- 1 What Is Culture?
- 2 Culture definition
- 3 What is Culture?
- 4 ~
- 5 External links
- 6 Definition of CULTURE
- 7 What Makes Up Your Company Culture?
- 8 What Makes Up Your Culture?
- 9 How Do You See Culture
- 10 Enculturation: Helping New Employees
- 11 Defining Culture and Why It Matters to Sociologists
- 12 How Sociologists Define Culture
- 13 Why Culture Matters to Sociologists
- 14 Examples of Culture
- 15 Culture Linked to Geography
- 16 Identifying Examples of Cultures Around You
- 17 Recognizing Examples of Culture
- 18 Culture Shock
- 19 Understanding Culture
What Is Culture?
The image is courtesy of Getty Images/Saha Entertainment. Culture is defined as the features and knowledge of a certain group of people, and it includes language, religion, food, social behaviors, music, and the arts, among other things. Cultural patterns, interactions, cognitive constructs, and comprehension are defined by theCenter for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition as common patterns of behavior and interaction that are learnt via socialization, according to the Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition As a result, culture may be defined as the development of a group identity that is influenced by social patterns that are exclusive to the group.
The anthropologist Cristina De Rossi of Barnet and Southgate College in London told Live Science that culture encompasses “religion, food, what we wear, how we wear it, our language, marriage, music, what we believe is right or wrong, how we sit at the table, how we greet visitors, how we behave with loved ones, and a million other things.” “Culture encompasses religion, food,” she said.
According to Arthur Asa Berger, the word “culture” comes from a French phrase that, in turn, comes from the Latin word “colere,” which meaning to tend to the ground and flourish, or to cultivate and nourish, or to cultivate and nurture.
The fall of the Roman Empire had a significant impact on Western civilization. The image is courtesy of Chase Dekker Wild-Life Images/Getty Images. ) In recent years, according to Khan University, the phrase “Western culture” has come to refer to the cultures of European nations as well as those countries that have been extensively impacted by European immigration, such as the United States. Western culture may be traced back to the Classical Period of the Greco-Roman era (the fourth and fifth centuries B.C.) and the development of Christianity in the fourteenth century as its origins.
- Throughout the past 2,500 years, a slew of historical events have contributed to the development of Western culture.
- 476, paved the way for the development of a succession of often-warring nations in Europe, each with its own culture, after which the Middle Ages began.
- According to Ohio State University historian John L.
- As a result of elites being compelled to pay more for scarce labor, survivors in the working class have gained more influence.
Today, Western culture can be found in practically every country on the planet, and its influences may be traced back to its origins.
Buddhism has a significant role in the civilizations of various Eastern countries. Three Buddhist monks are seen here on their way to the Angkor Wat temple. The image is courtesy of Getty Images/Saha Entertainment. Far East Asian culture (which includes China, Japan, Vietnam, North Korea, and South Korea) and the Indian subcontinent are commonly referred to as Eastern culture in general. When compared to Western culture, Eastern culture was highly impacted by religion throughout its early history, but the cultivation and harvesting of rice had a significant impact on its evolution as well, according to a study report published in the journal Rice in 2012.
- This umbrella term, on the other hand, encompasses a vast array of traditions and histories.
- Thus, Hinduism rose to prominence as a significant force in Indian culture, while Buddhism continued to have an impact on the cultures of both China and Japan.
- In the case of Chinese Buddhism, for example, according to Jiahe Liu and Dongfang Shao, the philosophy of Taoism, which stresses compassion, frugality, and humility, was taken.
- During the period 1876 to 1945, for example, Japan ruled or occupied Korea in various forms.
Da de los Muertos costumes for children in traditional attire (Image courtesy of Getty/Sollina Images.). The geographical territory that encompasses “Latin culture” is large and diverse. For the sake of this definition, Latin America is comprised of the regions of Central America, South America and Mexico where Spanish or Portuguese is the main language. Beginning in the 1400s, Spain and Portugal colonized or influenced a number of locations across the world, including those listed above. Some historians (such as Michael Gobat, “The Invention of Latin America: A Transnational History of Anti-Imperialism, Democracy, and Race,” American Historical Review, Vol.
- Because of this, Latin cultures are extremely diverse, and many of them combine indigenous customs with the Spanish language and Catholicism brought by Spanish and Portuguese invaders to form hybrid cultures.
- These impacts are particularly evident in Brazil and the countries of the Western Hemisphere’s Caribbean region.
- A notable example is Da de los Muertos, also known as Day of the Dead, which is a celebration dedicated to commemorating the fallen that is observed on November 1st and 2nd.
- According to the Smithsonian American Art Museum, Mexican immigrants to the United States carried the festival with them, and in the 1970s, artists and events focused attention on Da de los Muertos as a way of expressing their Chicano (Mexican-American) ancestry.
In recent years, the holiday has gained widespread recognition in the United States.
Middle Eastern culture
A family from the Middle East sits down to supper together (Photo courtesy of Getty/Jasmin Merdan). The Middle East is roughly defined as the area including the Arabian peninsula as well as the eastern Mediterranean region. According to the Encyclopedia Britannica, the North African countries of Libya, Egypt, and Sudan are also occasionally mentioned. The word “Middle Eastern culture” is another umbrella term that incorporates a wide range of cultural customs, religious beliefs, and everyday routines from all around the Middle East and North Africa.
- Despite the fact that there is tremendous religious variety in the Middle East, Islam is the religion with the greatest number of adherents, and Islam has played a key part in the cultural development of the region.
- According to the Metropoliton Museum, the death of the religion’s founder, Muhammad, in 632, was a watershed event in the development of Middle Eastern culture and civilization.
- Consequently, a split developed between Shia Muslims, who held the value of bloodline in high regard, and Sunni Muslims, who held that leadership should not be passed down through the familial lineage.
- Their rites and customs differ somewhat from one another, and the divisions that exist between the two groups frequently lead to conflict.
- Areas that were once part of the Ottoman Empire are known for distinctive architecture that is influenced by Persian and Islamic styles.
African mother from the Maasai tribe, sitting with her baby next to her hut in the African country of Kenya (Photo courtesy of hadynyah/Getty Images.) ) Africa has the longest history of human habitation of any continent: it has been inhabited since the beginning of time. Humans evolved there and began to travel to other regions of the planet some 400,000 years ago, according to the Natural History Museum in London. Researchers led by Dr. Tom White, who works as a Senior Curator of Non-Insect Invertebrates at the Smithsonian Institution, were able to discover this by studying Africa’s ancient lakes and the animals that lived in them.
- African culture varies not only between national boundaries, but within them.
- For example, Nigeria alone has more than 300 tribes, according to Culture Trip ,.
- This led to complex metropolitan hubs along the Eastern coast, typically connected by the transfer of raw resources and commerce from landlocked portions of the continent.
- Northwest Africa has significant linkages to the Middle East, whereas Sub-Saharan Africa has historical, geographical and social aspects that are substantially distinct from North Africa, according to Britannica .
The traditions of these cultures evolved in very different environments. The Batwa, for example, are one of a group of ethnicities that traditionally live a forager lifestyle in the rainforest. The Maasai, on the other hand, herd sheep and goats on the open range.
What is cultural appropriation?
Cultural appropriation, according to the Oxford Reference dictionary, is defined as follows: “A phrase used to describe the taking over of creative or artistic forms, concepts, or practices by one cultural group from another.” A non-Native American wearing a Native American headdress as a fashion item would be one example of this practice. The fashion house Victoria’s Secret was highly condemned in 2012 after a model was dressed in a headdress that looked like a Lakota war bonnet, according to the newspaper USA Today.
As well as jewelry influenced by Zuni, Navajo, and Hopi styles from the desert Southwest, the model wore turquoise, demonstrating how cultural appropriation can group tribes with vastly distinct cultures and histories into a single stereotypical image through the usage of turquoise.
Sikh restaurateur and social media influencer Harjinder Singh Kukreja responded to Gucci on Twitter, noting that the Sikh Turban is “not a hip new accessory for white models, but rather an object of religion for practicing Sikhs.” Turbans have been worn as ‘hats’ by your models, although practicing Sikhs knot their turbans properly fold-by-fold.
One thing is clear about cultures, no matter how they appear on the surface: they change. According to De Rossi, “Culture appears to have become important in our linked globe, which is made up of so many ethnically different nations, but which is also rife with conflicts related with religion, ethnicity, ethical values, and, fundamentally, the aspects that make up culture.” “Culture, on the other hand, is no longer set, if it ever was. In its essence, it is fluid and in perpetual motion.” Consequently, it is impossible to characterize any culture in a singular manner.
A body known as the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) has been established by the United Nations to identify cultural and natural heritage as well as to conserve and safeguard it.
It was signed by UNESCO in 1972 and has been in force since since.
Stephanie Pappas is a contributing writer for Live Science, where she writes on a variety of subjects ranging from geology to archaeology to the human brain and psychology.
Her undergraduate degree in psychology came from the University of South Carolina, and her graduate certificate in scientific communication came from the University of California, Santa Cruz.
- Individual and group striving over generations has resulted in a group of people accumulating a vast store of knowledge and experience, as well as beliefs and values, attitudes, and meanings. Culture includes hierarchies, religion, notions of time, roles, spatial relationships, concepts of the universe, as well as material objects and possessions. In general, culture refers to the systems of knowledge that are shared by a reasonably significant number of individuals. Cultural expressions are communicated, and cultural expressions are communicated
- Culture, in its broadest meaning, is cultivated behavior
- That is, it is the sum of a person’s learned, collected experience that is passed down through social transmission, or, to put it another way, it is conduct acquired through social learning. A culture is a way of life for a group of people-the behaviors, beliefs, values, and symbols that they accept, typically without questioning them, and that are passed down from one generation to the next through communication and imitation. Culture is a means of communicating symbolically. Skills, knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and motivations of a group are just a few of the symbols that may be used. The meanings of symbols are taught and purposefully preserved in a culture through the institutions of that society
- And Culture consists of patterns of and for behavior acquired and transmitted by symbols, which constitute the distinctive achievement of human groups, including their embodiment in artifacts
- The essential core of culture consists of traditional ideas and especially their attached values
- Culture systems may be considered on the one hand as products of action, and on the other hand as conditioning influences upon further action
- As defined by the United Nations, culture is “the sum total of the learned behaviors by a group of people that are widely recognized to be the tradition of that group of people and are transferred from generation to generation.” In other words, culture is a collective programming of the mind that separates the members of one group or category of people from the members of another group or category of people.
- Human nature, according to this viewpoint, is determined by the ideas, meanings, beliefs, and values that people learn as members of society. People are defined by the lessons they have learned. Optimistic versions of cultural determinism believe that human beings have the ability to accomplish and be whatever they desire regardless of their environment. According to some anthropologists, there is no universally acceptable “correct way” to be a human being. While the “right method” is usually always “our way,” it is virtually never the case that “our way” in one civilization will be the same as “our way” in any other society. It is only through tolerance that a well-informed human being can maintain a proper attitude. The optimistic version of this theory holds that human nature is infinitely malleable and that human beings can choose the ways of life that they prefer
- The pessimistic version holds that people are what they have been conditioned to be and that they have no control over this. Human beings are passive animals that do whatever their culture instructs them to do, regardless of their actions. In response to this theory, behaviorism is developed, which places the reasons of human behavior in a world that is completely beyond human control.
- Different cultural groupings have distinct ways of thinking, feeling, and acting. There are no scientific standards that can be used to determine whether one group is essentially superior or inferior in comparison to another. The study of cultural variations across people and cultures implies the acceptance of a cultural relativism viewpoint. Neither for oneself nor for one’s society does it represent a return to normalcy. If one is interacting with groups or communities that are not similar to one’s own, it is necessary to exercise caution. Information regarding the nature of cultural differences across cultures, their origins, and effects should be obtained before making any decisions or taking any action. Parties that grasp the causes for their differences in opinions have a better chance of achieving a successful outcome in negotiations
- In ethnocentrism, the conviction that one’s own culture is superior than that of other civilizations is asserted over time. It is a type of reductionism in which one lowers the “other way” of living to a distorted version of one’s own way of existence. This is especially significant in the case of international business transactions, when a corporation or a person may be under the impression that techniques, materials, or ideas that worked in the home country will likewise work in the foreign country. Consequently, environmental variations are not taken into consideration. Ethnocentrism may be classified into the following categories when it comes to international business transactions:
- A preoccupation with specific cause-and-effect correlations in one’s own nation causes important elements in business to be disregarded. In order to ensure that all major factors have been at least considered while working abroad, it is always a good idea to consult checklists of human variables. Even though one may be aware of the environmental differences and problems associated with change, one’s primary focus may be on achieving objectives that are specific to one’s home country. A corporation or an individual’s efficacy in terms of worldwide competitiveness may be diminished as a result of this. The objectives defined for global operations should likewise be global in scope
- While it is acknowledged that there are differences, it is expected that the accompanying modifications are so fundamental that they can be accomplished without difficulty. An examination of the costs and benefits of the planned modifications is always a good idea before proceeding. A change may cause significant disruption to essential values, and as a result, it may encounter opposition when it is attempted to be implemented. Depending on the change, the costs of implementing the change may outweigh the advantages received from implementing the change.
EXAMPLES OF CULTURAL MANIFESTATIONS Cultural differences present themselves in a variety of ways and to varying degrees of depth in different contexts. Symbols are the most surface representations of culture, while ideals represent the most profound manifestations of culture, with heroes and rituals filling in the gaps.
- Symbols are words, actions, pictures, or things that convey a specific meaning that can only be understood by people who are familiar with a certain culture or tradition. New symbols are readily created, but old symbols are quickly demolished. Symbols from one particular group are frequently imitated by other groups as well. This is why symbols are considered to be the most superficial layer of a society
- Heroes are individuals, whether historical or contemporary, real or imaginary, who exemplify attributes that are highly regarded in a community. They also serve as examples for appropriate behavior
- Rituals are group activities that, while often redundant in terms of achieving intended results, are thought to be socially necessary in order to maintain social order. Therefore, they are carried out most of the time just for their own sake (as in ways of greeting others, showing respect to others, religious and social rites, etc.)
- Values serve as the foundation of a society’s culture. They are broad inclinations for preferring one state of affairs above another in comparison to other states of affairs (good-evil, right-wrong, natural-unnatural). Many values are held by people who are completely unaware of them. As a result, they are frequently unable to be addressed, nor can they be immediately viewed by others. It is only through seeing how people behave in different situations that we may deduce their values. Symbols, heroes, and rituals are the physical or visual parts of a culture’s activities that are visible to the general public. When practices are understood by insiders, the real cultural meaning of the practices is disclosed
- Otherwise, the practices remain intangible and remain hidden.
The manifestation of culture at various levels of depth is seen in Figure 1: LAYERS OF CULTURE Within oneself, even people from the same culture, there are multiple levels of mental conditioning to contend with. At the following levels of development, several layers of culture may be found:
- The national level is one that is associated with the entire nation
- On the regional level: This refers to the disparities that exist between ethnic, linguistic, and religious groups within a country. When it comes to gender disparities (male vs. female), the gender level is associated with these differences. It is associated with the disparities between grandparents and parents, as well as between parents and children at the generational level. It is associated with educational chances as well as inequalities in occupational prospects. The corporate level: This level is associated with the specific culture of a given organization. Those who are employed are covered by this provision.
MOUNTING CULTURAL DIFFERENCESA variable can be operationalized using either single-measure or multivariate methodologies, depending on the situation. After the domain of a concept has been empirically sampled, a single-measure technique is used to measure its domain; a composite-measure technique is used to construct an index for the concept after several indicators have been used to measure its domain after the concept has been empirically sampled. According to Hofstede (1997), a composite-measure approach has been developed to quantify cultural differences across various societies:
- It assesses the degree of inequality that occurs in a society using a power distance index. UCAI (Uncertainty Avoidance Index): This index evaluates the extent to which a society perceives itself to be threatened by uncertain or ambiguous situations. Individualism index: The index measures how individualistic a society is in comparison to other societies. Individuals are expected to look for themselves and their immediate families exclusively, which is what individualism is all about in a society where people are expected to look after themselves and their immediate families only. In contrast, collectivism is a social structure in which individuals discriminate between in-groups and out-groups, and they expect their in-groups (relatives, clans, organizations, etc.) to care after them in exchange for their complete commitment. Specifically, the index assesses the amount to which the major values are assertiveness, money, and things (success), and that the dominating values are not caring for others or for the quality of life. Womanhood (in a romantic relationship) would be on the other end of the scale.
CULTURAL DIFFERENCES ARE BEING RECONCILIATED Consciousness of one’s cultural heritage:
- Before embarking on a worldwide assignment, it is likely that it will be important to ascertain any cultural differences that may exist between one’s own nation and the country in which the business will be conducted or conducted. Where there are differences, it is necessary to determine whether and to what extent the practices of one’s native nation can be adapted to the foreign setting. The majority of the time, the alterations are not immediately noticeable or palpable. Certain features of a culture may be learnt consciously (for example, different ways of greeting people), while other differences may be learned unconsciously (for example, different ways of dressing) (e.g. methods of problem solving). The development of cultural awareness may not be a simple process, but once completed, it will unquestionably aid in the completion of a work efficiently in a foreign setting. Discussions and reading about different cultures absolutely aid in the development of cultural awareness, but the perspectives expressed must be carefully weighed before they are shared. Sometimes they represent incorrect prejudices, a judgment of merely a subset of a certain group of individuals, or a circumstance that has since experienced significant changes. It’s usually a good idea to obtain a variety of perspectives on a single culture.
Cultures grouped together:
- Some nations may have many characteristics in common that contribute to the formation of their cultures (the modifiers may be language, religion, geographical location, etc.). Based on the information gathered from previous cross-cultural research, nations can be classified according to their shared values and attitudes. When travelling inside a cluster, less changes are likely to be observed than when going from one cluster to another.
Determine the amount of global participation by asking the following questions:
- It is not necessary for all businesses operating on a global scale to have the same level of cultural knowledge. Figure 2 depicts the extent to which a company’s understanding of global cultures is required at various levels of participation. The further a firm progresses away from its primary duty of conducting domestic business, the greater the need it has for cultural awareness and understanding. The necessity of increasing cultural awareness as a result of expanding outward on more than one axis at the same time becomes even more apparent.
Figure 2: Cultural Awareness and the Degree to Which the World Is Involved G. Hofstede is cited as a source (1997). Cultures and organizations are like software for the human brain. McGraw-Hill Education, New York. Here are a few recent publications. Firms Considering Expanding Into New Markets Face Culture Shock. However, the temptation of reconstruction contracts in locations such as Afghanistan and Iraq may tempt some corporations to take on more risk than they are prepared to take on in the United States.
- However, the tremendous rehabilitation of countries damaged by conflict has the potential to trip up even the most experienced among them.
- Language and cultural differences must also be taken into consideration.
- The United States government’s conference on reconstructing Afghanistan, held in Chicago last week, went a long way toward identifying prospects in the country.
- The first lesson is to abandon ethnocentric beliefs that the world should adjust to our style of doing business rather than the other way around, as is commonly done.
- Chinese representatives provided a wealth of information to U.S.
- The qualities of patience, attention, and sensitivity are not commonly associated with building, but they may be beneficial in cultures that are different from our own.
- [ENR (2003).
- [New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education.] Do We See Things the Same Way?
- These studies show that taking cultural variations into account when utilizing observation techniques in cross-cultural research, as well as in practical contexts such as performance assessment and international management, is crucial.
- Culture has an important role in research and management, according to the findings of this study.
[Karakowsky, LiKarakowsky] (2001). Do We See Things the Same Way? The Implications of Cultural Differences for Research and Practice in Cross-Cultural Management The Journal of Psychology, volume 135 number 5, pages 501-517.]
What is Culture?
Culture is defined as the taught and shared patterns of behavior and ideas that are held by a given social, ethnic, or age group. It may also be defined as a complex system of collective human ideas that has progressed through an organized stage of civilization that can be peculiar to a particular nation or period of time. Humans, on the other hand, utilize culture to adapt to and modify the world in which they exist. Take note of the golden seat on the Ashanti flag. This concept of culture may be observed in the way we characterize the Ashanti, an African tribe that lives in central Ghana and is described in the book The Ashanti.
- The importance of the family and the mother’s clan in Ashanti culture cannot be overstated.
- This connects them even more closely to the mother’s side of the family.
- The family is housed in a series of huts or dwellings that have been constructed around a central courtyard.
- The elders have picked him to be their representative.
- The anthropological study of culture may be divided into two categories that are constant and fundamental: diversity and change.
- It is the distinctions that exist across all civilizations and sub-cultures throughout the world’s geographical areas.
- A culture’s evolution is often attributed to one of two factors: selective transmission or the necessity to adapt to changing circumstances.
When it comes to the culture, this might entail nearly anything, including the probable forced redistribution of, or removal from ancestral regions as a result of external and/or internal factors.
Learning culture is accomplished by active instruction and passive habitus.
Patterned refers to the fact that there is a pool of concepts that are similar.
Individuals can better satisfy their requirements when they are in a variety of locations.
“Culture” as opposed to “culture” At their most fundamental level, the distinction between Culture and culture is found in the manner in which they are described.
The term “culture” refers to a quality shared by all people, but “culture with a lower case c” refers to a specific taught way of life and set of patterns that a single individual has picked up, signifying one variant among many possible cultures.
culture gets more complicated.
However, the overlap of these concepts has had a negative impact over time.
This assumption is incorrect.
If people decide to change, they are frequently attacked by members of their own culture as well as members of other cultures for not respecting ‘authenticity’ and tradition.
culture debate, anthropology’s emphasis on and appreciation of Culture and how it evolves differently in different cultures might be distorted when discussing Cultural relativism or human rights, for example.
Female genital cutting is a good illustration of this since it is a part of little c culture that can be researched and determined to be a violation of human rights.
When it comes to culture, one example of how it has been abused is in apartheid South Africa, where the white supremacist government justified the subjugation of black Africans, or the bantu peoples, by claiming that their goal was to “raise Bantu culture rather than produce black Europeans.” They maintained that “not race, but culture, was the actual source of difference, the determining factor of fate.” Furthermore, cultural distinctions were to be respected.” In such instances, the misuse of the phrase is obvious, since they were using it as a justification for uneven treatment and access to services such as education and other opportunities.
- “African People’s Culture – Ashanti”
- “Japanese Hip Hop and the Globalization of Popular Culture”
- “African People’s Culture – Ashanti”
- “Japanese Hip Hop and the Globalization of Popular Culture” Jump up Southern California Quarterly”Cinco de Mayo’s First Seventy-Five Years in Alta California: From Spontaneous Behavior to Sedimented Memory, 1862 to 1937″ by Ian Condry
- Jump up Southern California Quarterly”Cinco de Mayo’s First Seventy-Five Years in Alta California: From Spontaneous Behavior to Sedimented Memory, 1862 to 1937″ by Ian Condry
- Jump Jump up “Health and Human Rights,” World Health Organization, accessed October 30, 2007 (see “American commemoration of Cinco de Mayo began in California,” accessed October 30, 2007)
- Jump up “Health and Human Rights,” World Health Organization, accessed October 30, 2007. (pdf) Jump up “Discussion Group 10 Week 2- Marisa Mikelsons”
- Jump up “Japanese Hip-Hop and the Globalization of Popular Culture.” Jump up “Discussion Group 10 Week 2- Marisa Mikelsons.” Jump up “Discussion Group 10 Week 2- Marisa Mikelsons.” Urban Life: Readings in the Anthropology of the City is a collection of essays about urban life. Waveland Press, Prospect Heights, IL
- Jump up Democracy in Dakar, Nomadic Wax, 2008
- Jump up frame=top
- Jump up Barton Wright, Democracy in Dakar, Nomadic Wax, 2008
- Jump up Emily A. Schultz and Robert H. Lavenda are co-authors of Cruz Bay Publishing, Inc.’s Jump up to: Cultural Anthropology: A New Way of Looking at the Human Condition, 2nd ed. Jump up Zmago mitek and Boidar Jezernik, “The Anthropological Tradition in Slovenia,” New York: Oxford University Press, Inc., 2009.pg.79
- Jump up Philosophy Home, 2009
- Jump up Zmago mitek and Boidar Jezernik, “The Anthropological Tradition in Slovenia,” New York: Oxford University Press, Inc., 2009.pg.79
- Jump up Zmago mit In: Han F. Vermeulen and Arturo Alvarez Roldán (eds. ), The New York Times. Fieldwork and Footnotes: Studies in the History of European Anthropology, 1995
- Jump up American Anthropological Association Statement on “Race,” May 17, 1998
- The Sociological Imagination, by C. Wright Mills, was published by Oxford University Press in 1961 and has the ISBN 0195133730. Other resources include: Louisa Lim, Painful Memories for China’s Footbinding Survivors
- James A. Crites Chinese Foot Binding
- Justin Marozzi, The Son of the Father of History, 2007
- James A Introduction to The Journey of Friar John of Pian de Carpine to the Court of Kuyuk Khan, 1245-1247, as translated by William Woodville Rockhill in 1900
- Introduction to The Journey of Friar John of Pian de Carpine to the Court of Kuyuk Khan, 1245-1247, as translated by William Woodville Rockhill in 1900
- Emily A. Schultz and Robert H. Lavenda collaborated on this project. Cultural Anthropology: A New Way of Looking at the Human Condition Oxford University Press, New York, 7th ed.
- s^ ‘RACE – The Influence of a Deception.’ “What Exactly Is Race |.” PBS, aired on March 8, 2009
- Cultural Anthropology, 4th edition, Boston: Pearson Education Inc., 2007
- Miller, Barabra. Cultural Anthropology, 4th edition, Boston: Pearson Education Inc., 2007
- Judith Lorber’s “Night to His Day”: The Social Construction of Gender is available online. Text and Reader for the Transition from Inquiry to Academic Writing 617-30
- Bourgois, Philippe, “Workaday World, Crack Economy.” Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2008. 617-30
- In The Nation (1995), pages 706-11,
- What is the discipline of Anthropology? American Anthropological Association information
- SLA – Society for Linguistic Anthropology information
- Emily A. Schultz and Robert H. Lavenda authored this article. Cultural Anthropology: A New Way of Looking at the Human Condition, 2nd ed. Page 79 of the 2009 edition of Oxford University Press.
- Emily A. Schultz and Robert H. Lavenda authored this article. Cultural Anthropology: A New Way of Looking at the Human Condition, 2nd ed. pgs. 332-333 in New York: Oxford University Press, Incorporated, 2009.
Definition of CULTURE
Cul·ture|ˈkəl-chər first and foremost, the beliefs, practices, arts, and so on of a specific civilization or group of people, region, or period a research project on the Greek language and culture youth culture in today’s world Her work demonstrates the impact of popular culture on her. A unique society that has its own beliefs, methods of life, and artistic expressions, for example, is referred to as an ancientculture. It is critical to become familiar with various cultures. an approach of thinking, acting, or functioning that is prevalent in a particular location or organization (such as a business) The corporate/business culture of the organization is geared at increasing revenues.
2:the traditional beliefs, social structures, and material characteristics of a certain race, religion, or social group also: the distinctive characteristics of everyday existence (such as diversions or a style of life) that individuals in a certain location or period share popularculture Southernculture the collection of common attitudes, beliefs, objectives, and activities that distinguishes a certain institution or organization a business culture that is concerned with the bottom line in-depth investigation into the impact of computers on print culture c:the collection of values, norms or social practices connected with a specific field, activity, or societal trait It will take time to transform the materialistic society.
Human knowledge, belief, and action are all linked into a pattern that is dependent on the ability to learn and transfer information to following generations.
the process of developing one’s intellectual and moral faculties, particularly via education 6.
What Makes Up Your Company Culture?
Are you interested in having a clear understanding of what your workers are referring to when they talk about your company’s workplace culture? The work atmosphere that you provide for your staff is referred to as company culture. Employees are more motivated, happier, and more pleased when their needs and beliefs are compatible with those reflected in the workplace culture that you have created. Beginning with the initial application a potential employee submits to your business and continuing until the person is employed, both the employer and the prospective employee strive to discover if the candidate is a suitable cultural fit for the organization.
Culture refers to the setting in which you spend the most of your time at work.
In contrast to this, culture is something that cannot be observed directly, other than through its tangible expressions in the workplace.
While your firm has a distinct culture that has been formed by the workers that work for you, each new employee brings their own unique perspective to the table, enriching the overall work environment.
As a result, while a culture already exists when a new employee starts, he or she quickly becomes a part of the culture that all of the employees at the company are experiencing.
What Makes Up Your Culture?
Culture is like personality. In a person, the personality is made up of thevalues, beliefs, underlying assumptions, interests, experiences, upbringing, and habits that form a person’s conduct. Culture is made up of the values, beliefs, underlying assumptions, attitudes, andbehaviors shared by a group of people. Culture is the conduct that arises when a group comes at a set of—generally unstated and unwritten—rules for how they will operate together in a job. Your culture is made up of all of the life experiences that each person contributes to the company.
Middle managers are also significantin the building of your organizational culture as they are the glue that holds all of the rest of your workers in a manner that allows them to accept information and instruction.
How Do You See Culture
Each and every day at work, the visual and verbal components of an organization’s culture are visible and recognizable. Whether you are going through a work area, sitting in an office, attending a meeting, or dining in the lunchroom, the culture of the business is all around you and pervades your daily activities. Your group’s culture is reflected by the following:
- Language, decision-making, symbols and objects, myths and legends, the level of empowerment, celebrations, and daily labor routines are all discussed in further detail.
Something as basic as the things that adorn an employee’s desk may reveal a great deal about how employees perceive and engage in the culture of your firm. The content of your electronic bulletin board, the layout of your employment website, the substance of your business newsletter, the interaction of workers in meetings, and the manner in which individuals cooperate all say volumes about the culture of your firm. You can go on a culture walk to learn about, appreciate, and observe the present culture of your business.
If the culture that has formed is detrimental to the achievement of your company objectives or the environment you wish to give employees, culture transformation is a difficult, but doable, choice.
Enculturation: Helping New Employees
enculturation is a socialization process that helps new employees acclimate to and become a part of their new company’s corporate culture, whether it’s in their new office, department, workgroup, or anywhere else. Through orientation or onboarding meetings, as well as other Human Resources (HR) programs, several firms assist new workers in becoming acclimated to their organization’s culture. Departments should provide new workers with a plant that will assist them in learning their new job responsibilities.
They accomplish this through various behaviors such as:
- The sharing of the organization’s mission and vision, as well as the organization’s guiding principles, and values
- Ensuring that the new employee meets with the organization’s president and other key employees so that they can communicate the company’s culture and expectations
- Providing mini-updates at 30, 60, and 90 days to see how the employee is doing
- And assigning a well-informed, thoughtful mentor or buddywho can teach and introduce the new employee to additional longer-term opportunities.
Involving new employees in enculturation activities can help you determine that they are a good cultural match for your firm, as well as engage and onboard them into your desired organizational culture.
Defining Culture and Why It Matters to Sociologists
When we talk about culture, we are referring to a wide and diversified collection of primarily immaterial elements that make up our social lives. Cultural values and beliefs are defined by sociologists as being those that individuals have in common and may be used to characterize them as a group. Language, communication, and customs are also defined by sociologists as belonging to a culture. The tangible artifacts that are shared by a community or society are also considered to be part of its culture.
How Sociologists Define Culture
Cultural understanding is one of the most significant notions in sociology because sociologists acknowledge that culture plays a critical role in our social interactions. It is critical in the formation of social interactions, the maintenance and challenge of social order, the determination of how we make sense of the world and our role in it, as well as the moulding of our everyday actions and experiences in a democratic society. Non-material as well as material components are included in its composition.
- To summarize, Using these categories as a starting point, we may say that culture is comprised of our knowledge, common sense, assumptions, and expectations.
- It is also the symbols we use to represent meaning, ideas, and concepts (what sociologists refer to as ” symbology “).
- Culture is also defined by what we do, how we act, and how we perform (for example, theater and dance).
- Religion, secular holidays, and athletic events are all examples of collective behaviors in which we engage.
- Architecture, technical devices, and apparel, among other things, are all included in this category of culture.
- Parts of material culture are more usually referred to as cultural products than they are as material culture.
- Material culture arises from and is molded by the non-material parts of culture, as well as by the material aspects of culture.
- In contrast to this, the interaction between material and non-material culture is not one-sided.
- In the case of a strong documentary film (an part of material culture), it is possible that people’s attitudes and beliefs would change (i.e.
- As a result, cultural goods have a tendency to follow patterns.
In the case of music, cinema, television, and art for example, what has gone before affects the values, beliefs, and expectations of individuals who engage with them, which in turn affects the development of further cultural goods in the future.
Why Culture Matters to Sociologists
Because it plays such a big and crucial part in the development of social order, sociologists place a high value on culture in their research. When we talk about social order, we’re talking about how society is stable because people have come to agree on rules and conventions that allow us to collaborate, function as a society, as well as (hopefully) live together in peace and harmony. There are positive and negative sides to social order, according to sociologists. Both tangible and non-material parts of culture, according to the notion of traditional French sociologist Émile Durkheim, are significant in that they help to hold society together.
- Durkheim discovered via his studies that when individuals gather together to participate in rituals, they reinforce the culture that they share and, as a result, strengthen the social bonds that bind them together even more.
- Karl Marx, a well-known Prussian social theorist and activist, is credited with establishing the critical approach to culture in the field of social sciences.
- Subscribing to popular ideas, conventions and beliefs keeps individuals involved in uneven social institutions that do not operate in their best interests, but rather benefit a powerful minority, according to his reasoning.
- Marx’s theory is based on the assumption that success comes from hard work and dedication, and that anyone can live a good life if they do these things.
- In addition to being a force for tyranny and dominance, culture also has the potential to be a force for innovation, resistance, and self-determination.
Examples of Culture
In general, culture may be defined as the traditions, arts, and social interactions that are unique to a certain nation, people, or other group to which individuals identify or belong.
It may also be characterized as an appreciation for the arts and for human intellectual progress in other fields of study. In both perspectives, examples of culture may be a useful tool for gaining a fast knowledge of the subject matter. illustrative of culture
Culture Linked to Geography
Some features of culture are associated with a specific geographic area, such as a country or a geographic region.
National Identity (Country-Specific Culture)
Visiting a new (to you) nation and marveling at the way people in that country speak, think, and act, especially in comparison to what you’re accustomed to in your home country, is not uncommon when traveling.
- The languages of a country have an impact on its national identity and enable for successful communication. Dialects and accents can be used to distinguish between different subcultures that exist within a country. As countries approach their culture, they typically reflect this approach in how they spend their collective time, money, and energy
- This approach may also be mirrored in their legal system. Fashion, family life, and commercial interactions, among other aspects of a country’s etiquette and customs, can play an important part in shaping its culture. The use of nonverbal communication varies substantially from country to country. When viewed from a different perspective, the hard handshake that is required in the United States might be perceived as hostile. The beliefs of a country, both religious and historical in nature, are frequently at the heart of that nation’s culture
As an illustration, consider the following instances of cultural exposure peculiar to a particular country or national identity. It goes without saying that there are regional distinctions from one country to the other.
It’s likely that the place where you live has a distinct cultural identity, especially if you live in a somewhat large civilization like the United States. For example, in the United States, there are some cultural indicators that are shared across the country, such as a love of baseball and American football, or a fondness for apple pie and french fries. There are, nevertheless, significant cultural distinctions across different parts of the country as a whole.
- Being identified as a southern drawlor and speaking in a southern dialect helps people recognize a person as being originally from a specific region of the United States (the South). Throughout Canada, the slang vocabulary differs greatly from one location to the next. From one part of a country to another, different terms might be used to refer to the same subject in different ways. For example, carbonated beverages such as soda, pop, and soft drinks are referred to as such in different regions. Certain meals have a tendency to be connected with a specific geographical location. A deep dish pizza, for example, is the standard in Chicago, whereas a thinner crust pizza is the usual in New York
- Weather occurrences that are prevalent in a certain place are indicative of the culture of that region. Weather disasters such as hurricanes, fires, blizzard and tornadoes as well as typhoons can affect individuals in different parts of the world. Because of the way their inhabitants prefer to vote in many democratic nations, some qualities tend to be linked with areas within such countries.
Those are only a few illustrations of the cultural variances that might occur across various regions of the same nation.
Culture of Diversity
Depending on your location (state, city/town/province/country), you may live in a community that is extremely welcoming of individuals of various colors, genders, sexual orientations, national origins, or other aspects of variety. Then you are part of a community that places a high value on variety to the point where it is an integral element of the culture and identity of the people living there.
- The community calendar may be jam-packed with festivals and activities that bring together members of the community of many races and nationalities. Citizens who were born in other countries may be able to benefit from instructional lectures and research resources available at their local library. The possibility exists of many sporting activities available to residents of all genders, ages and abilities levels, including those who are impaired
- The agendas of municipal officials, local companies, and religious groups may encourage a wide range of attractive retail, educational, and religious activities
- Nevertheless, this is not guaranteed. Classes in community education that are specifically designed for foreign language acquisition may be easily available at reasonable prices. Diverse neighborhoods with a high concentration of immigrants are more likely to celebrate cultural diversity. Every September, for example, the city of New York stages a distinctive Caribbean Carnival.
Those activities would be exemplified as manifestations of a diverse culture in a community. Some communities are extremely accepting of differences and strive to be inclusive of all members. This frequently results in instances of cultural dissemination.
Identifying Examples of Cultures Around You
Everywhere you look, there are examples of culture to be found.
Working culture may be demonstrated in a multitude of ways, including how people dress, how offices are constructed, how workers are treated, and the manner in which a company incorporates its culture into its goods and services, as well as the manner in which it portrays itself to consumers.
- The design of an office might be either informal or formal. To foster a sense of equality among employees as well as comfort and productivity, employees may be encouraged to dress in a more informal manner. On important milestones in workers’ life, such as their birthdays, weddings, births, and funerals of family members, management may demonstrate a caring and friendly attitude by giving them cards and presents. Customer service excellence, personal acknowledgement of valued customers, and business participation in community and philanthropic organizations are all examples of how a caring culture may be presented
- There may be a cultural connection between the design and placement of the offices, with senior personnel having larger offices or cubicles that are the furthest away from the entrance.
The attitudes and behaviors of your coworkers are examples of the corporate culture that exists at your workplace.
Popular culture is determined by the activities of the general public. A person’s popular culture may be defined by what they listen to, what they read, what they dress, and how they communicate with others.
- The most popular music in a culture may come from performers who have made it to the Billboard Top 100 or from the newest YouTube pop sensations. In addition, social media influencers can have an impact on which businesses are in demand as well as which activities or fashions are most popular. Best-selling novels, as well as famous films and television series, may have a significant impact on the attitudes and experiences of a culture’s citizens. The ability to swiftly connect and exchange ideas through social networking may be a valuable tool for people of various ages, ethnicities, hobbies, genders, and sexual orientations. Fashion trends may serve as a barometer for cultural trends. Casual clothing may indicate a more laid-back lifestyle, but rapidly changing fashion may reflect rapidly changing cultural trends. Language is a crucial tool for conveying popular culture experiences to others. To describe the contemporary culture, a variety of languages and slang terms can be used in conjunction.
Almost everything on this list is an example of popular culture. Trends may shift in an instant; what is today’s pop culture craze could be yesterday’s news in the blink of an eye.
High Culture and Sophisticated Taste
In addition to the traditional meaning of culture, which refers to the attitudes and ideas held by a whole group of people, there is another definition of culture as well.
This term is associated with high culture. In this context, possessing what has come to be characterized as refined taste in the fine arts or humanities is referred to as having “culture.” Examples of this type of culture include the following:
- An appreciation for opera
- A love of classical music
- Taking pleasure in the ballet
- Seeing and admiring art displays
- Reading excellent literature, particularly the classics
- And so on. Gourmet cuisine is something to be admired. superb wine knowledge and competence at a sophisticated level
It is sometimes referred to as “cultured” to describe those who have an appreciation for such things. Ironically, persons who enjoy this form of culture are more likely than others to be critical of popular culture. People who are perceived to be members of the so-called “cultural elite” may choose to distance themselves from popular culture or from what is believed to be standard practice in society.
Recognizing Examples of Culture
You may not consider yourself to be exposed to these many forms of culture on a daily basis, but you instinctively understand that certain attitudes, thoughts, and ideas exist when you visit a certain location, even if you do not think about it. In addition, you can detect the difference between other civilizations just by looking at them.
- When you visit a stuffy and formal law office, the experience is going to be very different than when you visit a casual digital start-up. Invariably, traveling to a modern city like Amsterdam will feel different than traveling to an extremely conservative nation like a Muslim country in the Middle East.
Throughout your day you are exposed to a wide range of attitudes, feelings, ideas, and items that are all manifestations of culture. These examples are related to the form of culture that may be characterized simply as a group of people’s common attitudes, values, and beliefs.
This form of culture is vital because it helps you learn how to think, act, and feel in a way that is acceptable to the majority of people in society. The reason for experiencing culture shock when you suddenly relocate to a new nation or begin interacting with a new group of individuals who have quite different attitudes and beliefs from those you are accustomed to is also explained.
It is critical to understand the various meanings and forms of culture that exist. When you consider various instances of culture, you gain a greater awareness of the world around you, as well as the ideas, beliefs, and values that you encounter on a daily basis. Investigate how slang impacts the English language in order to have a better understanding of culture and its impact. Reviewing this dictionary of major terminology in cultural anthropology can help you improve your abilities to discuss and explain cultures.