What Type Of Culture Typically Has More Traditional Ideas About Gender Roles And Behavior

Stereotypes and Gender Roles – Culture and Psychology

Graph 2: Cultural Awareness and the Scope of Global Involvement G. Hofstede is cited as a source: (1997). Cultures and organizations are like software for the human mind to run on top of. McGraw-Hill Publishing Company, New York, 1990. Recent publications include the following: Firms Considering International Expansion Face Culture Shock. However, the temptation of rebuilding contracts in locations such as Afghanistan and Iraq may tempt some corporations to take on more risk than they are prepared to take on.

However, the immense rehabilitation of war-torn countries has the potential to trip up even the most experienced of professionals.

It is also important to consider language and cultural barriers.

The United States government’s conference on reconstructing Afghanistan, held in Chicago last week, went a long way toward identifying potential in that country.

  • As a first lesson, we must abandon ethnocentric beliefs that the world should adjust to our style of doing business rather than the other way round.
  • Chinese representatives provided a wealth of information to U.S.
  • The qualities of patience, attention, and sensitivity are not commonly associated with building, but they can be beneficial in cultures that are distinct from our own.
  • Firms wanting to expand internationally face cultural shock, as reported by ENR (2003).
  • The McGraw-Hill Company publishes in New York City.
  • Cross-Cultural Management Research and Practice: Implications of Cultural Dissimilarities Abstract The impacts of culture on observer judgment making have received very little attention, despite the fact that observation is a widely used research method.
  • It was decided to undertake a laboratory research to investigate the possibility of disparities in observer judgment making between participants who were Asian American and those who were Caucasian American.

In the words of LiKarakowsky: [LiKarakowsky (2001). How Close Are We to Being on the Same Page? Cultural Differences and the Implications for Cross-Cultural Management Research and Practice 501-517 in the Journal of Psychology, volume 135 number 5.

Gender Identity & Roles

Our culture has a set of expectations for how men and women should dress, behave, and portray themselves to the rest of the world.

What are gender roles?

Gender roles in society refer to the manner in which we are supposed to act, talk, dress, groom, and conduct ourselves in accordance with our given sex in society. For example, girls and women are frequently expected to dress in a traditionally feminine manner and to be kind, helpful, and caring in their interactions with others. Men are typically perceived as being powerful, assertive, and courageous. Gender role expectations exist in every civilization, ethnic group, and culture, although they can range significantly from one group to the next depending on the context.

In the United States, for example, pink used to be regarded a manly hue, whilst blue was considered a feminine color.

How do gender stereotypes affect people?

In spite of the fact that stereotypes are oversimplified and not necessarily true, they are frequently regarded as a kind of bias or judgment about a person or group. As a result of gender stereotypes, people might be subjected to unequal and unfair treatment simply because of their gender. This is referred to as sexism. Gender stereotypes may be classified into four categories:

  • In terms of personality qualities, women are frequently supposed to be accommodating and emotional, whereas males are typically believed to be self-confident and assertive
  • For example, Domestic habits – For example, some people assume that women will care for the children, cook, and clean the household, while men will handle the finances, work on the automobile, and do repairs around the house. Jobs – Some people are quick to assume that teachers and nurses are women, whereas pilots, physicians, and engineers are males
  • This is especially true in the United States. Males and women are supposed to have different physical characteristics, such as being slim and elegant, while men are expected to be tall and muscular. As part of this expectation, men and women are also required to dress and groom in ways that are traditional to their gender (men in slacks and short haircuts, ladies in dresses and makeup

Exaggeration of stereotypical behavior that is considered to be feminine is referred to as hyperfemininity. The characteristics of women that are perceived as feminine are exaggerated by hyperfeminine people. These characteristics may include being meek, innocent, and sexually inexperienced; being gentle and flirty; being elegant; being maternal; and being welcoming. Hypermasculinity is defined as the amplification of stereotypical behavior that is considered to be masculine in some way. Hypermasculine individuals exaggerate the characteristics that they consider to be masculine.

  • These inflated gender stereotypes might make it difficult for people to form connections with one another.
  • Extremely masculine individuals have a higher risk of becoming physically and emotionally abusive to their spouses.
  • For example, it is detrimental to masculine individuals to believe that they are not permitted to weep or display sensitive feelings.
  • Gender stereotypes must be broken down in order for everyone to be their best self.

How can I fight gender stereotypes?

You’re undoubtedly aware of gender stereotypes in your environment.

You may have also witnessed or experienced sexism, or discrimination on the basis of gender, in your life. In order to assist everyone — regardless of their gender or gender identity — feel equal and appreciated as individuals, it is necessary to confront gender and gender identity stereotypes.

  • Make a point of it — Negative gender stereotypes can be found in abundance in magazines, television, movies, and the Internet. Unless they are explicitly pointed out, these stereotypes can be difficult for individuals to recognize. Make an effort to be that person! Talk to your friends and family members about the gender stereotypes you’ve noticed, and try to make them realize how sexism and gender stereotypes may be harmful to people’s lives. Set a good example by living it. Encourage your friends and family by acting as a role model. People should be treated with dignity, regardless of their gender identification. • Create an environment where people may express themselves and their actual characteristics, regardless of what society’s gender preconceptions and expectations are
  • Don’t be afraid to speak up. Make a challenge to someone who is making sexist jokes and comments, whether they are online or in person. Give it a shot – If you want to attempt something that isn’t generally connected with your gender, think about whether you’ll be safe doing it before going forward with it. If you believe you will succeed, give it a go. Those around you will take note of your example.

You are not alone if you are dealing with your gender or gender identity, as well as with social expectations. It may be beneficial for you to speak with a trusted parent, friend, family member, teacher, or counseling professional. We were unable to access your location; please search for another place instead. Please provide a valid 5-digit zip code, city, or state in the space provided. Please complete the following field. Alternatively, contact 1-800-230-7526.

Current Trends in the study of Gender Norms and Health Behaviors

Affiliation: American Psychological Association Detailed responses to your questions concerning transgender individuals, gender identity, and gender expression. 2011; available at the following website: 2.C. West and D.H. Zimmerman Gender analysis is being carried out. 1987; 1(2):125–151. GenderSociety.1987; 1(2):125–151. 3) A. Mehta, “Embodied discourse: on gender and the fear of violence.” Gender, Place, and Culture: A Journal of Feminist Geography, Volume 6, Number 1, 1999, pages 67–84. Fourteenth-century constructions of masculinity and its effect on men’s well-being: a theory of gender and health, Courttenay, W.H.

  • Social Science and Medicine, vol.
  • 10, pp.
  • Health bodies, social bodies: men’s and women’s conceptions and practices of health in everyday life (Royal Holloway, London, UK, 2000).
  • 36, no.
  • 7–14.
  • 741–756 in Sex Roles, published in the journal 56 (11–12) in 2007.
  • Men, meat, and marriage: Models of masculinity in the twentieth century.

13, no.

135–158, 2005.

Men, masculine identities, and health-care utilization in the United States.

30, no.

711–725.

Social Science Medicine, volume 59, number 4, pages 695–708.

International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity.2015; 12 (1):6.11.Wingood GM, DiClemente RJ.

International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity.2015; 12 (1):6.11.

2000; 27 (5): 539–565.

12.

Mokdad AH, et al., “Actual causes of mortality in the United States, 2000,” International Journal for Equity in Health, vol.

1, 2005, p.

The Journal of the American Medical Association.2004; 291 (10):1238–45.

Gender relations and couple negotiations of British men’s dietary behavior changes following prostate cancer.

(2015) Appetite (vol.

113–119).

15.

“You’ve got to walk before you run.” Health Psychology, vol.

You might be interested:  Which Of The Following Countries Is Considered A High-context Culture

1, pp.

16*H.

Men’s Behavioral Psychology Masculinity, vol.

4, pp.

Female college students provide different excuses for their meat-eating habits than do male college students, and the arguments provided by males are tied to traditional masculine stereotypes.

17.Brinkman BG, et al.

“Self-objectification, feminist activism, and conformance to feminine norms.” Eating Behaviors, vol.

1, pp.

18*Griffiths S, Murray SB, Touyz S, et al.

Psychology of Men and Masculinity, vol.

1, pp.

It was discovered in this study of 246 heterosexual men that the more the degree to which individuals adhered to masculine standards, the greater the likelihood that they would have greater muscle dissatisfaction and muscularity-oriented disordered eating.

This essay highlights the importance of both masculinity and femininity in the development of male binge eating disorder.

Cella et al.

Eating and Weight Disorders, vol.

2, pp.

‘Fat is your responsibility,’ say A.

In the Irish media’s coverage of obesity, gatekeepers to health, attributions of culpability, and the portrayal of gender are all discussed.

62, no.

17–26.

Slater and M.

In teenage boys, the demand for thinness and muscularity is fueled by particular magazine kinds and television shows, according to a study published in the journal Eating Behaviors in 2014.

Cramblitt B, Pritchard M.

Eating Behaviors, vol.

4, pp.

Silver EJ, Bauman LJ, et al.

The American Journal of Sexuality Education, volume 9, number 2, pages 176–187, published in 2014.

Hembling and K.

The results of a national study in Guatemala revealed evidence of higher STI/HIV-related risk behavior among male perpetrators of intimate relationship abuse.

26, no.

1411–1418.

Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality, Vol.

1, pp.

The relationship between masculinity and HIV risk among homeless males in Los Angeles is discussed in detail in Kennedy DP, et al.

14, no.

156–167, 2013.

Men and Masculinities, vol.

5, pp.

A large Internet sample of HIV risk behaviors in the transgender community in the United States: Prevalence and predictors in a transgender population in the United States.

61, no.

1558–1588, 2014.

Sex Roles, vol.

11–12, pp.

It is the purpose of this essay to investigate the concept of gender affirmation as a cause of risky behaviors among transgender women.

The moderno love: Sexual role-based identities and HIV/STI prevention among men who have sex with other men in Lima, Peru.

AIDS and Behavior, vol.

4, pp.

31**Kubicek, K., McNeeley, M., and Collins, S., “Same-sex relationship in a straight world”: Individual and cultural impacts on power and control in young men’s partnerships, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol.

This article is based on conversations with young guys who have had sexual relations with other men.

32*Bingham TA, Harawa NT, Williams JK.

The link between gender role conflict and men’s sexual activities with women and with other men is explored in this paper, which is a significant step forward in the exploration of the effect of gender.

Linked masculinity to negative drinking consequences: the mediating roles of high episodic drinking and alcohol expectations.

Linking masculinity to negative drinking consequences: 2014; 75 (3): 510–9.

Vaughan EL, Wong YJ, Middendorf KG.

719–26 in Psychol Addict Behav.

In a sample of men from Australia, Miller P et al.

Drug and Alcohol Review, vol.

2, pp.

The gendered trouble with alcohol: young people managing alcohol-related violence (Lindsay J.

A study by Iwamoto DK and Smiler AP found that drinking alcohol makes you manly while also assisting you in making friends: the influence of masculine standards and peer pressure on teenage boys’ and girls’ alcohol use.

Glob Health Action.2014; 7:23712 (in English).

Health Psychol.2013; 32(1):33–41.40*White C, Oliffe JL, Bottorff JL.

It is important to understand the historical context of smoking and secondhand smoke in North America in order to better understand current practices.

American Journal of Men’s Health.2012; 6(2):146–55.

Because fatherhood is also an expression of masculinity, the authors propose that fatherhood can be used to promote a culture of masculine identity that is defined in terms of caring for one’s children and others in an effort to promote smoking cessation.

41.Kwon JY, et al.Masculinity and Fatherhood: New Fathers’ Perceptions of Their Female Partners’ Efforts to Assist Them to Reduce or Quit Smoking.

Kwon JY, et al., Heterosexual gender relations and masculinity in dads who smoke: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Res Nurs Health 2014;37(5):391–8.

Can tobacco control have a revolutionary effect on society?

Int J Environ Res Public Health.2014;11(1):792–803.

44.McKelvey K, et al., “Determinants of Cigarette Smoking Initiation in Jordanian Schoolchildren: Longitudinal Analysis,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol.

R.

Preventive Medicine, vol.

3, pp.

Researchers in Argentina investigated the impact that gender role beliefs have on the use of cigarettes and alcohol by teenage women in the country.

Unless harmful male gender norms are addressed to include discourage cigarette and alcohol usage, the authors argue, there is a risk that women would embrace these unhealthy standards in an attempt to attain gender parity.

de Visser and E.J.

He’s a guy’: a mixed-methods investigation of gender double-standards in relation to alcohol consumption.

2012; 27 (5): 618–39; APA.

Journal of Social Science and Medicine, volume 75, number 1, pages 60–8 (2012).

Journal of Interpersonal Violence 49.Reid SD, Malow RM, Rosenberg R.

2012; 11 (1): 66–82.

50.Rhodes AE, et al., “Antecedents and sex/gender disparities in juvenile suicide conduct,” Journal of Adolescent Health, vol.

Pressure to maintain a macho image may be a contributing factor to the upsurge in male suicides.

Suicidal action, emotional expression, and the performance of masculinities in the British Medical Journal, 2012; 345:e6356.53*Cleary A.

74, no.

498–505.

The author conducted 52 interviews with males who had tried suicide in order to have a better understanding of suicide behavior on an individual level.

The social autopsy: an integrated approach to the study of suicide in males is described in detail in Scourfield J, et al.

In 2012, the Journal of Adolescent Health published 51 (5):431–8.

Miller, E., et al.

Journal of Interpersonal Violence Taff A, Small R.

The BMC Medical Journal published a paper on this topic on January 12, 2014, at 12:155.

690–701 in the journal Health Education Research.

are ranked 59th and 60th respectively.

60.Kelly D.

M.

2012; 13 (4): 329–39.61.Das A, et al.

“An intervention with men on violence against women in India.” Cult Health Sex.2012; 14(6):659–75.

62.Corbally, M.

J Interpers Violence.2014.

63.

Mescher and L.

Rudman.

Psychological Bulletin of the American Psychological Association.2014; 40(8):1063–1075.

Ng et al., “Factors Influencing Prostate Cancer Healthcare Practices in Barbados, West Indies,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol.

15, no.

653-660, 2013.

American Journal of Men’s Health, vol.

1, pp.

**C.

Men’s Behavioral Psychology Masculinity.2014 A colorectal screening was provided to a group of men who justified their desire to participate in the test by referencing their own masculine characteristics.

The perception of prostate screening services among males in Trinidad and Tobago, according to Ocho and Green (67).

68.Garrett JJ, Barrington C.

13 (6): 637–651 in the journal Culture, Health, and Sexuality.

The relationship between maternal autonomy and attitudes about gender norms in Nigerian children’s vaccination has been studied by Singh et al.

71.Odimegwu C, Pallikadavath S, Adedini S.

Culture, Health, and Sexuality, vol.

2, pp.

72**Sanchez FJ, Bocklandt S, Vilain E.

Psychological Science, vol.

Health Psychol.2013;32(1):52–6.

According to the findings of the study, gay men are more likely than straight men to seek medical attention for health problems.

73. A systematic evaluation of the promotion of tobacco use cessation for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender persons was conducted by Lee JG and colleagues. In the American Journal of Preventive Medicine, the number of deaths per 100,000 people was 823–31 in 2014.

Answers to your questions about transgender people, gender identity, and gender expression

What exactly is the distinction between sex and gender? A person’s biological identity as either male or female is determined at birth, and it is mostly determined by physical characteristics such as chromosomes, hormone levels, and exterior and internal anatomy. When we talk about gender, we are referring to the socially created roles, attitudes, activities, and characteristics that a specific culture believes proper for boys and men or girls and women. People’s actions, interactions, and feelings about themselves are influenced by these factors.

  1. This is especially true for women.
  2. Have transgender persons been around from the beginning of time?
  3. The meaning of gender nonconformity, on the other hand, may differ from culture to culture.
  4. The term “transgender” encompasses a wide range of identities.
  5. Transsexual persons frequently modify or seek to transform their bodies through hormones, surgery, and other methods in order to make their bodies as gender-congruent as feasible with their identities as transsexual people.

Transsexual men and transmen are individuals who were assigned as female but who identify and live as male and who have altered or seek to transform their bodies through surgical intervention to more closely reflect their gender identity are referred to as transsexual men or transmen (also known as female-to-male or FTM).

  1. While some persons who transition from one gender to another prefer to be referred to as transgender, others prefer to be referred to simply as a man or a woman.
  2. They differ in the extent to which they cross-dress, from wearing only one piece of clothes to entirely cross-dressing.
  3. Unlike sexual behavior, cross-dressing is a form of gender expression that is not always associated with it.
  4. for a better understanding of sexual orientation and homosexuality, see Answers to Your Questions: For a Better Understanding of Sexual Orientation and Homosexuality).
  5. When it comes to wearing attire associated with a different gender, one gender may be afforded more liberty than another in some societies than the other.
  6. Drag kings are women who dress as males for the aim of entertaining people at bars, nightclubs, and other venues such as weddings and parties.
You might be interested:  Which Blood Culture Bottle Is Drawn First

Alternatively, they may prefer that pronouns that are neither masculine nor feminine be used when referring to them, such as “zie” instead of “he” or “she,” or “hir” instead of “his” or “her,” in place of “he” or “her.” Some genderqueer persons do not identify as transgender, despite the fact that they are female.

  • These phrases have a variety of precise definitions that vary from person to person and may change over time, but they all involve some notion of gender mixing or alternation.
  • Why do some people identify as transgender?
  • The wide range of transgender expression and experiences makes it impossible to provide a clear or comprehensive explanation.
  • What percentage of the population identifies as transgender?
  • When it comes to gender identity and sexual orientation, what is the relationship like?
  • Gender identity refers to an individual’s internal feeling of being male, female, or something else, whereas sexual orientation refers to an individual’s persistent physical, romantic, and/or emotional attraction to another person.
  • In the same way that nontransgender persons can be any of the above sexual orientations, transgender people can be any of the above sexual orientations.

Transgender persons, on the other hand, typically maintain the same level of attachment to their loved ones after transition as they did before transition.

Transgender women, or those born male who later transition to female, who are attracted to other women are classified as lesbians or gay women, according to the American Association of Lesbians and Gays (AALG).

What is the best way for someone to recognize that they are transgender?

Some transgender people may trace their transgender identities and feelings all the way back to their childhood.

It is possible for those who transition later in life to have battled to fit in as their assigned sex only to later express discontent with their current situation in life.

These folks frequently seek therapy that is gender affirming.

It is understandable that parents might be anxious about a child who looks to be gender nonconforming for a number of different reasons.

Because of their gender expression, some children have difficulty interacting with their classmates and with adults in social situations.

Parents of gender nonconforming children may be required to collaborate with schools and other institutions in order to meet their children’s unique needs and protect their children’s safety, depending on their situation.

Trying to coerce a youngster into acting in a more gender-conforming manner is not a good idea.

How do transsexuals go about making the transition from one gender to another?

People who are transitioning may begin by expressing their desired gender in contexts where they feel comfortable.

There is no “right” way to transition genders, but transgender people commonly experience a number of social changes that may include one or more of the following: adopting the appearance of the desired sex through changes in clothing and grooming, adopting a new name, changing sex designation on identification documents (if possible), using hormone therapy treatment, and/or undergoing medical procedures that modify their bodies to conform to their gender identity.

  1. Every transgender individual goes through a unique process or transition.
  2. It is critical to locate a trained mental health practitioner with extensive expertise in delivering affirmative care to transgender persons as a first step in the healing process.
  3. Being able to connect with other transgender persons through peer support groups and transgender community organizations may be quite beneficial.
  4. Is being transgender considered a mental illness?
  5. It is important to note that many transgender persons do not find their gender to be painful or burdensome, which suggests that identifying as transgender does not constitute a mental condition.
  6. Among the many additional hurdles that might cause distress include a lack of acceptability within society, direct or indirect experiences with discrimination, and physical or sexual abuse.
  7. Individuals who feel acute, chronic gender incongruence might be diagnosed with “gender dysphoria,” according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5).

Others feel that it is vital to keep the diagnosis in order to guarantee that people have access to medical care.

Discrimination against people who identify as transgender can take many forms.

Because of this, transgender persons in the majority of towns and states are subjected to prejudice in practically all aspects of their life.

An analysis of over 6,500 transgender persons revealed that transgender people face significant levels of discrimination in a variety of areas, including work, housing and health care, education, the judicial system, and even within their own families, according to the research.

Transgender persons from racial, ethnic, or religious minorities, transgender people from lower socioeconomic positions, transgender people with impairments, transgender youth, transgender seniors, and others are among the groups who have taken on extra identities.

According to the findings of the study, while discrimination against transgender individuals is widespread for the vast majority of them, the convergence of anti-transgender bigotry and persistent, systemic racism is particularly severe.

An alarming number of transgender persons are the victims of hate crimes.

They are also the target of overt prejudice. What can I do to show my support for transgender family members, friends, or significant others that are close to me?

  • Reading books, attending conferences, and talking with transgender professionals are all excellent ways to get more knowledgeable about transgender problems. Be conscious of your views toward persons who seem or behave in a way that does not correspond to their gender
  • It is important to understand that transgender persons belong to a wide range of sociocultural identification groups (including but not limited to those based on their color, socioeconomic class, religion, age, and handicap), and that there is no one universal way to appear or be transgender. When addressing someone, use names and pronouns that are suitable for their gender presentation and identity
  • If in question, ask
  • Transgender people’s sexual orientation, desire for hormonal or medical therapy, as well as other parts of their identity or transition plans, should not be presumed. It is OK to inquire if you have a legitimate cause to do so (for example, you are a physician conducting a necessary medical checkup or a person who is considering a romantic relationship with someone who you have recently discovered is transgender). Gender nonconformity should not be confused with being transgender. Individuals with androgynous or gender nonconforming characteristics do not always identify as transgender or seek gender affirmation treatment. Remember to maintain open channels of communication with the transgender person in your life. You can get assistance in digesting your own responses. The shock of witnessing someone you know well go through a shift may be difficult to deal with. An adjustment and a challenge will be experienced by those close to you when someone close to you transitions
  • This is especially true for spouses, parents, and children. Take use of available resources for assistance in dealing with your emotions. You are not alone in your feelings. A variety of options, including mental health specialists and support groups for transgender individuals’ families, friends, and significant others, might be beneficial. Transgender rights, encompassing social and economic fairness, as well as proper psychiatric treatment, should be advocated for. Make yourself familiar with the local, state, and/or provincial legislation that prevent transgender individuals from being discriminated against
  • And

More information regarding transgender health, advocacy, and human rights may be found at the following website.

  • The American Psychological Association’s Office on Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity is a resource for those interested in sexual orientation and gender diversity. Programs and Projects are two terms that are used interchangeably. The address is 750 First Street, NWWashington, DC 20002. Contact information: Children’s National Medical Center Gender and Sexuality Advocacy and Education111 Michigan Avenue, NWWashington, DC 20010(202) 476-4172
  • Family Acceptance Project111 Michigan Avenue, NWWashington, DC 20010(202) 476-4172 San Francisco State University is located at 3004 16th Street, Suite 301. Gender Spectrum(510) 788-4412Email
  • National Center for Transgender Equality1325 Massachusetts Ave., Suite 700Washington, DC 20005(202) 903-0112(202) 393-2241 (fax)Email
  • Parents, Families, and Friends of Lesbians and Gays (PFLAG) Transgender Network (PFLAG) Transgender Network (PFLAG) Transgender Network (PFLAG) Transgender Network (PFLAG) Trans (TNET) PFLAG National Headquarters The Sylvia Rivera Law Project is located at 147 W. 24th Street, Fifth Floor, New York, NY 10011 and can be reached at (212) 337-8550 or (212) 337-1972 (fax). Other organizations include the Transgender Law Center, which is located at 870 Market Street Room 400 in San Francisco, and the World Professional Association for Transgender Health (which can be reached at (888) 462-8932).
You might be interested:  Why Is Company Culture Important

References

  • This organization is the American Psychiatric Association (2013). Manual of diagnostic and statistical procedures for mental diseases (5th ed.). Author and American Psychological Association headquarters in Washington, D.C. (2006). Answers to your inquiries concerning those who are affected by intersex disorders (PDF, 1MB). Author and American Psychological Association headquarters in Washington, D.C. (2008). Answers to the following questions: with the purpose of improving one’s awareness of sexual orientation and homosexuality Authors: Coleman, E., Bockting, W., Botzer, M., Cohen-Kettenis, P., DeCuypere, G., Feldman, J., Zucker, K. Washington, D.C.: Authors
  • Coleman, E., Bockting, W., Botzer, M., Cohen-Kettenis, P., DeCuypere, G., Feldman, J., Zucker, K. (2012). Health-care standards for transsexual, transgender, and gender nonconforming individuals (7th version). 13: 165-232 in International Journal of Transgenderism (IJT). National Center for Transgender Equality and the National Gay and Lesbian Task Force collaborated on this project, which has a doi:10.1080/15532739.2011.700873 (2011). The World Health Organization (WHO) sees injustice at every step (1990). In the 10th edition of the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10),

The influence of television on children

Author:Witt, Susan D.Source: Childhood Educationv. 76 no5 (annual theme issue) (2000) p. 322-4ISSN:0009-4056Number:BEDI00016560Copyright:The magazine publisher is the copyright holder of this article and it is reproduced with permission. Further reproduction of this article in violation of the copyright is prohibited.


Children often internalize gender role stereotypes from books, songs, television, and the movies (Thorne, 1993). Television, however, is perhaps the most influential form of media (LauerLauer, 1994).

Studies show preschoolers spend an average of nearly 30 hours a week watching television; some spend more time watching television than doing anything else except sleeping (Anderson, Lorch, Field, Collins,Nathan, 1986; Aulette, 1994; Kaplan, 1991).

As a result, children are exposed to about 20,000 advertisements a year (StonemanBrody, 1981).

Television influences both children’s prosocial and antisocial behaviors (AhammerMurray, 1979; Bandura, 1986; ComstockPaik, 1991; Strasburger, 1995), as well as their attitudes about race and gender (Liebert Sprafkin, 1988).

As they develop their cognitive abilities, they assimilate new information and accommodate it to what they already know (Piaget, 1954).

The young child who believes that only women are nurses and only men are doctors may have developed this understanding because the first doctor he or she saw was a man, who was assisted by a female nurse.

If the child frequently meets such gender biases and gender stereotypes, this knowledge will be incorporated into future perceptions.

Of the various factors that help shape gender-typed behaviors, role models and imitation are extremely influential (Bandura, 1977; Basow, 1992; Beal, 1994; HargreavesColley, 1986).

It is also true that children who view prosocial behaviors on television are more likely to exhibit those types of behaviors themselves.

Consequently, children may exhibit these gender-biased behaviors and develop the gender-biased attitudes that they see modeled on television.

Children who witness female characters on television programs who are passive, indecisive, and subordinate to men, and who see this reinforced by their environment, will likely believe that this is the appropriate way for females to behave.

Similarly, because male characters on television programs are more likely to be shown in leadership roles and exhibiting assertive, decisive behavior, children learn this is the appropriate way for males to behave (Cantor, 1977; Carter, 1991; Seidman, 1999).

* Men are usually more dominant in male-female interactions.

* Television programming emphasizes male characters’ strength, performance, and skill; for women, it focuses on attractiveness and desirability.

One study found that for nearly half the men, it wasn’t possible to tell if they were married, a fact that was true for only 11 percent of the women (National Institute of Mental Health, as cited in LauerLauer, 1994, p.

About two-thirds of characters in television programs are male, a figure that has remained constant since the 1950s (Condry, 1989; Huston et al., 1992; Seidman, 1999).

Furthermore, television often does not reflect the reality of the work force.

Most women on television are shown working in a profession.

Less than 10 percent of women in the United States make more than $50,000 a year (Beal, 1994).

Most of these characters are either under 35 or over 50-middle-age women are rare (Beal, 1994).

Men are twice as likely as women to be shown as competent and able to solve problems (Boyer, 1986).

On music television, a popular program choice among young viewers, females often are shown in degrading positions.

Rap music videos, for example, frequently portray women as objects of lust (Basow, 1992; Seidman, 1999).

While early television commercials were criticized for being overwhelmingly biased in favor of males, a study of commercials broadcast between 1971 and 1985 indicated a better balance of male and female characters (Bretl Cantor, 1988).

Another aspect of television advertising that is overwhelmingly a masculine province is voiceovers and narration, in which 83-90 percent of the voices are male (Basow, 1992).

Sexism, however, can be found even among the Muppets, most of whom all have male names or male voices (Cobb, Stevens-Long,Goldstein, 1982).

A study of Saturday morning cartoons revealed that females were pictured less often than males, were less active than males, played fewer roles than males, played fewer lead roles than males, and worked primarily in the home (Streicher, 1974).

Recent studies of children’s Saturday morning programs feature males in dominant roles, while showing females in peripheral roles (Carter, 1991; Thompson Zerbinos, 1995).

Furthermore, television programs evidence a greater range of occupations for males than females (Cantor, 1977; ThompsonZerbinos, 1995).

It has been suggested the preferences of boys are given precedence over those of girls because boys represent 53 percent of the Saturday viewing audience (Watson, as cited in Basow, 1992).

Children frequently watch these programs after school, reinforcing notions of women as subordinate, passive, and indecisive.

Advertisers indicate that using male models generates more product sales to children of both sexes than using female models (Schneider, 1987).

Given the option, however, girls will become loyal to programming that is more gender-neutral (Schneider, 1987).

Furthermore, children who view programs with non-traditional gender roles tend to have non-traditional gender role perceptions (Rosenwasser, Lingenfelter,Harrington, 1989).

SUMMARYResearch indicates that television has a socializing influence on children regarding their attitudes toward gender roles.

Television sends forceful and compelling messages about societally approved gender roles, which are often stereotyped, biased, and outdated.

Traditional gender roles, wherein men are encouraged to be decisive and to show leadership qualities while women are encouraged to be deferential and dependent, do not benefit anyone, particularly women.

Children should be allowed to develop a sense of self in a gender-fair environment that encourages everyone to fully feel a part of society.

Susan D.

REFERENCESAhammer, I.

P.

Kindness in the kindergarten: The relative influence of role playing and prosocial television in facilitating altruism.

Anderson, D.

P., Field, D.

G.

Television viewing at home: Age trends in visual attention and time with TV.

Atkin, D.

A.

Ready for prime time: Network series devoted to working women in the 1980s.

Aulette, J.

(1994).

Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company.

(1977).

Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

(1986).

Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

A.

Gender stereotypes and roles (3rd ed.).

Beal, C.

Boys and girls: The development of gender roles.

Boyer, P.

(1986).

New York Times, February 16, pp.

Bretl, D.

(1988).

television commercials: A recent content analysis and trends over 15 years.

Cantor, M.

Women and public broadcasting.

Carter, B.

Children’s TV, where boys are king.

A1, C18.

J., Stevens-Long, J.,Goldstein, S.

The influence of televised models on toy preference in children.

Comstock, G.,Paik, H.

Television and the American child.

Condry, J.

The psychology of television.

Davis, D.

(1990).

Sex Roles, 23, 325-332.

(1964).

New York: Norton.

(1976).

Psychology Today, April, 41-45.

(1986).

London: HarperRow, Publishers.

C., Donnerstein, E., Fairchild, H., Feshbach, N.

P., Rubenstein, E.

L.,Zuckerman, D.

Big world, small screen: The role of television in American society.

Kaplan, P.

A child’s odyssey.

Paul, MN: West Publishing.

M.

Television and sex role attitudes.

M.

265-301).

Lauer, R.

C.

Marriage and family: The quest for intimacy.

Liebert, R.

(1988).

New York: Pergamon Press.

(1989).

Prime time television.

O’Connor, J.

(1989).

New York Times, June 6, p.

Piaget, J.

The construction of reality in the child.

Rosenwasser, S.

F.

Nontraditional gender role portrayals on television and children’s gender role perceptions.

Schneider, C.

Children’s television: The art, the business, and how it works.

Seidman, S.

(1999).

International Journal of Instructional Media, 26, 11-22.

L.,Dominick, J.

(1986).

Journal of Communication, 36, 79-93.

H.

Peers as mediators of television food advertisements aimed at children.

Strasburger, V.

(1995).

Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

(1974).

Journal of Communication, 24, 125-129.

(1984).

San Diego, CA: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich.

Thompson, T. L.,Zerbinos, E. (1995). Gender roles in animated cartoons: Has the picture changed in 20 years? Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, 32(9-10), 651-73. Thorne, B. (1993). Gender play: Girls and boys in school. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *