- 1 10 Oldest Civilizations in the World (Updated 2021)
- 1.1 10. Akkadian Empire
- 1.2 Did You Know?
- 1.3 9. Ancient Egyptians (c. 3,150 BCE – 332 BCE)
- 1.4 Did You Know?
- 1.5 8. Indus Valley Civilization
- 1.6 Did You Know?
- 1.7 7. Norte Chico
- 1.8 Did You Know?
- 1.9 6. Mesopotamia (c. 6,500 BCE – 539 BCE)
- 1.10 Did You Know?
- 1.11 5. Jiahu (c. 7,000 BCE – 5,700 BCE)
- 1.12 Did You Know?
- 1.13 4. ‘Ain Ghazal (c. 7,200 BCE – 5,000 BCE)
- 1.14 Did You Know?
- 1.15 3. Çatalhöyük (c. 7,500 BCE – 5,700 BCE)
- 1.16 Did You Know?
- 1.17 2. Aboriginal Australians
- 1.18 Did You Know?
- 1.19 1. San People
- 1.20 Did You Know?
- 2 The 10 Oldest Ancient Civilizations That Have Ever Existed
- 3 10. The Incan Civilization
- 4 9. The Aztec Civilization
- 5 8. The Roman Civilization
- 6 7. The Persian Civilization
- 7 6. The Ancient Greek Civilization
- 8 5. The Chinese Civilization
- 9 4. The Maya Civilization
- 10 3. The Ancient Egyptian Civilization
- 11 2. The Indus Valley Civilization
- 12 1. The Mesopotamian Civilization
- 13 Conclusion
- 14 DNA Study Finds Aboriginal Australians World’s Oldest Civilization
- 15 Aboriginal Australians are Earth’s oldest civilization: DNA study
- 16 The Oldest Living Civilization
10 Oldest Civilizations in the World (Updated 2021)
While the first hominid or human-like animals first arose approximately 2 million years ago, early homo sapiens, or modern humans, are a comparatively recent evolutionary development, having first arrived in Africa roughly a century ago. Agriculture, armament, art, social organization, and politics were all developed thousands of years after homo sapiens first emerged, laying the groundwork for what would ultimately become human civilization. However, while the Mesopotamians are often regarded as the world’s first urban civilization, other earlier peoples built sophisticated societies and cultures that may also be defined as civilizations, and these peoples have been included on this list to demonstrate their significance.
10. Akkadian Empire
Geographical Area: Mesopotamia, the Levant, and Anatolia, about 2334 BCE – 2154 BCE (modern-day Iraq, Syria, and Turkey) Notable accomplishments include: One of the world’s earliest empires was founded in China. Still Existing: Nophoto courtesy of Wikimedia Commons through Rama The Empire of the Akkadians is frequently referred to as the world’s first empire. During their reign, the empire brought together Akkadian and Sumerian speakers under one control, and their civilisation spread over Mesopotamia, the Levant, and Anatolia (modern-day Iraq, Syria, and Turkey).
The Akkadians had regular commerce with the Indus Valley Civilization, which was located nearby.
Many magnificent carved seals and cast metal statues were created by the inhabitants of the Akkadian Empire, which was a skilled craftsman’s paradise.
Did You Know?
The fall of the Akkadian Empire resulted in the development of two great empires: Assyria in the north and Babylon in the south, both of which are still in existence today.
9. Ancient Egyptians (c. 3,150 BCE – 332 BCE)
Egypt’s Nile River Valley, during 3150 BCE to 332 BCELocation: Egypt’s Nile River Valley The Great Pyramids of Giza are among the most notable achievements. Is anyone still around:No image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons King Menes united Upper and Lower Egypt and created a capital city at White Walls circa 3,150 BCE, according to legend. This is when ancient Egyptian civilisation is said to have officially begun (later called Memphis). Among the ancient civilizations, the Egyptians are perhaps the most well-known, and while their contributions to social, cultural, and political advancement were numerous, they are best remembered for their construction of the Great Pyramids, which have stood the test of time and continue to be considered one of the world’s seven wonders.
Some of their other accomplishments include the development of a mathematical system, a practical and successful medical system, irrigation systems, the first known planked boats, glass technology, and new kinds of writing.
Egyptian culture has left an indelible mark on the globe, and many of the things we take for granted today were invented by the ancient Egyptians, including mints, paper, door locks, alarm clocks, concrete, and a slew of other items.
Did You Know?
While the gorgeous hieroglyphics of the Ancient Egyptians are often associated with the civilisation, it was not the typical writing system used by the people of the time period. Scribes only utilized hieroglyphics in exceptional cases, and they mostly used hieratic and subsequently, demotic script (both were simplified versions of hieroglyphics).
8. Indus Valley Civilization
South Asia, around 3300 BCE to 1300 BCELocation: South Asia (modern-day Pakistan and northwest India) Notable accomplishments include: one of the earliest systems of consistent weights and measures, as well as the development of urban planning. Is anyone still around:No Saqib Qayyum contributed this photo to Wikimedia Commons. The Indus Valley Civilisation, also known as the Harappan Civilization, was the world’s first urban civilization, and it flourished in South Asia (modern-day Pakistan and northwest India).
They also invented a variety of technologies, including one of the world’s earliest consistent weights and measures systems, which was devised by the inhabitants of the Indus Valley.
Beyond mathematics and engineering, the Indus Valley Civilization was also well-versed in a variety of arts and crafts.
Did You Know?
There is no indication that the Indus Valley Society was governed over by a single monarch or any unique ruler, which is surprising for such a big and prosperous civilization. Instead, it is most probable that the Indus Valley Civilization was governed by a central authority, which would explain the sophisticated city planning that was evident.
7. Norte Chico
Peru was in the c.4000 BCE to 1800 BCELocation: Peru Notable accomplishments include monumental architecture, such as sunken circular plazas and earthwork platform mounds, as well as a number of other structures. Is anyone still around:No image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons In the Americas, theNorte Chico culture (also known as the Caral or Caral-supe civilization) is often regarded as the most ancient civilization that has ever been discovered. The development of the civilization’s first city took place approximately 3,500 BCE, and the Norte Chico people prospered from this time until a period of collapse around 1,800 BCE.
The Norte Chico people, on the other hand, are well-known for their monumental architecture, which includes massive earthwork platform mounds and sunken circular plazas, among other features (such as the one pictured above).
Did You Know?
Six pyramids have been discovered in Caral, the city that bears the other name of the Norte Chico civilization – they are the oldest pyramids outside of Egypt and are actually older than the first Egyptian pyramids.
They are the oldest pyramids outside of Egypt and are older than the first Egyptian pyramids.
6. Mesopotamia (c. 6,500 BCE – 539 BCE)
Ancient Mesopotamia was the setting for this period (c.6500 BCE to 539 BCELocation: Ancient Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq) Notable accomplishments include: The wheel was invented in the year 1870. Is anyone still around:No image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons Around 10,000 BCE, some of the earliest fully established Neolithic societies began to settle in the fertile crescent, which included Mesopotamia, and eventually spread throughout the world. People in northern Mesopotamia began cultivating barley and wheat around 8,000 BCE, and they utilized the grains to produce beer, gruel, soup, and finally bread.
6,500 – 3,800 BCE), which is considered to be the beginning of civilized society.
The Sumerians were the first civilizations to create commerce and build industries like as weaving, leatherwork, metallurgy, brickwork, and pottery, among other things.
Evidence shows that the wheel was originally employed for pottery production rather for transportation at the time of its conception.
Did You Know?
Ancient Mesopotamia was the setting for this era, which lasted around 6500 BCE to 539 BCE (modern-day Iraq) Highlighted accomplishments include the following: Wheels were created as a result of this innovation. Whether or whether he is still alive: source: Wikimedia Commons, used with permission Around 10,000 BCE, some of the earliest fully established Neolithic societies began to settle in the fertile crescent, which included Mesopotamia, and eventually spread throughout the region. A little more than 8,000 years ago, humans in northern Mesopotamia began cultivating barley and wheat, which they used to produce beer, gruel soup, and eventually bread.
6,500 – 3,800 BCE), which is considered to be the beginning of civilization.
Trade and industries like as weaving, leatherwork, metallurgy, masonry, and pottery were established by the Sumerians as early as 3000 BC.
Evidence shows that the wheel was originally utilized for pottery production rather for transportation at the time of the invention.
5. Jiahu (c. 7,000 BCE – 5,700 BCE)
Henan, ChinaEpoch: c.7000 BCE to 5700 BCELocation: Henan, China The Jiahu symbols, which are among the first forms of writing, and some of the earliest playable instruments are among the most notable achievements. Is anyone still around:No image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons Jiahuwas a hamlet located in the central plains of ancient China, and the people who lived there were responsible for the development of some of the oldest characteristics of Chinese cultural tradition. Because archaeologists cannot agree on whether or not the Jiahu people were a member of the broader group of Peiligang, the Jiahu civilization is sometimes included with that of the Peiligang culture when discussing the Peiligang culture.
People from Jiahu, in contrast to the Peiligang, grew rice, and the Jiahu settlement had been in existence for many hundred years before the first Peiligang villages appeared.
The Jiahu symbols are a set of 16 different marks found on prehistoric objects that are thought to have been evidence of sign usage rather than systematic writing, according to some researchers.
Did You Know?
China’s Henan Province was home to people who lived in the period c.7000 BCE to 5700 BCELocation:Henan Province The Jiahu symbols, which are among the first forms of writing, and some of the earliest playable instruments are among the most significant achievements. Whether or whether he is still alive: source: Wikimedia Commons, used with permission People who resided in Jiahu produced some of the earliest characteristics of Chinese culture, which may be traced back to the settlement’s location on ancient China’s central plain.
However, there is evidence to suggest that they were two distinct cultures that formed around the same time period, rather than one.
It is also said to have produced the world’s oldest wine, some of the world’s first playable music (a large number of flutes have been discovered in Jiahu), and maybe the world’s earliest example of Chinese writing.
4. ‘Ain Ghazal (c. 7,200 BCE – 5,000 BCE)
c.7200 BCE – 5000 BCELocation:Ayn GhazalEpoch:c.7200 BCE – 5000 BCELocation: (modern-day Amman, Jordan) Among his notable accomplishments are the ‘Ain Ghazal sculptures. Still Existing: Nophoto courtesy of Wikimedia Commons ‘Ain Ghazalwas an early farming settlement, and the people who lived there are credited with constructing some of the oldest monuments of the human figure in history. The figurines, which are constructed of plaster, include entire statues and busts of men, women, and children, as well as busts of animals.
Additionally, the inhabitants of ‘Ain Ghazal were farmers who cultivated grains like as wheat and barley as well as legumes such as peas, lentils, and chickpeas.
When it came to food consumption, the residents of ‘Ain Ghazal enjoyed a broad array of options.
Did You Know?
There has been evidence of social class discrimination uncovered in ‘Ain Ghazal, including how only a small number of people, roughly one per 15-20 years, were buried while the majority of the rest were thrown out in the rubbish.
3. Çatalhöyük (c. 7,500 BCE – 5,700 BCE)
Southern Anatolia, circa 7500 BCE to 5700 BCELocation:Southern Anatolia, circa 7500 BCE to 5700 BCELocation: (modern-day Turkey) Notable accomplishments include: One of the first urban communities on the continent Is anyone still around:No image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons The village of Talhöyüki is one of the world’s earliest urban cities and one of the best-preserved Neolithic settlements, dating back to the Neolithic period.
Excavations at the site have uncovered indications of prehistoric social organization and cultural activities, which are being investigated further.
Atalhöyük had an average population of between 5,000 and 7,000 people, according to certain estimates.
The occupants of atalhöyük also maintained a clean environment in their living quarters and disposed of their excrement and food in a location outside of the remains of the settlement, according to archaeological data.
The residents of atalhöyük also buried their dead, painted murals, sculpted figurines, and even plastered and painted skulls to resemble human faces to commemorate their loved ones who passed away.
Did You Know?
Atalhöyük has no identifiable temples, but researchers believe the people who lived there practiced a religious system replete with symbols because large concentrations of certain symbols have been found in some rooms, which may have served as shrines or meeting places, according to the research team.
2. Aboriginal Australians
Approximately 50,000 years ago until the present Location:Australia Highlights include the world’s earliest known ritual cremation, some of the world’s oldest known rock art, and construction of some of the world’s oldest buildings (fish traps) Yes, I’m still around. image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons Despite the fact that the people who landed in Mesopotamia are widely attributed with founding the world’s first civilisation, recent study indicates that Aboriginal Australians are among the world’s earliest known civilizations.
Between 40,000 and 31,000 years ago, it is thought that this ancient tribe of Aboriginal Australians arrived in Australia for the first time.
The discovery of human remains near Lake Mungo in New South Wales, Australia, in 1969 indicates that they were cremated, making them one of the world’s earliest known cremations.
Did You Know?
The Aboriginals of Brewarrina erected one of the world’s oldest known structures, the Ngunnhu fish traps of Brewarrina, which are at least 40,000 years old and are one of the world’s oldest known structures.
1. San People
Approximately 140,000 to 100,000 years ago to the present African nations such as Botswana and Namibia, as well as countries such as Zimbabwe and Lesotho and South Africa are located in the southern hemisphere. Some of the earliest known rock drawings, as well as the first known ceremonial event, are among the notable accomplishments. Yes, I’m still around. photo courtesy of Wikimedia Commons, courtesy of Ian Sewell The San People of Southern Africa may trace their origins back to ancient peoples who lived between 140,000 and 100,000 years ago, according to historical records.
San were semi-nomadic hunters and gatherers in the past, but today many of them work as farm workers, maintain nature preserves, and do a variety of other modest tasks because hunting and gathering alone is no longer feasible for their communities.
In a cave in Botswana’s Tsodilo Hills, archaeologists unearthed spearheads that were 70,000 years old and had been sacrificed to the python, according to the discovery.
They are also noteworthy for housing the world’s densest concentration of rock art, which can be found on the Tsolido Hills’ cliff faces. This type of artwork was also created by the ancient San people.
Did You Know?
A royalty deal for their traditional knowledge of theHoodia gordonii, which is now being turned into a pharmaceutical medicine for dieting, was signed by the San, making it the world’s first royalty agreement.
The 10 Oldest Ancient Civilizations That Have Ever Existed
A royalty deal for their traditional knowledge of theHoodia gordonii, which is now being turned into a pharmaceutical medicine for dieting, was signed by the San, making it the world’s first such arrangement.
10. The Incan Civilization
Incan civilisation is the name of the civilization. In the period 1438 AD to 1532 AD, the original location was Peru, which is now in the United States. Ecuador, Peru, and Chile are the countries where I am now based. The following are the major highlights: During the pre-Columbian era, it was the most powerful empire in South America. During the pre-Columbian era, the Incan Empire was the most powerful empire in all of South America. Cusco, which is located in modern-day Peru, served as the civilisation’s administrative, military, and political capital.
The Incan civilisation was a well-established and prosperous culture at the time of its decline.
He carried on the tradition of ancestor worship into the modern day.
Because of this, the Incas saw a huge increase in power.
9. The Aztec Civilization
Aztec civilisation is the name of the culture. From 1345 AD until 1521 AD, the original location of the civilization was the southcentral area of pre-Columbian Mexico. Mexico is where I’m now based. The following are the major highlights: Nahuatl surpassed Spanish as the dominant language. The Aztecs appeared on the scene around at the same time as the Incas were beginning to establish themselves as formidable competitors in South America. During the 1200s and early 1300s, the people of present-day Mexico resided in three major competing towns: Tenochtitlan, Texcoco, and Tlacopan.
- Around 1325, these competitors formed an alliance, and the new state rose to prominence in the Valley of Mexico, eventually becoming the dominant power.
- When the Aztecs rose to power, it was less than a century after the collapse of another significant civilisation in Mexico and Central America – the Mayans.
- Local governments remained in place, and they were required to pay varied sums of tribute to the Triple Alliance, depending on their location.
- The Spanish, on the other hand, came.
The loss of the Aztecs in this pivotal battle ultimately resulted in the demise of the once-famous Aztec Empire.
8. The Roman Civilization
Roman civilisation is the name of the civilization. 550 BC to 465 AD is the period under consideration. Village of the Latini was the original location. Rome is the current location. The following are the major highlights: Ancient civilization with the most strength The beginnings of Roman culture may be traced back to the sixth century BC. Even the narrative of the founding of ancient Rome is shrouded in mythology and legend is shrouded in myth. A significant portion of area was controlled by the Roman Empire at its height, and all of the modern-day Mediterranean countries were formerly a part of the Roman Empire.
They established a council known as the Senate, which was in charge of overseeing their affairs.
In addition to Julius Caesar, Trajan, and Augustus, Rome was also the site of the rise and fall of some of the greatest rulers in human history.
After thousands of years, millions of barbarians from the northern and eastern hemispheres of Europe overran the Roman Empire.
- Top 10 Religious Practices in Ancient Rome
- Top 10 Famous People in Ancient Rome
- Top 10 Religious Practices in Ancient Rome Top 10 Significant Events in the History of Ancient Rome (BC)
- Top 10 Ancient Roman Inventions
- Top 10 Significant Events in the History of Ancient Rome (AD)
7. The Persian Civilization
Persian civilisation is the name of the civilization. 550 BC to 331 BCOriginal location:Egypt in the west to Turkey in the north, and via Mesopotamia to the Indus river in the east Present-day Iran is the setting for this story. The following are the major highlights: Highway No. 1 (Royal Road) When the ancient Persian civilisation was at its peak, it was the most powerful empire on the planet. But that was a long time ago. Despite the fact that they were only in power for a little more than 200 years, the Persians conquered areas covering more than two million square miles.
Before 550 BC, Persia (or Persis, as it was known at the time) was divided into factions under the leadership of a number of different commanders, and they were able to build such a massive empire in such a short period of time.
In fact, his invasion was so swift that by the end of 533 BC, he had already conquered India, which was thousands of miles away in the east!
Ancient Persia was a powerful empire that reigned over most of central Asia and Egypt at its height. But all changed in 330 BC, when a renowned Macedonian soldier named Alexander the Great brought the whole Persian Empire to its knees and effectively brought the civilisation to an end.
6. The Ancient Greek Civilization
Greek civilisation is the name of the civilization. Period of time: 2700–479 BC Italy, Sicily, North Africa, and as far west as France were the original locations. Greece is the current location. The following are the major highlights: Concepts of democracy and the Senate, as well as the Olympics, are discussed. It is possible that the ancient Greeks were not the world’s first civilisation, but they were unquestionably one of the most influential. Despite the fact that the Cycladic and Minoan civilizations (2700 BC–1500 BC) were responsible for the emergence of ancient Greece, there is evidence of graves in the Franchthi Cave in Argolid, Greece, that date back to around 7250 BCE.
As a result of these historical periods, a number of ancient Greeks came to public attention, many of whom had far-reaching consequences for the globe and are still remembered today.
They were crucial in laying the groundwork for contemporary mathematics, biology, and physics.
- Top 10 Most Important People in Ancient Greece
- Top 10 Most Famous Clothes in Ancient Greece
- Top 10 Most Important Places in Ancient Greece
- Top 10 Most Important Places in Ancient Greece The top ten inventions and discoveries made by the ancient Greeks
- Top 10 Ancient Greek Goddesses
- Top 10 Ancient Greek Gods
- Top 10 Ancient Greek Goddesses
5. The Chinese Civilization
Chinese civilisation is the name of the civilization. 1600 BC to 1046 BC is the time span covered by this article. Yellow River and Yangtze area were the original locations. China is the country in which I am now located. The following are the major highlights: Paper and silk were also invented around this time. Ancient China, also known as Han China, comes in at number five on the list and has unquestionably one of the most varied histories on the planet. Taking into account all of the dynasties that have ever governed in China, from the very first to the very last, a very long period of time must be covered in order to complete the task.
Approximately 2700 BC marked the beginning of the famous Yellow Emperor’s reign, which resulted in the establishment of several dynasties that would go on to control the entirety of mainland China.
There followed a succession of dynasties that controlled the country for varying lengths of time until the Xinhai Revolution brought the Qing dynasty to an end in 1912 AD, thereby ending the country’s history.
Nevertheless, at this time, the Chinese had already contributed to the globe with some of its most important discoveries and goods, including gunpowder, paper and printing, the compass and other navigational aids, alcohol, cannons, and many more. Likewise, see:
- Discoveries and inventions made by ancient Chinese inventors and scientists
- Top 10 Astonishing Ancient Chinese Mythology Stories
- Top 10 Marvelous Pieces of Ancient Chinese Art
- Top 10 Astonishing Ancient Chinese Mythology Stories
4. The Maya Civilization
Maya civilisation is the name of this culture. 2600 BC to 900 AD is the time span. Original location: Somewhere in the vicinity of the present-day Yucatan Current location: Mexico’s Yucatan, Quintana Roo, Campeche, Tabasco, and Chiapas states, as well as Guatemala, Belize, El Salvador, and Honduras. The following are the major highlights: Astronomy is a difficult subject to grasp. The ancient Maya civilisation, which lived in Central America from from 2600 BC to the present, has received great attention due to the calendar it introduced.
- It wasn’t until 700 BC that the Mayans had developed their own system of writing, which they used to cut stone calendars that were based on the sun.
- The planned conclusion date for the project was December 21, 2012.
- They, along with their neighbors the Aztecs, created pyramids, many of which are larger than those in Egypt.
- The Maya people, on the other hand, did not totally disappear; their descendants may still be found in some regions of Central America.
3. The Ancient Egyptian Civilization
Egyptian civilisation is the name of the civilization. Period: 3150 BC–30 BCOriginal location: Nile’s banksCurrent location: EgyptDate of discovery: The following are the major highlights: Pyramides are being constructed. Ancient Egypt is one of the world’s oldest and most culturally diverse civilizations, and it is also one of the most prosperous. The ancient Egyptian civilisation, a gorgeous civilization that flourished on the banks of the Nile, is renowned for its enormous culture, its pharaohs, the lasting pyramids, and the Sphinx.
According to classical Egyptian chronology, the civilisation came into being approximately 3150 BC with the political union of Upper and Lower Egypt under the first pharaoh.
In ancient Egypt, the history can be divided into a series of stable kingdoms separated by periods of relative insecurity known as intermediate periods: the Old Kingdom of the Early Bronze Age, the Middle Kingdom of the Middle Bronze Age, and the New Kingdom of the Late Bronze Age; the Old Kingdom of the Early Bronze Age; and the New Kingdom of the Late Bronze Age.
It was during the New Kingdom that ancient Egypt reached its height, when pharaohs such as Ramesses the Great reigned with such dominance that another contemporaneous civilisation, the Nubians, also fell under Egyptian control. Likewise, see:
- Top 10 Ancient Egyptian Gods
- Top 10 Ancient Egyptian Paintings
- Top 10 Ancient Egyptian Statues
2. The Indus Valley Civilization
The Indus Valley civilisation is the name of this civilization. 3300 BC to 1900 BC is the time period under consideration. the area around the Indus river’s basin was the original location Currently, the region stretches from northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India. The following are the major highlights: With a total land area of 1.25 million km2, it is one of the most widespread civilizations. Known as “the Indus Valley Civilization,” it is one of the earliest civilizations on our list and is at the very core of all subsequent civilizations that have emerged in the Indus Valley region over time.
This ancient civilisation, together with Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia, was one of three early civilizations of the ancient world, and it was the most extensive of the three, occupying an area of 1.25 million kilometers square.
With names such as the Harappan civilisation and the Mohenjo-Daro civilization, which were both called after the archaeological locations where the civilization’s ruins were discovered, the peak period of this civilization is believed to have lasted between 2600 BC and around 1900 BC.
The inhabitants of the Indus Valley civilisation were extremely accurate in their measurements of length, mass, and time, and it is clear from the objects discovered during excavations that the culture was also well-versed in the arts and crafts of the period.
1. The Mesopotamian Civilization
Mesopotamian civilisation is the name of the civilization. Three thousand five hundred and fifty years before Christ Original location: bordered by the Zagros mountains in the northeast and the Arabian plateau in the southeast Iraq, Syria, and Turkey are the current locations. Meaning: The area between two rivers (ancient Greek) The following are the major highlights: The world’s first civilisation may be traced back to this time. And here it is: the world’s first civilisation, which has yet to be discovered.
According to most historians, ancient Mesopotamia existed between 3300 and 750 BCE, with the most recent date being 3300 BCE.
Approximately 8000 BC marks the beginning of human development of the concept of agriculture, with people gradually beginning to domesticate animals for food and to aid them in farming activities as well.
It was the Mesopotamian culture that improved this, adding to and formalizing all of these institutions, and uniting them to produce the world’s first civilisation, according to historians.
They flourished in the territories of modern-day Iraq that were then known as Babylonia, Sumer, and the Assyrian Highlands, as well as other parts of the world. Likewise, see:
- The Epic of Gilgamesh
- The Top 11 Mesopotamian Inventions and Discoveries
- And more.
Many aspects of modern culture and civilization may be traced back to the oldest civilizations, which arose millions of years after the emergence of the human species. When compared to an era when there were no clear methods of communication and hunting was the major source of sustenance, human civilization has progressed significantly. Agriculture gradually displaced foraging, animals were domesticated, civilizations were formed and evolved, and finally these developments culminated in the cultures that humans now inhabit.
Throughout history, from the very beginning of civilization to the present day, what we have become is a culmination of all civilizations that have come before us.
DNA Study Finds Aboriginal Australians World’s Oldest Civilization
It has been reported that according to University of Cambridge, the recently published article is the first thorough DNA analysis of Aboriginal Australians. An international team of researchers obtained permission from indigenous Australian elders and leaders to extract DNA from the saliva of 83 Aboriginal Australians and 25 Papuans from New Guinea and sequence their complete genetic information. The researchers worked in close collaboration with the elders and leaders of indigenous Australian communities.
In contrast to the European and Asian ancestral groups, which separated in the genetic record around 42,000 years ago, the indigenous Papuan and Australian ancestral groups, which separated in the genetic record approximately 58,000 years ago as they ventured eastward, were separated even earlier, the researchers say.
- The wave of migration arrived in Sahul some 50,000 years ago, an ancient supercontinent that included present-day Australia, Tasmania, and New Guinea before being separated by increasing sea levels 10,000 years ago.
- Hunter in the Australian Outback who is aboriginal.
- They hypothesize that early flooding of the Carpentaria Basin resulted in Australia and New Guinea being separated by just a thin, impassable strip of land, which they attribute to the split.
- “The genetic diversity among Aboriginal Australians is extraordinary,” said Anna-Sapfo Malaspinas, one of the study’s primary authors and an assistant professor at the Universities of Copenhagen and Bern.
- ‘Because the continent has been inhabited for such a long period of time, we discover that populations from southwestern Australia are genetically more distinct from people from northeastern Australia than, for example, Native Americans are from Siberians,’ says the researcher.
- One probable explanation is that individuals speaking this language made a second journey to Australia some 4,000 years ago, and that this was the beginning of a new wave of immigration.
- The genetic trace of these “ghost-like” migrants has inexplicably vanished despite the fact that they had a profound effect on ancient Australian civilization.
- “It’s a really bizarre scenario,” Willerslev added.
- They have the ability to alter the way people talk and think, and then they vanish like ghosts.
- This might have occurred for a variety of religious or cultural reasons about which we can only conjecture.
- A recent research found that an unknown human cousin contributes around four percent of the Aboriginal Australian genome to the population.
“We don’t know who these people were, but they were a distant relative of Denisovans (an extinct human species from Siberia).
Aboriginal Australians are Earth’s oldest civilization: DNA study
- On 83 Aboriginal Australians and 25 Highland Papuans, genetic information was gathered through genome sequencing. As a result of the research, it is shown how ancient Indigenous Australian cultures are.
Aboriginal Australians are the oldest known culture on Earth, according to a new genetic research. Their ancestors date back around 75,000 years, according to the study. On Wednesday, a group of international academics – including nine Aboriginal leaders – published the results of their research in the journal Nature. The researchers obtained genetic data from 83 Aboriginal Australians and 25 Highland Papuans living in Papua New Guinea for their study. They split from Eurasians 57,000 years ago, following a single migration from Africa that occurred approximately 75,000 years ago, according to the research.
“The significance of this study for me is that it provides some evidence of how long we have been in Australia,” Colleen Wall, an Aboriginal elder and Senior Woman of the Dauwa Kau’bvai Nation, said in an interview with CNN.
One founding population
Since only three Aboriginal Australian whole genome sequences have been described to date (one from an ancient hair sample from Australia’s Western Desert and two other historic sequences whose exact origins were unknown), this study represents the most comprehensive investigation into indigenous Australian origins to date. The findings shed light on the origins of Aboriginal Australians, a topic that has been hotly disputed in academic circles for decades, with studies first positing that Australia had been inhabited many times by different groups of people.
They discovered that Aboriginal Australians split from Papuans around 37,000 years ago, before the Australian landmass separated from New Guinea approximately 10,000 years ago, according to the researchers.
As Lambert explained to CNN, “There has been an enormous amount of variance through time between, for example, Aboriginal people in the northwest and the southwest of Australia,” he said.
Breaking down distinctions
Accordind to Lambert, this study – which collected genetic data from 83 Aboriginals who spoke Pama-Nyungan – lay the groundwork for understanding how Aboriginal Australian communities have altered over history. But he went on to say that further study should be done on the 10% of Aboriginals who were not from Pama-Nyungan language groupings, because they could have distinct genetic data.
Simply stating that Aboriginal Australians are the oldest ancient civilisation on the planet is a remarkable achievement in itself. The researchers, on the other hand, emphasized another accomplishment.
According to Lambert, “In a true sense, the most important thing about the study is that we have nine Aboriginal elders as co-authors, who were involved in talking to indigenous tribes across Australia,” which is the most essential part about it. In addition, Lambert emphasized the necessity of indigenous groups taking an active involvement in research concerning themselves, saying, “We were attempting to break down the divide between scientists and indigenous people.”
The Oldest Living Civilization
During his missionary studies in China, an elderly missionary student made the observation that Chinese history is “distant, repetitive, opaque, and, worst of all, there is just too much of it.” In terms of written history, China has the longest continuous history of any country on the planet, with 3,500 years of documented history. And even 3,500 years ago, China’s civilisation was a long time in the making! Considering history as a perplexing list of who begat whom, who succeeded whom, who slaughtered whom, with just the odd concubine tossed in for human interest is disappointing to a student in and of itself.
Many people believe that, in terms of art and philosophy, no civilization has ever excelled that of China throughout its great creative times.
Examples include: paper, gunpowder, the compass, silk, tea, and porcelain.
We Were Once the “Backward” Ones
When it comes to instilling a new and genuine respect for the Chinese people, nothing beats a quick glance into their history. Chinese people are generally considered to be a “backward” people who are less civilized than we are, and it is true that they have lagged behind the procession of what we carelessly refer to as civilization—mechanization and the fruits of scientific discovery—in the last hundred years. However, they are only now beginning to catch up. There are a variety of factors contributing to this temporary regress, which we shall discuss further later.
Until the Opium War of 1840–42, European traders and voyagers who visited the faraway continent of China were filled with awe, believing the Chinese to be a nation of superior knowledge and civilization.
He loved the widespread usage of paper money in China, despite the fact that he was originally from the banking and commercial center of Venice.
He also recounted how the Chinese mined and burnt a type of stone that was far superior to wood as a fuel, which he presented to a European audience that had not yet discovered coal.
|Western World||Dynasties||Chinese World|
|1800||BRONZE AGE||NEOLITHIC AGE. Agricultural communities in Yellow River valley cultivated loess soil with stone tools. Domesticated dog and pig. Hunting and fishing tribes in Yangtse valley.|
|1500||EGYPTIAN NEW EMPIRE||BRONZE AGE. Primitive Yellow River city states. Probable use of irrigation. Shang-inscribed bones give base line of history. Sheep and goats domesticated. Writing. Beautiful bronze castings. Potter’s wheel. Stone carving. Silk culture and weaving. Wheeled vehicles.|
|1100||CHOU||ANCIENT FEUDALISM. Expansion from Yellow River to Yangtse valley. “City and country” cells. Increased irrigation. Eunuchs. Horse-drawn war chariots. 841 B.C. earliest authenticated date.|
|Greek lyric poets|
|600||IRON AGE. Round coins. Magnetism known.|
|CLASSICAL PERIOD. Confucius. Lao-tze.|
|Punic Wars||BEGINNING OF EMPIRE. Great Wall.|
|200||CHIN||Palace architecture. Trade through Central Asia with Roman Empire. Ink|
|Carthage and Corinth destroyed||HAN|
|A.D.||Birth of Christ||First Buddhist influences.|
|200||3 KINGDOMS (CHIN; WEI; SUNG, CHI, LIANG, CHEN)|
|300||Constantine||Political disunity but cultural progress and spread.|
|Roman Empire divided|
|400||Buddhism flourishing. Use of coal.|
|Odoacer takes Rome||Trade with Indo-China and Siam.|
|600||SUI||Large-scale unification. Grand Canal.|
|Mohammed’s Hegira||TANG||ZENITH OF CULTURE. Chinese culture reaches Japan. Turk and Tungus alliances.|
|Moslems stopped at Tours||Revival of Confucianism weakens power of Buddhist monasteries. Mohammedanism. Cotton from India. Porcelain. First printed book. State examinations organized. Rise of Khitan. Foot binding. Poetry, painting, sculpture.|
|Holy Roman Empire||5 DYNASTIES|
|1000||LIAO, CHIN, SUNG||Wang An-shih.|
|CRUSADES||Classical Renaissance. Paper money.|
|1100||Rise of Jurchid. Compass.|
|Navigation and mathematics.|
|1200||Magna Carta||MONGOL AGE. Jenghis Khan. Marco Polo. Franciscans.|
|1300||RENAISSANCE||YUAN||Operatic theater. Novels.|
|1400||Printing in Europe||MING||Yung Lo builds Peking.|
|Turks take Constantinople||Period of restoration and stagnation.|
|1500||AGE OF DISCOVERY||Portuguese traders arrive.|
|Clash with Japan over Korea.|
|1700||American, French, Industrial Revolutions||CHING||Critical scholarship.|
|Canton open to Western trade.|
|1800||Treaties with Western powers. Spread of|
|Western culture. Taiping Rebellion.|
|1900||First World War||Boxer Rebellion. 1911 Revolution. Nationalist|
|Russian Revolution||REPUBLIC||Revolution. Unification under Chiang Kai-shek.|
|Second World War||Japanese invasion and World War II.|
The culture of ancient China was comparable to that of European civilization before the Industrial Revolution, and in many respects it was superior to it. As a result of the extensive use of irrigation in Chinese agriculture, it was more sophisticated and productive than that of Europe; in addition, the extensive network of canals that delivered water for irrigation also enabled inexpensive transportation. While malting such goods as porcelain and silk, the Chinese bad achieved a high degree of technique and art, and in general, the guild artisans of their towns were at least on par with those of the cities of pre-industrial Europe.
They possessed vast government and financial statistics at a period when Europe has virtually little such information.
It depicts what was happening in China at the time of well-known events in the Western world, as depicted in the historical chart.
The chart’s centre column depicts a sequence of Chinese dynasties from the first to the last.
In the Beginning
It is believed that the Chinese people are the direct descendants of the prehistoric cave men who lived in northern China hundreds of thousands of years ago, as opposed to our own early immigrants, who came to the country from someplace else. When the Yellow River was at its widest point, Chinese civilisation as we know it began to emerge along the great bend of the river, where the ground was soft and readily handled by the rudimentary tools of China’s Stone Age ancestors who lived before 3000 B.C.
By the time of Confucius (500 B.C.) they had occupied most of the country between the Yangtze River and the Great Wall, and had progressed from primitive Stone Age At the time of Confucius, China was a collection of separate nations controlled by feudal lords, each with its own language and culture.
From 221 B.C.
Shih Huang Ti, China’s first emperor, is credited with the construction of the Great Wall, which stretches from the sea westward into the deserts of Central Asia, a distance about equivalent to the distance between New York City and the Rockies.
The goal of this magnificent feat of engineering was to safeguard the established Chinese population from invasions by barbarian nomads who lived outside the walls of the fortress. This enormous fortified boundary has survived to the present day in large part.
How Dynasties Rose and Fell
It is possible to see a pattern in the rise and fall of dynasties across China’s 2,000-year history. After a period of battle and hunger had decreased the population to the point where there was enough land and food to go around, a dynasty would come into control. Among the many benefits would be economic prosperity, a cultured, sophisticated, and sumptuous court, families of great wealth and culture dispersed across the land, and a burgeoning of art, literature, and philosophy. Then, as the population grew and the fields were split, the landlords refused to pay taxes, undermining the government while collecting ever-increasing rent from the peasants.
- Peasant uprisings would be brutal and widespread.
- Once in power, a successful war lord would need to enlist the aid of academics who were well-versed in administration and record-keeping to assist him in his endeavors.
- While they were busy establishing a government service for the new dynasty, they were also busy establishing landed estates for themselves and their descendants.
- Nomad soldiers from outside the Great Wall of China have established empires on several occasions.
- It is stated that China has always assimilated the conquerors who have come to her.
- The armored automobiles and tanks of a highly mechanical civilisation are not as easily absorbed as earlier civilizations.
Of What Use Today Is an Old Civilization?
“What good does it do the Chinese to have such a long-standing civilization?” one might wonder. There is a very substantial benefit, which tourists to China frequently perceive even when they are unable to articulate it. Because the principles of culture and civilized living have been present in China for such a long period of time, they have permeated the whole population. The instincts and demeanor of a well-educated guy are likely to be present in even the poorest Chinese with no formal schooling.
Even if he only knows the history of his nation and his native region through tale and folklore rather than through reading, he nevertheless knows a lot about it—and in most cases, a startling amount of it.
His desire for and aptitude for study is immense, which is one of the reasons why China’s future growth, if it is liberated from foreign attack, is expected to be astonishingly quick. From EM 42: Our Chinese Friend (1944)