- 1 East Asia China acts as a cultural hearth in East Asia. Most of the region’s nations have, at one time, been controlled by China or influenced by its culture. – ppt download
- 2 China’s Role in East Asia: Now and the Future
- 3 The Culture Hearths of Past and Present
- 4 Early Culture Hearth Locations
- 5 Culture Regions
- 6 Cultural Diffusion
- 7 Modern Culture Hearths and Cultural Diffusion
- 8 Fill in the Blank
- 9 Why the past decade saw the rise and rise of East Asian pop culture
- 10 East Asia in Geographic Perspective
- 11 East Asian arts – Common traditions
- 12 Social conditions
East Asia China acts as a cultural hearth in East Asia. Most of the region’s nations have, at one time, been controlled by China or influenced by its culture. – ppt download
1East Asia is a region of the world with a population of over a billion people. China serves as a cultural nexus in East Asia, attracting people from all over the world. Most of the countries in the region have been under Chinese control or have been impacted by Chinese culture at some point in their history. 2China 3Early Civilization is a term that refers to a period of time when people lived in communities with other people. China was controlled by dynasties, which were strong family with a long history.
Invasion has been a part of Chinese history for a long time.
45 Arrival of Europeans Until Europeans, such as Marco Polo, arrive in China in the 1200s, China remains isolated.
Treaties are ineffective.
- Treaties compel China, which is weak, to provide Europeans rights.
- Boxer Uprising (also known as the Boxer Rebellion) Europeans and Chinese Christians are killed by Chinese terrorists.
- 67 During the Communist Revolution, the Nationalist Party seized control of the government in 1912, establishing the country as a republic (Chiang Kai-shek).
- Up until 1949, the country was engulfed in a civil war between the Nationalists and the Communists.
- The Communist Party of China established the People’s Republic of China in 1949.
- The nationalists fled to the island of Taiwan, resulting in the establishment of the People’s Republic of China.
- The 1980s see the opening of markets and the expansion of the economy.
- 70 percent of people live in 12 eastern provinces in the west, and 6 percent of the nation’s people live on 55 percent of the nation’s land in the west, and 6 percent of the nation’s people live on 55 percent of the nation’s land.
- Mongolia becomes a Communist state in 1924 and remained such until the demise of the Soviet Union in 1989.
- Many herd, manage, and care for livestock (sheep, goats), which is a source of income for many people.
70 years of Soviet-style economic management, including state-owned enterprises 70 years of Soviet-style economic management, including state-owned enterprises 1314 Taiwan15 Chinese Nationalists lose to Communists and flee to Taiwan (Formosa) in 1949, establishing the Republic of China, which is not recognized by China.
17 History Throughout history, China and Japan have conquered Korea.
After WWII, North Korea is ruled by the Soviet Union and South Korea is controlled by the United States.
The two states remain antagonistic, and reunion talks have begun18.
Influences of Confucianism and Buddhism Confucianism and Buddhism Influences of Confucianism and Buddhism Both North and South Korea create massive militaries after WWII The threat of conflict lurks constantly—2 million troops on both sides of the border in 1920Japan Japan is the economic behemoth of East Asia, with a GDP of over $1 trillion.
In Japan, the shogun—general of the emperor’s army with military dictator powers—controls bureaucrats, judges, and troops; and appoints governors.
Japanese interests are in direct conflict with those of the United States as the empire expands.
Japan becomes a democracy constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament23 Economy: Japan’s economy is second only to the United States in size after the postwar economic boom; 75 percent of the population lives in cities; 60 percent lives on 2.7 percent of the country’s land; Japan imports resources to manufacture products for export; Japan exports automobiles, electronics, and computers; Japan exports automobiles, electronics, and computers 2425 Traditional clothing for major events is Western in style; Western music is popular as well, including rock, classical, jazz, and sumo wrestlers.
Japan mixes its own traditional forms with Western influences26, as seen by the emergence of younger Japanese rock bands.
six years of elementary education, three years of junior high school, and three years of high school More than 1,000 universities and technical colleges are located throughout Japan. 27
China’s Role in East Asia: Now and the Future
Traditional Chinese foreign policy has looked to its neighbors in the East Asian area as the most significant countries in the world in which to conduct business. States that had tributary connections with China throughout the Qing dynasty and before to that are included in this category. It is a place that has been highly affected by Chinese culture for many centuries. Japan’s culture is heavily influenced by the civilization of the Tang Dynasty in China. Korea’s art and religion were heavily inspired by Chinese culture and religion.
- The spread of Buddhism from India through Tibet into traditional China, and then outward to northeast and Southeast Asia, as well as Confucianist thought in Northeast Asia, has also contributed to the formation of a unified foundation in the region.
- Along with cultural linkages, there are human relationships to be considered.
- Overseas Chinese are a major part of the economic fabric of all of these nations, and their contributions are significant.
- In 1978, Deng Xiaoping made the decision at the Third Plenum of the Communist Party of China to begin the process of reform and opening up China after 30 years of isolation.
- As a result of this openness, China’s stance to the countries in the area has been significantly transformed.
- Because of their economic success, the Chinese in the United States were viewed with mistrust and occasionally hatred by local people, who now had the added worry that they may be acting as 5th columns for a foreign government.
- He severed all links with China’s assistance for communist movements in these nations.
Because of this, these governments gained more trust in China’s intentions as well as in their ethnic Chinese populations, resulting in a significant acceleration of their normalization of ties with the country.
Indeed, overseas Chinese, not just from Southeast Asia, but also from Hong Kong and, eventually, Taiwan, have played a critical role in China’s economic rise in recent years.
Till the Soviet Union’s fall in 1991, China was obsessed with its ties with the United States, and only secondly with its connections with the Soviet Union.
Chinese attention remained focused on its relationship with the United States during the 1990s, which had been strained since the Tiananmen Square massacre a decade earlier.
When China tried to break free from the web of sanctions that had been imposed on it in 1989, it went first to the countries of Asia for assistance.
They regarded China as an Asian country with whom they shared many of their own cultural traditions and social traits, rather than as a competitor.
It is interesting to note that the relationship between the People’s Republic of China and Taiwan was the first to improve following Tiananmen.
Textiles, footwear, luggage, and other labor-intensive light industrial items were among the industries that made the transfer from Taiwan to the mainland in large quantities.
During the same time period, China’s other key neighbors began to reach out to the Chinese capital.
(and the emperor visiting in 1992).
It was during those days that the Japanese sought to act as a type of go-between between China and the United States, emphasizing to sceptical American authorities the significance of maintaining the lines of communication open with Beijing.
As a result, China utilized its Asian neighbors as a form of hedge against the isolation imposed by the West, as well as a bridge to reestablish diplomatic connections with the West during those years.
This is a critical context for understanding the amazing transition in China’s ties with its Asian neighbors that has occurred in recent years.
First and foremost, there is an economic revolution.
China has gone from being a footnote in the world economy to becoming a player that moves markets, that is the world’s greatest magnet for foreign direct investment, and that is the world’s third largest trading company.
However, Asia has also been affected by this shift, albeit in a different way than the United States.
For example, China’s commerce with Taiwan more than quadrupled between 1993 and 2003.
It more than quadrupled when it came to Indonesia.
It rose by a ratio of twelve when it came to India.
Every one of the main East Asian economies—Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines, and India—runs a significant trade surplus with China.
For the last several years, China’s manufacturing sector has become increasingly reliant on imports from East Asian nations in order to feed its factories and its export-producing machine aimed towards the West.
For the first time in history, China surpassed the United States as Japan’s most important commercial partner last year.
Taiwan, Korea, and Japan have all found that China has become a key component of their manufacturing processes.
China has been gaining ground in the manufacture of higher and higher technological products.
An illustration of how the information technology sector operates.
At addition to procuring components from other countries and assembling them in its Shanghai manufacturing city complex, Quanta is a Taiwanese company that manufactures medical devices.
Taiwanese businesses manufacture over a quarter of the world’s portable computers.
(I owe my thanks to the Wall Street Journal for providing this example.) As a result, the economies of East Asia are becoming increasingly intertwined around a Chinese economic core.
Despite the fact that Japan’s economy is larger than China’s for the time being, it is an extraordinarily tough market to break into.
Therefore, these economies will either sink or swim together.
It follows that sanctions, such as those that isolated China before to 1978 or 1989, or those that were put on the Soviet Union throughout its existence, are now unimaginable in today’s world.
China began to establish organizations in the area to support the development of these newly established economic links.
There have been other bilateral free trade agreements with ASEAN nations since then, and it has set a goal of having free trade with the whole ASEAN area implemented in phases beginning in 2015.
A “closer economic relationship deal” with Hong Kong has been inked by the two countries.
Since 1997, the leaders of state and government of the 13 countries have met on a regular basis.
The declared purpose of the group is to establish a “East Asian community,” with the East Asian economic community, or free trade area, serving as the cornerstone.
Thirteen years ago, Malaysian Prime Minister Mahathir attempted to establish a similar bloc, but it failed in the face of severe resistance from the United States, which was backed by Japan and Singapore.
The People’s Republic of China has also undertaken significant political and security initiatives with its Asian neighbors in recent years.
Wen Jiabao, the Chinese prime minister, paid a visit to New Delhi earlier this year and established a mechanism for negotiations with India over their border dispute.
All of these measures are intended to create a tranquil atmosphere in China’s immediate vicinity that will not interfere with the country’s ability to concentrate on economic growth.
It is the host and convenor of the six-party discussions aimed at bringing an end to North Korea’s nuclear weapons development, which are taking place in Singapore.
China, together with its fellow members Russia and four of the “stans,” serves as the headquarters of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, which was founded in 1995.
Also not by chance, China has a significant interest in developing relations with all of these nations since they all have large reserves of oil and natural gas, which China is eager to exploit.
China’s energy consumption is increasing at a rate of 15 percent every year, with the rest of the year remaining relatively stable.
It has significantly increased its imports of Saudi oil, but this is not nearly enough.
Central Asia and Russia are at the heart of these plans.
Some have speculated that China is attempting to establish a sort of “Monroe Doctrine” for Asia in order to significantly reduce U.S.
For a variety of reasons, including China’s denial of the claim, I find this highly questionable.
The United States Navy maintains control over the sea lines of communication.
The United States has by far the greatest influence on the Middle East, which is the source of the majority of the world’s energy, as well as on China.
Chinese people may be dissatisfied with the extent of U.S.
Assuming President Hu Jintao had continued with his trip to Washington, which had been postponed due to Hurricane Katrina, we would have heard his thoughts on China’s and America’s roles in the Asia-Pacific region in the years to come.
Japan, on the other hand, is an outlier.
The reasons for this are numerous, including Prime Minister Koizumi’s visits to the Yasukuni shrine, textbooks in both countries that contain disparaging descriptions of the other, territorial disputes in the East China Sea, and competition over energy.
Taiwan, on the other hand, is an exception to the rule.
However, the possibility of a conflict between Taiwan and the People’s Republic of China is not insignificant.
In Taiwan, the government is dominated by a pro-independence party.
China has made significant efforts to mitigate the reaction of the states of the region in the event of a conflict of this nature.
If the United States intervened in Taiwan’s affairs, Japan would almost certainly back the United States. All of the other states, maybe with the exception of Australia, would not do so.
The Culture Hearths of Past and Present
” Culture” is a term that refers to a particular group’s way of life in general terms. It encompasses the social meanings of different parts of life such as race, ethnicity, values, languages, faiths, and dress styles, as well as the social meanings of various aspects of life such as gender and sexual orientation. Despite the fact that many unique cultures are currently popular throughout the world, the cultures that are the most dominant had their beginnings in one of a few regions known as “cultural hearths.” These are the cultural heartlands of many civilizations, and historically, there have been seven major centers from which the most prominent cultural concepts have spread throughout the world.
Early Culture Hearth Locations
Listed here are the seven initial cultural hearths:
- The Nile River Valley
- The Indus River Valley
- The Wei-Huang Valley
- The Ganges River Valley
- West Africa
- The Nile River Valley
They are regarded culture hearths because they are where significant cultural activities such as religion, the use of iron tools and weaponry, highly structured social structures, the creation of agriculture, and the expansion of agriculture all began and spread from, respectively. In terms of religion, for example, the region surrounding Meccais regarded as the cultural heartland of the Islamic religion, as well as the region from where Muslims first journeyed to convert non-Muslims to the Islamic faith.
Culture areas had a significant role in the establishment of early cultural hubs as well. These are geographical places where prominent cultural features can be found. Despite the fact that not everyone in the culture region has the same cultural characteristics, they are frequently impacted by the characteristics of the center in some manner. There are four components of influence that operate inside this system:
- The Core: the geographic center of the area where the most strongly manifested cultural characteristics can be found. As a rule, it is the most densely inhabited and, in the case of religion, it has the most well-known religious sites. The Domain is the area that surrounds the Core. Despite the fact that it has its own set of cultural beliefs, it is nonetheless heavily affected by the Core. The Domain is surrounded by the Sphere, and the Sphere is surrounded by the Outlier.
It is the word used to describe the spread of cultural concepts from the Core (in the case of culture regions) and the hearth (in the case of culture communities). In the field of cultural dissemination, there are three approaches. The first type of diffusion is known as direct diffusion, and it happens when two separate cultures are located in close proximity to one another. Over time, direct interaction between the two civilizations results in the intermingling of their respective cultures and traditions.
- Today’s example might be the similarity in interest in soccer that exists in some sections of the United States and in Mexico, for example.
- Forced diffusion or expansion diffusion is also known as expansion diffusion.
- The word “ethnocentrism” is frequently used in conjunction with forced dispersion.
- This results in those involved in diffusion believing that their cultural views are better to those of other groups, and as a consequence they attempt to impose these concepts on those whom they have conquered via force.
- The majority of cultural imperialism takes place within the context of forced dispersion, which occurs commonly as a result of military or economic aggression.
- This sort of diffusion occurs when cultural ideas are transferred through the intermediary of another culture or even another culture itself.
An illustration of this would be the widespread appeal of Italian cuisine throughout North America. Various forms of technology such as mass media and the internet are all playing a significant part in encouraging this sort of cultural dispersion throughout the world at the present time.
Modern Culture Hearths and Cultural Diffusion
Because cultures evolve through time, new dominating areas of dominant culture have emerged as a result of this development. Places such as the United States, as well as major metropolitan capitals such as London and Tokyo, are today’s modern cultural hotbeds. Areas such as these are referred to be contemporary culture hearths since their cultural characteristics are now prevalent throughout much of the world, and as a result, they are termed modern culture hearths. The popularity of sushi in Los Angeles, California, and Vancouver, British Columbia, as well as the appearance of Starbucks in locations like France, Germany, Moscow, and even China’s Forbidden City are examples of modern cultural diffusion.
Physical obstacles, such as mountain ranges and seas, no longer impede people’s movement, and as a result, cultural ideas are spreading more widely over the world.
People all over the globe are now able to observe what is popular in the United States thanks to the internet and advertising in various types of mass media.
What ever the means by which cultural dispersion happens today or in the future, it has occurred several times throughout history and will continue to do so as new regions of power rise and transmit their cultural characteristics to the rest of the globe.
Fill in the Blank
- Has been known as the “cultural hearth zone” of East Asia since antiquity
- Determines all things and flows spontaneously as the mysterious and spontaneous energy of the cosmos
- Is the source of all life
- It has been more than 2,000 years since the original dialect spoken by the Han, known as _, has been preserved as the written language of the literate culture of China. Alchemy, acupuncture, feng shui, and I-Ching divination were all formerly parts of a religious tradition known as _
- Nowadays, they are considered separate disciplines. For the first 1,000 years of the country’s existence, dominated the spiritual formation of the people. The lay organization known as the Soka Gakkai, which derives directly from Nichiren Buddhism, is presently the largest new religion in the world. In a traditional Chinese or Korean home, you might find an image of the deity who observes and records the activities of the household from the hearth of the kitchen
- The Han Dynasty came to an end in principles founded on hierarchy and mutual duty, which had been supported by the state for millennia. At the conclusion of World War II, Japan’s monarch was obliged to renounce his divinity as part of the capitulation agreement. Westerners refer to China’s medieval intellectuals as “neo-Confucianists,” since they were inspired by
- This was the name of the Chinese organization notorious for declaring that the end of the world was on the horizon in 2012. At the most popular level, the Daoist pantheon comprises figures such as Lao Zi, Guanyin, and the
- At the highest level, the Daoist pantheon includes figures such as the Ch’ondogyo was established in 1860 and quickly rose to become one of the most important faiths in the East Asian country
- Recently, the Communist Party of China changed course and returned to the teachings of in order to instill a feeling of national pride among the population. This is the name given to the Japanese custom of worshipping its own individual deities
- The most significant branch of Buddhism in Korea is known as
- The ritual is the most important and well respected ceremonial practice across East Asia
- Confucius’ teachings are largely contained in the
- One of the largest sects in Korea is the Tenrikyo, which means “Religion of Heavenly Wisdom.” These traditions are presently stronger in Korea than anyplace else in East Asia.
Key to the Answers
Why the past decade saw the rise and rise of East Asian pop culture
(CNN) “Bad Romance” by Lady Gaga was playing everywhere in 2009, and the thudding electronic sounds of the song could be heard everywhere. People from all over the world rushed to see the futuristic sci-fi film “Avatar,” while millions more tuned in to see the fun-loving roommates of reality television program “Jersey Shore” get crazy. After a decade, the English-speaking world continues to be dominated by American-produced music, films, and television shows. However, there has been a clear shift: the influence of South Korean and Japanese pop culture exports has steadily increased in recent years.
We were treated to high-octane, high-budget music videos from South Korean pop groups BTS and Blackpink – which broke numerousYouTube records in the process.
And ” Parasite ” went on to become the first South Korean film to win the Palme d’Or – and then the film’s director, Bong Joon-ho, appeared on “The Tonight Show Starring Jimmy Fallon,” where he spoke primarily in Korean about the film.
With that, the decade-long boom of East Asian pop culture in the West was brought to a close. Highlights included the catchy dance song ” Gangnam Style ” by flamboyant South Korean rapper PSY (2012) and the glacially-slow romances of Japanese reality program “Terrace House” (which came to Netflix in 2015). “Vogue” and “Elle,” two of the most prestigious English-language fashion magazines, now often promote South Koreanbeauty products, which are reportedly backed by actresses Drew Barrymore and Emma Stone.
Cultural flows are now flowing in both directions, in contrast to the past, when the area was mostly a beneficiary of Western culture, with Asian inhabitants ardent consumers of Hollywood movies and British pop music for example, today cultural flows are flowing in both directions.” So, what has changed since then?
The growing influence of East Asian pop culture
A decade ago, Japanese anime franchises like asPokemon and Digimon were already well-established in the United States. Jackie Chan and Bruce Lee, two of Hong Kong’s most famous martial artists, became household names. “Hallyu” – which literally translates as “Korean wave” in Korean – is a term that analysts have been using to describe the spread of South Korean fashion, cosmetic products, television dramas, and music to other nations, particularly in Asia, for some time. “”The East is coming,” some people believe.
- However, in the last decade, East Asian pop culture, notably that of South Korea, has seen a meteoric rise.
- According to specialists, there are a number of reasons behind this.
- East Asian pop culture also provides something else: a wide range of styles and influences.
- She cites K-pop fans as an example, pointing out that many of them come from varied origins and may feel alienated by mainstream American culture, among other things.
- According to Lim, because K-pop is heavily influenced by Western culture, it may feel both familiar and strange to Western viewers at the same time.
- South Korea, with a population of 51 million people, did not have a large enough market to maintain its entertainment business, so it had to look outside the country, according to Fung, a professor at the Chinese University of Hong Kong.
Announcing a 19 billion yen ($237 million) injection into Japan’s creative industry in 2011 to increase revenue from the country’s creative industries such as animation, graphic design, cinema, and fashion in 2010, the Japanese government hoped to increase revenue from the country’s creative industries.
However, for fans, the fundamental reason that Japanese and South Korean culture exports have taken off is simple: they are enjoyable to consume.
“My question is, why can’t (K-pop) be a thing in Western culture?” David Kim, a co-host of the K-pop YouTube channel DKDKTV, said in an Instagram video posted recently: “My question is, why can’t (K-pop) be a thing in Western culture?”
The effect of the East Asian spread
Even though Western fans of K-pop and other cultural items may initially be pulled in by spectacular dance steps and edgy attire, the phenomenon is having an impact in a variety of other fields as well. According to a research conducted by the Modern Language Association of America, enrollment in Japanese and Korean programs in the United States grew between 2013 and 2016, despite a fall in admissions to all other language courses other than English over the same period. Registrations for Korean language programs increased by 13.7 percent in the last year, by far the greatest rise of any other language taught.
- According to the Korea-based think tank Hyundai Research Institute, the K-pop group BTS was responsible for inspiring around one in every thirteen tourists that visited the nation last year.
- Thus, it comes as no surprise that South Korea utilizes K-pop to promote itself as a tourist destination.
- Furthermore, there are greater ramifications.
- “(The development of Korean pop culture) elevated Korea to a whole new level of cool,” she explained.
- The public has been more aware of Asian guys in recent years, in contrast to the past, when Asian male roles were mostly villains or kung fu stars, such as Jackie Chan and Jet Li.
- That is something I am very thrilled about.”
What the future looks like
According to experts, there is every reason to believe that cultural exports from Japan and South Korea will continue to have an influence in the future decade. The biggest unknown is the situation in China. Despite the fact that China’s growing economic and political prominence has elevated it much beyond its position on the international stage a decade ago, it has made little impact on the Western pop culture scene. Consider the case of China’s top earning film, the 2017 action flick ” Wolf Warrior 2,” which earned over $854 million domestically but only $16 million internationally.
Another explanation, though, is the tight control that China’s Communist Party exercises over the country’s mass media.
State-run media agencies in China have frequently condemned male celebrities who act effeminate in public. Elfving-Hwang believes that the Chinese music business would never have the same international appeal as K-pop because it will be “harder to conceive.” “However, you never know,” she said.
Elfving-Hwang believes that East Asian pop culture will continue to thrive in the coming decade – and she believes this is a positive development. “”If K-pop can genuinely pique people’s interest to the point where they are willing to take a significant step like learning a language,” she explained, “and then through that develop a better knowledge of the culture.” The way we interact in the future, I believe, will be significantly altered as a result of this development.” Jake Kwon, a CNN contributor, contributed to this story.
East Asia in Geographic Perspective
- She believes East Asian pop culture will continue to thrive in the coming decade, which she considers to be a positive development. “”If K-pop can genuinely pique people’s interest to the point where they are willing to take a significant step like learning a language,” she explained, “and then through that obtain a greater knowledge of the culture.” The way we interact in the future, I believe, will be significantly altered as a result of this.” Contributing to this report was Jake Kwon of CNN.
More information about the climate of East Asia in contrast to that of India and Europe may be found in the book East Asia: Tradition and Transformation, edited by John K. Fairbank, Edwin O. Reischauer, and Albert Craig (John K. Fairbank, Edwin O. Reischauer and Albert Craig) (Boston: HoughtonMifflin, 1973). Please also have a look at the AFE module devoted to EAST ASIA from a GEOGRAPHICAL POINT OF VIEW.
East Asian arts – Common traditions
As previously said, China, Korea, and Japan have had a long history of historical proximity, which explains their diverse aesthetic traditions that are shared among them. The main commercial routes traveled from the Middle East through Central Asia and into China from pre-Christian times until the 8th and 9th centuries CE. Hinduism and Buddhism, as well as some knowledge of ancient Greek and a great deal of understanding of Indian arts, made their way into China, and later into Korea and Japan.
- For more than 700 years, from 668 to 668 CE, in the kingdom ofKogury, which encompassed northern Korea and Manchuria, court music and dances from Central Asia, Han China, Manchuria, and Korea, known aschis andkajis, were performed in the palaces of the royal court.
- Around the 7th century, they were transported to the Japanese palace in Nara, where they were imprisoned.
- They are still performed at the Imperial Palace in Tokyo, despite the fact that they have long ago died out in China and Korea.
- The Aryan traits of some of its masks, which have been dubbed “kiakin Korea” and “gigakuin Japan,” definitely suggest Indian (or Central Asian) influence.
- A large number of nomadic puppeteers from Central Asia who had settled in northern Korea by the 7th century were believed to have made their way to Japan.
- (It is possible that there was a native puppet culture in Japan, as well.) Bunrakupuppet theatre is a combination of epic narrative and the skill of puppet manipulation that has become well-known through the centuries.
- The lion dance, which originates in China, is done in a variety of forms in Korea and Japan, as well as in China, India, Sri Lanka, and Bali, to name a few locations.
In many regions of the world, the legend of the angel or nymph who descends to earth and arouses the desire of a mortal man is well-known.
Originating in India, the mythology of the one-horned magician who traps the dragon gods of rain and creates a devastating drought was eventually carried to Japan by the Chinese, where it is enacted in Noh (Ikkaku sennin) and Kabuki performances (Narukami).
Following the Meiji Restoration in 1868, artists in Japan studied Western performing arts as part of the country’s national strategy.
One of the most prominent theories was Realism, which originated in Western play.
It was at this point that a clash between traditional and Western performing arts began to develop, which has continued to the present day.
Music can be either instrumental or vocal in nature.
The majority of folk performances are accompanied by fixed music.
The music that is played in the background of scenes may be clearly identified by the experienced viewer (a similar system is found in Southeast Asian theatre).
In addition, the artist proves to the audience his ability in yet another sophisticated achievement, which is as essential.
In theNatya-shastra(“Treatise on the Dramatic Arts”), atreatiseondramaturgy, for example, the code of hand movements for dancers and actors is similar to the code of hand gestures for Buddhist temple sculpting or painting.
MudrasEncyclopaedia Britannica, Inc.
There are three prominent occasions when the performing arts in China and Japan may be observed to be intimately tied to the visual arts, and they are as follows: As a result of the Song dynasty (960–1279) in China, two distinct schools of painting emerged: the Northern School, which used bold outline and brilliantly contrasting colors of deep green, blue and gold; and the Southern School, which focused more on delicate and subtle monochrome ink painting of misty landscapes; both schools were influenced by European art.
- Opera schools in the Northern and Southern hemispheres were distinguished by similar but diametrically opposed traits at the time: the former was energetic and full of movement, while the latter was filled with wistful feelings and delicate, gentle singing.
- Zen characteristics such as sparseness of form, discipline, and suggestion rather than express declaration may be seen in these and other arts practiced by the military ruling class (samurai) throughout this period.
- In fact, ukiyo-e painters like as Tshsai Sharaku gained notoriety by depicting famous Kabuki performers as their subjects in his works.
- Despite the fact that dances were frequently performed to sung poetry and plays were either written in verse form or featured references to famous poems in East Asia, the performing arts are usually considered as different from literature in the region.
- Writers of plays have rarely received the same recognition as writers of poetry, novels, or critical essays, with a few notable exceptions.
- Histories of artistic borrowings across East Asian countries can be used to reconstruct the broad contours of artistic borrowings.
- However powerful the original outside effect, assimilation of foreign art eventually took place, regardless of how strong the initial outside influence was.
The same may be found even in Japanese bugakudances; although they are considered to have preserved old Chinese and Korean traditions to a surprising degree, native Japanese characteristics can be recognized as well.
Bunraku puppet shows and Kabuki theater in Japan are virtually completely devoid of any obvious evidence of foreign influence.
bugakuperformance Bugaku is a court dance derived from the dance and music of 8th-century China and Korea that has been modified to Japanese preferences.
Haasch/ZEFA Photographic Archive Singing has become extremely popular in China, and the majority of the country’s most prominent theatrical productions are structured on song (hence the term Chinese opera).
The shadow theatre, which has been practiced throughout the world from Morocco to Egypt and Greece, as well as in India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Cambodia, is only found in China in East Asia.
Korea is known for its masked dances, which are very popular.
The artistic criteria that control dance and theatre in East Asia are diametrically opposed to those that regulate dance and theatre in the West.
Dancers in China, Korea, and Japan maintain a strong grip on the dance floor, rarely lifting their feet over their heads; they move in a generally leisurely and frequently geometric rhythm; and they wear a variety of costumes.
Whether the movement of the dancer is considered to be dance or not, it is always stylized.
The intention may be to portray archetypes, whether human or mythological, in shadow and puppet theatre, as well as in masked dances and plays, among other forms.
While children were moved as human puppets in China, adults acted before lighted screens to create a living shadow play; in Japan, puppets perform realistic daily actions while live Kabuki actors refrain from duplicating everyday life; and in the United States, puppets perform realistic daily actions while live Kabuki actors refrain from duplicating daily life.
Contrast this with western conventions, in which the audience expects to be exposed to a sharply concentrated theatrical picture for no more than two or three hours.
Another distinguishing feature of dance and theater in China, Korea, and Japan is that they arose in great part as a result of oral tradition, as opposed to written tradition.
Traditions of dance, drama, and music were passed down orally from generation to generation, even after the forms had reached adulthood. Play scripts were not written in their whole until far later in history.
It is noteworthy that, despite the fact that various dance and theater genres were highly respected in China, Korea, and Japan, performers were generally despised in these countries. Especially despised were wandering performers in agrarian societies, where attachment to the land was valued and Confucian teaching, which was prevalent throughout East Asia, emphasized veneration of one’s parents, which included tending their graves and making offerings for their welfare in the spirit world. The importance of theatre or dance in ancient civilizations was determined in part by the nature of their audiences, which may range from court nobility to villagers to town merchants.
- During the Tang Dynasty, the Chinese emperor Xuanzong (also known as Minghuang) created schools for music, dancing, and acting in the royal city of Chang’an (now Xi’an) during the 8th century.
- In addition to receiving government pay while studying and performing at opulent state dinners and formal occasions, over a thousand young people from all walks of life were employed by the government.
- Beginning in the 7th century and continuing to the current day, dancers and musicians have been associated to the royal family in Japan.
- Beginning in the 15th century, the military rulers of Japan began to include Noh performers and musicians in their retinues, and over time, provincial lords began to adopt this practice as well.
- Performers were liberated of their financial worries and were able to dedicate their whole lives to their craft, frequently working full-time for their entire careers.
- Because of the significance associated to official performances, it is unquestionably true that musicians went above and above in their performances.
Young female dancers danced in the Chinese and Korean courts as part of the ruler’s personal entourage (often his concubines); they were not permitted to socialize with the men of the court, resulting in some court arts being performed exclusively by men and others being done exclusively by women.
Women were rarely seen performing at court in Japan, and the major dance and theater styles were exclusively the domain of male artists.
Folkperformers, on the other hand, are peasants from the surrounding area who, like thesandaemasked dancers of Korea or the young ladies who conduct festiveayakomaidances in Japan, are amateurs who do not make a living from their performances.
The fact that many folk performances were held as part of religiously sanctioned rituals (such as Korean mask plays to ensure a good harvest and dances and dance plays of many varieties in Japan dedicated to local Shint deities) resulted in performers achieving significant status in the local community as a result of their participation in these essential communal rituals.
The shadow and puppet performers of China, as well as the jingxiactors and musicians, and the Kabuki and Bunraku puppet performers of Japan, are all well-known entertainers.
Throughout most of its existence, Kabuki, in particular, has been subjected to harsh government intervention.
It was not possible to establish a significant urban popular theatre in Korea.
Popular theatre styles in China and Japan are profoundly dramatic, but they lack the literary elements that would make them appealing to the elite in either country.
In Chinese and Korean country and provincial town culture, traveling troupes that conduct shadow or puppet shows, execute juggling and acrobatics routines, dance and sing, and put on renditions of popular court or popular entertainments have long been a component of daily life.
From an artistic standpoint, the forms are associated with folk performing arts; from a social standpoint, the performers are regarded misfits, travelling entertainers with little social standing who are associated with the popular heritage of performing arts. The Reverend Dr. James R. Brandon