- 1 What role are textiles believed to have played in incan culture? a. used as decorative clothing used for rituals b. used to identify a person’s profession c. indicated a person’s ethnic identity and social rank?
- 2 The Technology of the Incas and Aztecs
- 3 Background
- 4 Impact
- 5 Further Reading
- 6 THE AZTECS’ TWO CALENDARS
- 7 pre-Columbian civilizations – The Spanish conquest
- 8 Inca culture at the time of the conquest
- 9 Social and political structure
- 10 Inca technology and intellectual life
The answer is that all of the possibilities are available. The Inca Empire was the most powerful of the pre-Columbian Mesoamerican empires, and it was the largest in the world. It was the most powerful empire in pre-Columbian America at the time. After rising to prominence in the 13th century, the civilisation remained in existence until it was captured by the Spanish in 1572. At the heart of the empire’s administrative, political, and military operations was the city of Cusco (sometimes written Cuzco), which is now located in modern-day Peru.
The social rank, occupation, and achievements of a citizen were signified by the textiles’ incredibly intricate colors and designs, which were created by hand.
Natural dyes were used to create these hues, which were derived from plants, minerals, insects, and mollusks, among other sources.
Some fabrics were also designed to be used solely for specific jobs or social occasions, such as weddings.
A extremely soft and very soft textile produced of vicua wool, on the other hand, could only be used in sacred rites because of its extreme softness.
The Technology of the Incas and Aztecs
When the Spanish conquistadors landed in the Americas in the 1500s, they met two major empires among the local cultures they visited on their journey. The Aztec Empire spanned most of central Mexico, with its capital at Tenochtitlan, which is now the location of modern-day Mexico City, as its capital. The Incas governed a region that spanned 4,000 miles along the western coast of South America and up into the Andean highlands, with their capital at Cuzco as their administrative center. These civilizations never created the wheel or relied on animals for transporting, and the Incas did not have a written language or even a written system.
They were also proficient in the sciences.
Mexico and Central America, where the Aztecs lived, were part of a highly developed cultural legacy in Mesoamerica, which includes today’s Mexico and Central America. The Olmecs, whose civilisation existed as early as 1200 b.c., the Teotihuacan people, who created the finest ancient metropolis in the Americas, the Toltecs, and the Mayans were among the peoples that lived in the region at one time or another. A number of Mesoamerican cultural characteristics were common, including pyramids and temples, in which human sacrifice was conducted, polytheism, a calendar, hieroglyphic writing, enormous commercial marketplaces, and a ball game that was infused with religious meaning.
The Aztec Empire flourished via conquest, and the Aztecs thrived by extracting tribute from the peoples who had been conquered.
In South America, the Incas built on the achievements of their ancestors as well as those of their neighbors.
Beginning around 1800 b.c., complex communities began to emerge in the Andes and coastal valleys. During the mid-1400s AD, most of their culture was integrated and used to build the Inca civilisation, which flourished until the early 1500s.
For the civilizations of the Americas, agriculture was extremely essential. Despite the fact that they lacked animals capable of pushing plows or hauling huge loads, both the Aztecs and the Incas were superb farmers. Llamas were indigenous to the Andes, although they were only capable of carrying little burdens. There were no pack animals at all throughout Mesoamerican history. There were no wheeled carts, or even wheelbarrows, to help move things about. Despite the fact that wheeled toys and decorations have been discovered at Mesoamerican sites, the wheel was never used for anything functional.
- The wooden digging stick was the most important tool, and it was used for everything from stirring the soil to sowing seeds.
- By stacking up layers of aquatic flora and rich mud from the lake bottom, as well as animal and human dung, the Aztecs were able to create large patches of land calledchinampas in the midst of marshy lakes.
- In and around the chinampas, they planted willow trees as a deterrent.
- They planted commodities such as maize, beans, squash, tomatoes, and avocados, as well as flowers and medicinal plants, in the middle of the village.
- It was necessary for the Incas to cultivate in the mountains since soil erosion on the slopes was a serious problem in the highlands.
- This considerably expanded the amount of area that could be used for agriculture while also preventing dirt from being washed away by the wind and rain.
- Andean farmers used these techniques to raise potatoes, which are another key addition from the New World to the European diet.
For sustenance, the Incas and Aztecs relied on hunting and fishing as much as agriculture.
When the hunter twirled the sling around his head, it had a stone in the center, which he clutched at both ends with his hands.
These weapons were remarkably precise and could be employed at great ranges for both hunting and combat, making them ideal for both situations.
As fisherman, the Incas and Aztecs used a range of tools and tactics, including angling, nets, and harpoons, to catch their prey.
Aztec boats were constructed from hollowed-out tree trunks and were used for both fishing and transportation.
Despite the lack of wheeled carts to transport building materials, both the Aztecs and the Incas were master architects of urban infrastructure.
Heavy weights, according to scholars, must have been moved using sleds, levers, or ropes to avoid crushing the animals.
In the middle of Lake Texcoco, it was connected to the mainland by three stone causeways that were elevated above the water.
Canals were also present, both within the city limits and for long-distance communication between cities.
Because of the marshy area, the houses were built on wooden pilings, which was a technique that was later copied by the Spaniards in their construction.
There were palaces and a ball court all around it.
Initially, it was only open to noblemen, and it represented a conflict between day and night time.
Losing ballplayers were frequently sacrificed to the gods, just as captured adversaries were.
The kitchen was equipped with a hearth fire as well as jars or bins for preserving goods by salting or drying them in the sun, among other things.
The flour was then boiled into a porridge known asatole or formed intotortillast, which were fried on a flat stone griddle on the fire.
The bathhouses were next to the residences and were heated by a fireplace, which was used for taking steam baths.
The act of bathing was not only regarded crucial for personal hygiene, but it was also considered an important element of religious purifying ceremonies.
Their structures were made from massive stone blocks that were carefully fitted together, so that no cement was required to keep them together.
But this was done only through the use of stone hammers for cutting and wet sand as a polishing agent.
Kings could relax in stone baths, which were fed by spring water piped from mountain springs, in the comfort of their palaces.
Its position, on the other hand, was so isolated that it was not found by outside observers until 1911.
The Incas, like the Aztecs, sacrificed humans in their temples, but on a less frequent basis than the latter.
The Incas lived in the Andes, where they built their cities.
To portray items and ideas through carvings, paintings, and long strips of paper known as codices, the Aztecs utilized hieroglyphs, or picture-writing, to express them.
Their 365-day calendar was made up of 18 months that were each 20 days long, with an additional five days on top of that.
The Incas did not have a written language.
In order to construct the quipu, a horizontal cord was strung across the ground with a succession of threads attached from it.
Quipus were employed for a variety of administrative and commercial reasons, including censuses, taxation, and other financial transactions.
The woven cloth is stretched between two wooden poles as it is being weaved.
Fabrics composed of plant fibers, such as cotton or fiber from the maguey cactus, were commonly used by the Aztecs.
Exceptional events, as well as headdresses made of tropical bird feathers, were reserved for those of noble birth and status.
Ancient civilizations in the Andes discovered the capacity to create exquisite jewelry and ceremonial artifacts out of precious metals thousands of years ago.
Around 850 B.C., the knowledge of the world extended to Mesoamerica.
The required shape was painstakingly cut out of beeswax and then coated with clay to create a mold for the final product.
As soon as the item had cooled down, it was removed by cracking the clay around it.
Turquoise and jade were two of the most popular gemstones.
Native people who refused to give up their treasures were summarily executed, despite the protests of some Spanish priests and laymen.
They were put to work digging for additional gold, which was then brought back to Spain to be used by the royal court and church officials.
The Incas and Aztecs provided little opposition to the Spanish invasion.
They also brought illnesses with them that were unfamiliar to the Americas, and they took a terrible toll.
For months, the Aztec ruler Montezuma had been hearing reports about strange individuals with great power, and he had been seeing signs of impending doom.
In the year 1536, Huayna Capac, one of the last Inca rulers, received a prophecy from a soothsayer that both the royal dynasty and his kingdom would be destroyed.
The unhappy oracle was soon put to death since he was the bearer of unfavorable tidings. With little time, the Inca and Aztec empires were destroyed, their monarchs were murdered, and Spain came to govern much of what is now the Americas. SHERRI CHASIN CALVO is a model and actress.
Boone, Elizabeth Hill, and others. The World of the Aztecs. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, 1994. Karen and Ruth, please. The Inca were the rulers of the Kingdom of the Sun. The Four Winds Press, New York, published this book in 1975. Loren McIntyre is the author of this work. The Incredibly Powerful Incas and Their Impossibly Beautiful Land. The National Geographic Society published this book in 1975 in Washington, DC. The Mighty Aztecs, written by Gene S. Stuart. The National Geographic Society published this book in 1981 in Washington, DC.
The Aztecs, to be precise.
Lois Warburton is a fictional character created by author Lois Warburton.
Lucent Books, San Diego, California, 1995.
THE AZTECS’ TWO CALENDARS
Our current calendar is complicated. Seven days in a week, 12 months in a year, and each of those months is either 30 or 31 days long. Except, of course, for February, which is either 28 or 29 days in duration, depending on the year. Now, think of having two calendars, one for religious purposes and one for non-religious matters. This is what the Aztecs appropriated from the Zapotec, their predecessors inCentral America. The Aztec liturgical calendar comprised 13 months of 20 days each. It formed the basis for religious ceremonies, for deciding “lucky” days based on the date of one’s birth, and all other religious functions.
Because of the differing lengths of the Aztec calendars, they were in synchrony only once every 52 years.
This has led to some degree of confusion for historians, who often have no way of telling which calendar cycle was referred to.
pre-Columbian civilizations – The Spanish conquest
Our present schedule is a tad tricky. A week has seven days, a year has twelve months, and each of those months has either 30 or 31 days in it, depending on the year. Except, of course, for February, which is either 28 or 29 days long depending on the year, and which is the shortest month. Take, for example, the concept of having two calendars, one for religious purposes and the other for non-religious ones. This is what the Aztecs took over from the Zapotecs, who were their forefathers in the region of Central America.
In addition to serving as the foundation for religious rituals, it was also used to determine “lucky” days depending on one’s birthdate, as well as for all other religious duties.
Because the Aztec calendars were different in length, they were only in sync once every 52 years, which was a rare occurrence.
This has resulted in considerable uncertainty among historians, who are frequently unable to determine which calendar cycle is being alluded to by the text.
It is known for definite two dates: the date on which Cortez invaded the Aztec capital city of Tenochtitlán (November 8, 1519) and the date on which Cuauhtémoc surrendered to Cortez (August 13, 1521). P. ANDREW KARAM is a writer and poet.
Inca culture at the time of the conquest
A lot is going on in our current calendar. A week has seven days, a year has twelve months, and each of those months has either 30 or 31 days. There’s just one month that’s longer than the rest: February, which can last either 28 or 29 days depending on the year. Consider the possibility of having two calendars, one for religious reasons and the other for non-religious issues, each with its own set of dates. What the Aztecs took from the Zapotecs, who were their ancestors in Central America, is what we call “appropriation.” It took 20 days for each month to complete the Aztec liturgical calendar.
- With 365 days, the non-religious calendar was split into 18 months of 20 days each, plus an additional 5 days, which were considered extremely unfortunate, making it a total of 360 days.
- Due to a lack of understanding among modern researchers, the Aztecs would frequently refer to a date by just referring to it by its name, month, and year in the 52-year cycle.
- One date is certain: the date on which Cortez reached the Aztec capital city of Tenochtitlán (November 8, 1519), and the date on which Cuauhtémoc surrendered to Cortez (August 13, 1521).
Social and political structure
Our current calendar is a tangle of events. A week has seven days, a year has twelve months, and each of those months has either 30 or 31 days in it. Except, of course, for February, which is either 28 or 29 days long depending on the year, and is the shortest month. Consider the possibility of having two calendars, one for religious purposes and the other for non-religious affairs, one for each day of the week. This is what the Aztecs took over from the Zapotecs, who were their forefathers in Central America.
It served as the foundation for religious rituals, the determination of “lucky” days based on one’s birthdate, and all other religious duties.
Because the Aztec calendars were different in length, they were only in sync once every 52 years.
This has resulted in considerable confusion among historians, who are sometimes unable to determine which calendar cycle is being referred to.
It is known for definite two dates: the date on which Cortez invaded the Aztec capital city of Tenochtitlán (November 8, 1519) and the date on which Cuauhtémoc surrendered (August 13, 1521). Andrew Karam (P. ANDREW KARAM)
Inca technology and intellectual life
Our present calendar is a tad confusing. There are seven days in a week, twelve months in a year, and each of those months is either 30 or 31 days in length. Except, of course, for February, which is either 28 or 29 days in duration depending on the year. Consider the possibility of having two calendars, one for religious purposes and another for non-religious affairs. This is what the Aztecs took over from the Zapotecs, who were their predecessors in Central America. The Aztec liturgical calendar was divided into 13 months, each of which contained 20 days.
The non-religious calendar contained 365 days, which were divided into 18 months of 20 days each, plus an additional 5 days, which were considered extremely unfortunate.
Unfortunately for modern researchers, the Aztecs would frequently refer to a date solely by the names of the day, the month, and the current year in the 52-year cycle.
Two dates are known for certain: the day on which Cortez invaded the Aztec capital city of Tenochtitlán (November 8, 1519) and the date on which Cuauhtémoc surrendered (August 13, 1521).