he was known as the “Cynic.” His political opponents were “the lackeys of the mob,” and the theater was “a peep show for fools,” according to him.
The Stoics, on the other hand, believed that every individual man has a divine spark that could be developed by the practice of a virtuous and noble life.
When it came to Hellenistic art and literature, this estrangement manifested itself in a rejection of the collective demos and a focus on the individuality. People were depicted in sculptures and paintings, rather than idealized “types,” in order to convey realism. Famous works of Hellenistic art include “Winged Victory of Samothrace,” “Laocoön and His Sons,” “Venus de Milo,” “Venus de Milo II,” “Dying Gaul,” “Boy with Thorn,” and “Boxer at Rest.”
The End of the Hellenistic Age
Despite the fact that the Hellenistic civilization was conquered by the Romans in phases, the era came to a close in 31 B.C. It was in that year that the Roman Octavian beat Mark Antony’s Ptolemaic fleet in the Battle of Actium. Octavian was given the title of Augustus and was proclaimed the first Roman emperor. In spite of the Hellenistic period’s comparatively brief existence, the cultural and intellectual life of the age has had an impact on generations of readers, authors, painters, and scientists ever since.
The Hellenistic Period-Cultural & Historical Overview
It is generally agreed that the Hellenistic period encompasses the three centuries of Greek history that occurred between the death of the Macedonian monarch Alexander the Great in 323 B.C.E. and the ascension of Augustus to the throne of Rome in 31 B.C.E. (1). The death of Alexander the Great left his huge captured realm without a clear line of succession, and his greatest generals split it up into numerous vast kingdoms once he was defeated.
The establishment of new autonomous governments, together with the expansion of Greek culture as far afield as India, set the ground for significant shifts in the way that Greeks perceived themselves and the world in which they existed.
Greek art and culture have always been impacted by foreign cultures, but the extension of Greek territory during Alexander the Great’s conquests created more opportunities for mutual cultural interactions between the two countries. In the Greek world, these contacts contributed to the development of a new cosmopolitanism, which in turn inspired the desire to comprehend, respect, and reflect the diversity of particular peoples. Individuals’ increased mobility, made possible by territorial expansion, also drove them to seek a sense of meaning and belonging in their lives.
404-323 B.C.E.)found their followings and had an impact on succeeding generations of people.
An increase in interest in mystery cults, which typically promised rewards in the form of a better afterlife, was fueled by individualistic impulses (2).
As Hellenistic monarchs and queens began to be worshipped alongside gods, ruler-cults grew increasingly popular.
Art blossomed throughout the Hellenistic period as painters experimented with new ways of conveying emotional impacts, unique experiences, and intricate details in their works. Architecture evolved as a vehicle of expressing a fascination with the dramatic (4), whether by monumental structures, such as the Sanctuary of Athena on the island of Lindos, or through inventive design, such as the Sanctuary of Apollo at Didyma. Religious structures were frequently constructed to provide visitors with a physical and emotional experience that corresponded to their religious experience; they were intended to elicit sentiments of awe, revelation, and ecstasy in the hearts of those who entered (5).
Artists also experimented with whirling drapery, as exemplified by the famousNike of Samothrace, and the feminine nude, as exemplified by the Aphrodite of Knidos, among other things.
To provide an example, the Ludovisi Gaul demonstrates the great drama that is characteristic of the Hellenistic era while urging, if not requiring, the observer to circle it in order to take it all in.
Some forms of Hellenistic Greek pottery became more elaborate and colorful as a result of improvements in art and architecture, which paralleled developments in pottery.
Other types of pottery were created to replicate in clay the opulent bronze, silver, and gold tablewares used by imperial families and other members of society who belonged to the upper classes (7).
Art blossomed throughout the Hellenistic period as artists experimented with new ways of conveying emotional impacts, unique experiences, and intricate details in their work. Massive buildings, as well as unexpected views, such as those found at the Sanctuary of Athena on Lindos, and imaginative architecture, such as those found at the Sanctuary of Apollo at Didyma, were a method of expressing a fascination with the dramatic (4). Architectural and emotional experiences associated with religious structures were frequently intended to provide visitors with an emotional and physical experience that corresponded to their religious experience; they were intended to inspire sentiments of wonder, revelation, and ecstasy in the viewer (5).
Aphrodite of Knidos is an example of how sculptors experimented with flowing drapery, as seen by the famousNike of Samothrace, and feminine nudity.
To provide an example, the Ludovisi Gaul demonstrates the great drama that is characteristic of the Hellenistic era while urging, if not requiring, the observer to circle it in order to take it all in.
In tandem with improvements in sculpture and architecture, several forms of Hellenistic Greek pottery became more decorative and colorful.
- Among the many books available on Hellenistic history and culture, as well as art and architecture, is Andrew Erskine’s (ed.) A Companion to the Hellenistic World (Malden MA: Blackwell Publishing Ltd., 2003). J.J. Pollitt’s Art in the Hellenistic Age (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986): 256
- And John G. Pedley’s Greek Art and Archaeology (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1993): 7-13 are good resources for further information on Hellenistic concepts of cosmopolitanism and individuality. For more information on Hellenistic religion, see David Potter, “Hellenistic Religion,” in ed. Erskine,A Companion to the Hellenistic World: 407-30
- For more information on Hellenistic religion, see Graham Shipley,The Greek World after Alexander: 323-30 BC(New York: Routledge, 2000): 153-76
- Erskine, ed.,A Companion to the Hellenistic World: 405-445
- For more information For further information on Roman Greece, read Susan E. Alcock’s Graecia Capta: The Landscapes of Roman Greece (Graecia Capta: The Landscapes of Roman Greece) (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993). For more information on Roman Athens, see John M. Camp, The Archaeology of Athens (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2001): 183-222
- For more information on Greek Athens, see John M. Camp, The Archaeology of Athens (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2001): 183-222
- For more information on Greek Athens, see John M. Camp, The Archaeology of Athens (New Haven, CT: Yale
6.4 The Spread of Hellenistic Culture – Teaching California
The period 336 BCE to 50 CE was a watershed moment in the history of the world: Afroeurasia became far more integrated than it had ever been before. Traders were able to ship goods from China to Spain for the first time since trade routes were established connecting the majority of Afroeurasia, from the Atlantic to Pacific. The Greeks played a significant role in the early phases of the establishment of such telecommunications links. This collection makes use of art pieces to demonstrate the existence of linkages between civilizations.
- Students should be guided by maps.
- All of the changes brought about by the Greeks may be divided into two categories: increased trade and the development of Hellenistic culture.
- They created a strong link of commerce and exchange with India and Central Asia that has never been severed since that time.
- The initial link in the chain was the expansion of trade and culture throughout the Mediterranean and southern Asia, which served as a springboard for subsequent links.
- A new manner of exchanging products was invented by the Greeks, who established hundreds of colonies around the Mediterranean and Black Sea coasts, and they used money in a public marketplace to do so.
- Persian Empire was the most powerful empire at the time, and Greeks, in addition to conducting battles against them, engaged in commerce with the Persians, traveled to Persia, and were familiar with Iranian culture (sources 1 and 2).
- During his father’s reign, Philip of Macedon (a kingdom located in northern Greece) amassed a formidable military force, which he utilized to conquer the Greek city-states.
- Alexander destroyed empires, emperors, and nations before he died at the age of 33, leaving a legacy of destruction.
- A new multicultural kingdom was to be established by intermarrying Macedonians with Bactrians and Persians, and by educating children from conquered peoples to use Macedonian weaponry, according to the accounts in Source 3.
- Aspects of Greek culture included the use of the Greek language, Greek-style education (for both mind and body) in gymnasiums, athletic competitions, political and philosophical discussions, theaters, and various styles of art, architecture, dress and entertainment.
- Hellenism did not displace indigenous cultures; rather, it provided the rich elites with an extremely appealing alternative culture.
Aside from the Greeks’ contribution to cultural diffusion, the greatest achievements of the Hellenistic period resulted from the synthesis — or the mixing and joining together of knowledge, products, and technologies from Persian (Indian), Central Asian, Egyptian, and other cultures with Greek culture — over a period of several centuries.
- These successor kingdoms served as the third link in the chain.
- He and his successors depicted themselves in both Greek and Egyptian styles over the course of the following 300 years, in literature as well as sculptures.
- Egyptians adopted Hellenism, and Greeks and other Hellenistic people adopted Egyptian fashions and ideas, as part of a larger interchange that included both sides of the Mediterranean.
- Seleucus, Alexander’s commander, established the Seleucid Empire, which included Syria and Persia.
- Despite the fact that the Seleucids managed to hold on to some territory until the mid-first century BCE, the Parthians emerged as the eventual winner.
- Another successor state was the Graeco-Bactria monarchy, which was located in Central Asia.
- (the fifth link).
By establishing contacts with the Hellenistic world through the Greek-style towns and Greek-speaking people who resided in the area, the Maurya were able to spread their rule further north and further west (sources 7 and 8).
A biographer of Alexander of Macedon, the Greek historian Arrian, published his history of Alexander in the second century CE, 400 years after the death of Alexander.
The sentences are extensive and complicated; there are numerous names and locations, as well as foreign terminology; and Arrian just describes events without explaining their ramifications or meanings.
Using this method, you may improve understanding by breaking down phrases into smaller components and clarifying the actors, actions, and references in the sentences.
Readers with more advanced skills should take on the full material.
First reading is an individual silent read, second reading is a whole class sentence deconstruction and referencing exercise, third reading is text annotation, and fourth reading is to answer a question that is based on the text.
This will serve as the Student Handout.
The vocabulary list should be included in both versions of the document.
Then have them read the first paragraph aloud to themselves to get their attention.
Instruct students to turn to a partner and debate the following: What is the topic of this paragraph?
Students should underline or draw a box around every mention of a place or group of people (not their first names, but the identifier, such as “of Bactria”).
Students should be tasked with locating all of the locations on the map.
Inform them that the sentences contain a large number of clauses, each of which has a subject, and that they must therefore search for a large number of subjects (coming before verbs.) 7.
Then, using arrows, identify all of the referrers in your database.
Take a look at the above.
Students should be informed that this is written in the passive mode, and they should be asked who donated (Alexander) and what was given (brides).
The phrase “the territory he had previously conquered” is the one to pay attention to in paragraph 4.
Students should examine the map and identify the locations that would be included in the summary sentence you have provided (Persia, Arachosia, Mesopotamia, Bactria, etc.) As a result, the boys would have been Persian, Arachosian, and so on.
In 8, pay close attention to the verb phrase “it is said that their arrival triggered.” It is speculated that Arrian learned about this through one of the older histories, but it is also possible that Arrian himself was doubtful of the information and did not wish to portray it as truth in his work.
Divide the students into pairs and instruct them to annotate the text, as well as to write questions or notes in the margins They should draw attention to evidence that will assist them in answering the reading prompt.
Discuss the topic with the entire class and respond to their questions.
Question 12: How did Alexander attempt to blend Macedonian, Greek, Persian, and Bactrian people and cultures?
Have students respond to the reading question: With the students, go through some of their responses and make the connection between the reading question and the bigger question of this source set: When it comes to developing linkages among places in Afroeurasia, how did the expansion of Greek trade, travel, and colonies, followed by the conquests of Alexander the Great and the diffusion of Hellenistic civilization, play a role?
You might just tell the students (and have them write it down) that Alexander was attempting to establish a multicultural society based on Hellenism, that conquered people were more likely to adopt Hellenistic ideas and government if their own culture and ideas were included, and that Alexander’s policies helped the influence of Hellenism to continue in the lands he conquered long after he died.
His activities aided in the integration of all of the territories he conquered. 6.4 Documents to be distributed The Expansion of Hellenistic Cultural Traditions In this lesson, students will learn about the spread of Hellenistic culture. The Teacher’s Key
- The Library of Congress is located in Washington, D.C. The Primary Source Analysis Tool, developed by the Library of Congress, promotes an inquiry approach of learning by allowing students to first observe, then reflect, and last question. Their adaptable tool offers particular prompts for student questioning of books and other written materials, maps, audio recordings, pictures and artworks, and many other sorts of primary sources
- It is also completely configurable.
- NARA (National Archives and Records Administration) is an acronym that stands for National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). The National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) has prepared a large collection of document analysis worksheets that are ready for use in the classroom. Their website provides schools with a comprehensive array of customized tools that may be used to work with images, maps, written documents, and other media types. Young learners as well as intermediate and secondary pupils have benefited from the customization of NARA’s tools
A Portrait Of Jesus’ World – Hellenistic Culture
The impact of the Greek language, philosophy, and culture on Jews and early Christians is well documented. Harold W. Attridge is the Lillian Claus Professor of New Testament at the University of Southern California. Yale Divinity School is located in New Haven, Connecticut. Dialogue between Jews and Greeks in the context of Hellenistic culture Could you perhaps provide a broad description of what is meant by the phrase “Helenistic world” in this context? Historically speaking, the Hellenistic world refers to the world that was established following Alexander the Great’s conquest of the Near East at the end of the fourth century B.C.
- And the two major areas that survived until the first century B.C.
- The Syrian kingdom, the Seleucid kingdom, and the Ptolemaic kingdom would have been the major areas that survived until the first century B.C.
- The Hellenistic world was characterized by the use of the Greek language and culture.
- It was to that world what English is to the modern world in many respects, and what French was to the world of the nineteenth century in many others, was the language of communication.
- During the Hellenistic period, Jewish culture and civilisation were in constant conversation with Hellenistic culture and civilization, beginning with the translation of the Hebrew scriptures into Greek, which is known as the Septuagint and which has survived to the present day.
- We witness Jews adopting Greek literary forms and creating plays, epic poems, and lyric poems during the Hellenistic period, demonstrating that the influence of the Greek heritage stretches well beyond the scriptures.
- Some of these literary products, which have survived in fragments in some cases, were probably written in Palestine by Jews who were adopting these Hellenistic literary modes at the same time as Alexandria, the capital of Egypt.
Philo was a prime example of the severe Hellenization of Judaism that took place during his lifetime.
until approximately 40 AD, during the Common Era.
For example, when he said that the word of God that we meet in scripture is the logos or the divine reason, he was referring to a synthesis of the concepts, specifically Plato’s ideas, that philosophers at the time believed to be in the mind of God.
What impact do you think all of this would have had on Jesus?
In following generations, Christians who attempted to make sense of Jesus and his teachings within the larger framework of Greek and Roman culture were able to do so because both of those strands of Hellenistic tradition, as taken by Jewish thinkers like Philo, had an influence on them.
According to tradition, Jesus grew up in Galilee, which was at the time under Herod Antipas undergoing a process known as Hellenization.
The Hellenization of a location like Sepphoris, which was being rebuilt during the time of Jesus’ boyhood, was the most conspicuous manifestation of this trend.
For example, a town like Beth-shean, which still possesses a splendid theater from the Hellenistic period, is a good example.
During this time period, Hellenism was having a significant effect even in Galilee.
From the end of the first century forward, early Christianity engaged with Hellenistic culture in general, and especially with Greek philosophy in particular.
Throughout the second century and beyond, there has been a consistent level of participation on a range of subjects.
Some of them have to deal with concerns of ethics and morality, while others are not.
JUSTIN MARTYR (JUSTIN MARTYR) When we get to about the middle of the first century, we see people like Justin Martyr, who was one of the early Christian apologists, that is, someone who was attempting to explain Christianity to the Greco-Roman world while doing so in the context of and using the categories of Greco-Roman thought.
- Justin has a theology of the word of God that is concerned with the question of what type of status Jesus should be accorded as an intermediary between God and people in the first place.
- As a result, claiming that Jesus was in some sense God incarnate offers a conceptual problem, because it is hard to think of the transcendent as immanent, as embodied in human flesh, in the manner in which Christians were beginning to declare the divinity of Jesus.
- According to Justin and other Christian apologists, the polytheistic tradition that was prevalent in the Greco-Roman civilization was erroneous, immoral, and logically defective in many ways.
- It was because there was a rising respect among Greek philosophers for the oneness of the divine and for the thought that there may be a single basic divine principle underlying all things that this was happening.
- Professor of Classics and Director of the Religious Studies Program at the University of Texas in Austin, L.
- INFLUENCE OF THE HELLENISTIC What exactly do you mean by “Helenistic,” by the way?
- One must consider the evolution of the eastern Mediterranean in terms of two key stages, rather than one.
Following it, there would be the Roman imperial expansion, which would effectively take over the political situation.
Instead, they worked with the Greek language and idiom.
What impact would this have on Jewish life?
Many parts of Greek life and thinking were well-known and familiar to the participants, indicating a high degree of comfort or acculturation.
As a result, for some, it was probably little more than a taste of what it might be like to live in a modern metropolis with a diverse cultural mix.
Others, however, and particularly those in the Jewish tradition, would have found it more troubling that Herod, who was meant to be a Jewish monarch, would have been so eager to subordinate himself to Roman religious interests and imperial ideology, as opposed to their own religious beliefs.
What was the significance of the Hellenistic culture?
What was the significance of Hellenistic culture in the ancient world?
The Hellenistic Era started with the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC, marking the beginning of the Hellenistic period. Much of the known globe had been conquered by Alexander, including the Greek city-states, the Persian Empire, and the Egyptian kingdom.
Answer and Explanation:
It is believed that Hellenistic culture was a fusion of Greek culture and the cultures of the regions conquered by Alexander the Great, namely Egypt and Persia. Hellenism expanded over the world. See the complete response below for more information.
Learn more about this topic:
The Hellenistic Period is defined as follows: Lesson 28 of Chapter 4 provides a brief history of the world. The Hellenistic period was a period in which Greek civilization expanded around the world, influencing cultures in places like Southwest Asia and the Eastern Mediterranean. As you progress through this course, you will have a better understanding of the history of Hellenistic society and culture, as well as what the name ‘Hellenistic’ truly means.
Explore our homework questions and answers library
Definition of the Hellenistic Period Lesson 28 of Chapter 4 provides a brief history of the time period. Greek culture extended throughout the world throughout the Hellenistic era, influencing cultures as far away as Southwest Asia and the Eastern Mediterranean area. Learn about the history of Hellenistic society and culture in this lesson, as well as what it means to be a member of the Hellenistic society and culture (Hellenistic).
It is impossible to overstate the importance of Alexander the Great’s personality than the way in which those who had appeared to be pygmies at his side rose to become leaders of the world he had left behind. Rhoxane’s son Alexander IV (323–310), born after his father’s death in August, was declared king as Philip III Arrhidaeus (c.358–317), the only male relative who was not a mentally deficient, illegitimate son of Philip. Both were only figureheads for the time being. Antipater’s authority in Macedonia and Greece has been confirmed for the time being.
- 365–321) and Craterus (c.
- Alexander’s continued intentions were abandoned as a result of a unanimous decision.
- As with Antipater, Antigonus Monophthalmos (also known as “The One-Eyed”; c.382–301) was not present in Babylon at the time of Alexander’s death in 323.
- His toughness and tact were well-liked by the citizens of the Greek cities.
- He was able to gain for himself the governorship of Egypt, where he had ambitions to establish an independent state.
- He died in 281.
- The troops looked down their noses atEumenesof Cardia, who was in charge of civil administration and so understood more about the empire than anybody else.
Did the Greeks and the Romans have a goddess of love that they worshipped?
In this quiz about wars, philosophers, and everything else related to ancient Greece, you must distinguish between fact and fiction.
More difficult to manage was the unrest in Greece, which was spearheaded by the Athenians and aimed at freeing the towns from Macedonian garrisons.
Antipater was under pressure in Lama for a period of time (the battle between 323 and 322, known as the Lamian War).
Antipater was victorious in the end, Athens capitulated, and Demosthenes (the voice and emblem of anti-Macedonian hatred) committed himself as a result.
The tale of the power struggle that unfolded over the following two decades or more is extremely intricate and difficult to follow.
It was the troops that installed Antipater as regent (Craterus had been killed in combat), and Antigonus was appointed commander of the army in Asia, with Antipater’s son Cassius(c.358–297) serving at Antigonus’ side as second-in-command.
Then, in 319, Antipater died and was succeeded by a veteran commander but inexperienced politician named Polyperchon, who attempted to win the support of the Greeks on the mainland by issuing a fresh declaration of their freedoms.
The conflict erupted.
Seleucus managed to flee to Egypt.
When Cassander conquered Macedonia and much of Greece, he rebuilt Thebes and placed the AristotelianDemetrius of Phalerum in command of the city-state of Athens.
Cassander put her to death while keeping Rhoxane and Alexander IV under his protection—or watch, depending on how you look at it.
He was opposed by a coalition that included Cassander, Ptolemy, and Lysimachus.
Antigonus demonstrated that he was active, creative, and imaginative, but he was unable to deliver a decisive stroke.
Eventually, in 311, the four kings decided to partition the globe, leaving Ptolemy in charge of Egypt and Cyprus, Antigonus in charge of Asia, Lysimachus in charge of Thrace, and Cassander in charge of Macedonia and Greece, but only until Alexander IV reached the age of majority in 305.
But in the chase of power, royal blood was soon forgotten about and forgotten about once again.
Seleucus, on the other hand, managed to hold on to a battered Babylon and the eastern provinces, with the exception of India, which he was forced to cede to the Indian kingChandragupta.
Demetrius, who died in 306, defeated Ptolemy in a naval battle and gained control of Cyprus and the Aegean, however he was unsuccessful in his epic siege ofRhodes (305–304), which is still remembered today.
Antigonus, on the other hand, was unsuccessful in his attempt to conquer Egypt, and the other rulers adopted the title of king.
Demetrius managed to flee, keeping control of Tyre and Sidon as well as command of the sea.
Cassander, a politician, was responsible for the founding of two magnificent towns, Cassandreia and Thessalonica, as well as the reconstruction of Thebes.
The Greek king Demetrius captured the majority of Greece and secured Macedonia in 294, but he was deposed in 288 by Lysimachus, who allied himself with King Pyrrhus of Epirus (319–272) and overthrew him.
He became ill, however, and was forced to submit to Seleucus, who provided him with several opportunities to drink himself to death.
As a result of Demetrius’ defeat, Ptolemy acquired control of the sea.
Lysimachus, on the other hand, was losing support because of a son by his first marriage, Ptolemy Ceraunus, the Thunderbolt (grandson of Antipater), who was stirring up trouble in the area around him.
Ceraunus, on the other hand, was supported by Lysimachus’ army, and he was the one who assassinated Seleucus in 281.
Athens was ruled by Antigonus Gonatas (c.320–239), the brilliant Demetrius’s son and himself a man of good character, talent, and education; and Pyrrhus, the king of Epirus, who was the most powerful ruler in Greece proper.
At this point, the influx of Celts under the command of Bolgius and Brennus created an additional complication, not the least of which was Ceraunus’ defeat and death.
Due to the threat posed by the invading Celts, Antigonus and Antiochus signed a contract in 279, in which they pledged not to meddle in one another’s zones of power.
Antigonus was successful in gaining control of Macedonia. The kingdom of Lysimachus was never re-established. Macedonia, Syria, and Egypt were the three major power centers of the time.
History of Greece: Hellenistic
This period reflects the transition of Greek civilization from a closed and introverted city-state to a more open, cosmopolitan, and at times exuberant culture that spread over the whole eastern Mediterranean and Southwest Asia during the Hellenistic period. However, despite the fact that the Hellenistic realm included a diverse range of people and cultures, Greek ideas, customs, and manner of life dominated public affairs at the period. All parts of society were infused with a Greek flavor, and the Greek language was adopted as the official language of the Hellenistic civilization.
Hellenistic art, in contrast to other periods of art, was preoccupied with the Real rather than the Ideal.
While individual towns retained their independence during the Classical period, the will of huge kingdoms, commanded by a single monarch, gradually took precedence.
They fought common enemies as well as one another in their attempts to consolidate their power, and as a result of the civil war that followed Alexander’s death in 323 BCE, three major kingdoms emerged, which lasted for the most part for the next three hundred years.
Ptolemy ruled Egypt and parts of the Middle East, Seleucus ruled Syria and the remnants of the Persian Empire, and Antigonus and his son Demetrius ruled Macedonia, Thrace, and parts of northern Asia Minor.
In Hellenistic Greece, a number of tiny kingdoms were created at various points in time.
The majority of ancient Greek towns located south of Thessaly and on the southern coasts of the Black Sea retained their independence throughout this period.
Classical Greek city-states like as Athens, Corinth, Thebes, Miletus, and Syracuse continued to thrive, while others arose as key centers across the kingdoms, including Syracuse.
Pergamum, Ephesus, Antioch, Damascus, and Trapezus are a few examples.
Alexandria was built by Alexander the Great himself in 331 BCE, and under the rule of the Ptolemies, it swiftly rose to prominence as the hub of trade and culture for the Hellenistic world.
Many well-known intellectuals and artists of the Hellenistic period produced works that have endured in the public consciousness for centuries.
While Polykleitos died in the Hellenistic period, his sculptures and canons continued to be prominent and were imitated throughout the Roman period, as well as centuries later during the Italian Renaissance.
Classical architectural forms were developed and enriched with new concepts, such as the Corinthian order, which was initially employed on the outside of the Temple of Olympian Zeus in Athens and was later adopted around the world.
It was the Mausoleum of Pergamum, which combined architectural space with sculpture by situating heroic statues in close proximity to a grand stairway, that was the first to do so.
In geometry, Euclid’s components remained the norm all the way up to the twentieth century CE, while Archimedes’ work on mathematics, as well as his practical innovations, became legendary and influential.
Even in the Hellenistic culture, people were aware that the planet was shaped like a spherical.
Internal strife and the emergence of new external adversaries presented challenges to the Hellenistic kingdoms.
As the rulers of the main and minor kingdoms were in a constant state of struggle, internal instability and revolution forced the borders of the kingdoms to move multiple times.
The Gauls were a Celtic nation that invaded Macedonia and reached southern Greece in 279 BCE, when they attempted to loot the treasury of Delphi, which was miraculously preserved (Pausanias, 20).
Rome had risen to become a strong force by the time of the Hellenistic Era, and by 200 BCE, it had seized not just Italy, but also the whole coast of the Adriatic Sea and the region of Illyria.
The Hellenistic kingdoms eventually fell apart as a result of repeated incursions by tribes from the periphery; several areas were simply ceded to Rome by the will of deceased kings; and others gained transitory independence via revolt.
Historically, the Battle of Actium is regarded as the watershed event that marked the end of Ancient Greece.
In the following two thousand years, Greece would be subjected to a succession of conquests that would make its people subjects of a slew of foreign powers, and it would not achieve independence until the nineteenth century CE.
Return to the History of Greece page. Further reading can be found in the Bibliography.