What Is National Culture

What is National Culture

In a national group, a specific collection of views, values, and assumptions is commonly shared by members of the group. A variety of elements of national culturedifference may be represented in terms of values, including power-distance, masculinity-femininity, individualism-collectivism, and the avoidance of uncertainty and risk-taking. These parameters may be measured, and country-specific profiles can be generated based on them. However, it is important to remember that: (a) scores on these dimensions are statistical averages with significant individual variance and overlap with other national cultures; and (b) nationalprofiles are useful in predicting behavior, but should not be used to pre-judge or stereotype other individuals.

a collection of behaviors, norms, conventions, and beliefs that exist among the citizens of a sovereign nation In most cases, multinational corporations create their management in cooperation with their own national cultures.

13 A national group’s specific set of views, values, and assumptions that are widely shared by its members A variety of elements of national culturedifference may be represented in terms of values, including power-distance, masculinity-femininity, individualism-collectivism, and the avoidance of uncertainty and risk-taking.

It is important to remember that: (a) scores on these dimensions are statistical averages with significant individual variance and overlap with othernational cultures; and (b) while nationalprofiles can be useful in understanding the behavior of people from othernational cultures, they should not be used to pre-judge or stereotype others in the first place.

Nationalgroups have a specific set of views, attitudes, and assumptions that are shared by all members of that group.

However, it is important to remember that (1) country scores on these dimensions are statistical averages with significant individual variance, and (2) while a country-specific profile can be useful in understanding behavior and anticipating reactions, it should not be used to describe, prejudge, or stereotype an individual who is a member of that particular national culture.

  1. Nationalgroups are distinguished by a specific set of values and beliefs that are commonly shared by members of the group.
  2. Nation-specific indices may be calculated to measure national cultural aspects; however, it is crucial to recognize that these are statistical averages, and that there is substantial individual variation as well an overlap with other national cultures.
  3. In this article, you will learn more about:Participation in Online Distance Learning Environments: A Sign of the Times or a Means to an End?
  4. The attitudes toward power-distance, masculinity-femininity, individualism-collectivism, and uncertainty or risk avoidance are examples of these types of attitudes.
  5. National culturedimensions should serve as a guide for talking and engaging with members of that group, rather than being used to prejudge or stereotype them.
  6. This term refers to the cumulative deposit of knowledge and experience gained by a group of people over generations through individual and group striving that has an impact on the success of the information system.

More information may be found in the following publications: Perceived Performance of Human Resource Information Systems (HRIS) and Perceived Performance of Human Resource Management (HRM)

National Culture

In a nationalgroup, a specific collection of views, attitudes, and assumptions is commonly shared by members of the group. A variety of elements of national culturedifference may be defined in terms of values, including power-distance, masculinity-femininity, individualism-collectivism, and the avoidance of ambiguity. These characteristics may be measured, and country-specific profiles can be generated based on these measurements. However, it is important to remember that: (a) scores on these dimensions are statistical averages with significant individual variance and overlap with other national cultures; and (b) nationalprofiles are useful in predicting behavior, but should not be used to pre-judge or stereotypically label others.

  • a collection of behaviors, norms, conventions, and beliefs that exist among the people of a sovereign nation The management of multinational corporations is typically developed in tandem with national culture.
  • Nationalgroups have a distinguishing set of views, attitudes, and assumptions that are commonly shared by its members.
  • These characteristics may be measured, and country-specific profiles can be generated based on these measurements.
  • More information may be found in: Using Learner Knowledge in Cross-Cultural Management Education: What’s Hidden Below the Visible Teaching Pyramid Nationalgroups have a particular set of views, attitudes, and assumptions that are shared by all members of that group.

These dimensions can be quantified and used to generate country-specific profiles, but it is important to remember that (1) country scores on these dimensions are statistical averages with significant individual variance, and (2) while a country-specific profile is useful in understanding behavior and anticipating reactions, it should not be used to describe, pre-judge, or stereotype an individual who belongs to that national culture.

  • More information may be found in:Culturally Responsive Pedagogy, National Culture, and Online Instruction: Towards Learning.
  • The attitudes toward power and distance, masculinity and femininity, individuality and collectivism, ambiguity and risk avoidance are examples of these.
  • Communication and interaction with members of a group should be guided by cultural dimensions; nevertheless, these dimensions should not be used to pre-judge or stereotype members of the group.
  • The collection of beliefs and assumptions that distinguishes members of a national group is known as a national grouping.
  • Nation-specific indices may be calculated to measure national cultural aspects; however, it is crucial to recognize that these are statistical averages, and that there is substantial individual variance as well an overlap with other national cultures.
  • You may read more about it in the following article:Strategic Leadership through the Prism of National Culture: Differences in Understandings.
  • This deposit includes beliefs, values, attitudes, meanings, hierarchies, religion, notions of time, roles, spatial relationships, concepts of the universe, and material objects and possessions.

Obtain further information by reading Perceived Performance of the Human Resource Information Systems (HRIS) and Perceived Performance of the Human Resource Management Systems (HRMS) (HRM)


The six aspects of the Hofstede model of national culture are as follows: Countries (rather than people) are distinguished from one another on the basis of their cultural characteristics, which signify autonomous preferences for one state of affairs over another. The country’s performance on the dimensions is relative, in the sense that we are all human while yet being individually distinct. To put it another way, culture can only be utilized meaningfully when it is compared to something else.


Power inequity is expressed in this dimension by the degree to which the less powerful individuals of a society accept and anticipate that power is unequally allocated. The primary question in this case is how a society deals with inequities between individuals. People living in communities with a high degree of Power Distance are willing to accept a hierarchical system in which everyone has a place and which does not require any additional reason. Those who live in societies with a low Power Distance attempt to equalize the allocation of power and demand justifications for the existence of inequities in power distribution.


It is possible to characterize Individualism, which is on the high end of this dimension, as the preference for a loosely-knit social structure in which people are expected to look after just themselves and their immediate families. Collectiveivism, on the other hand, is a social framework in which individuals may rely on their family or members of a particular ingroup to look after them in exchange for unwavering devotion. It is the antithesis of individualism. The position of a society on this dimension is reflected in whether people’s self-image is defined in terms of “I” or “we,” depending on the culture.


When it comes to the Masculinity component, there is a preference in society for achievement, heroism, assertiveness, and money benefits as a result of one’s achievements. Society as a whole is becoming more competitive. Femininity, on the other hand, represents a propensity for collaboration, humility, care for the vulnerable, and overall high quality of life. The general public is more concerned with reaching a consensus. A variation on this theme is “tough vs delicate” cultures, which refers to the contrast between masculinity and femininity in the workplace.


The Uncertainty Avoidance dimension reflects how comfortable individuals of a culture are with uncertainty and ambiguity, and it is measured in percentages. The primary question here is how a society deals with the knowledge that the future can never be predicted: should we attempt to control the future or should we simply allow it to unfold?

Countries with a high level of UAI retain rigid standards of thought and behavior, and are intolerant of unconventional behavior and ideas, according to the World Bank. When it comes to UAI societies, weaker ones retain a more permissive approach in which practice takes precedence over principles.


Every civilization, in order to deal with the difficulties of the present and the future, must keep some ties to its own history. Throughout history, societies have placed varied values on these two existential aspirations. Countries with low scores on this dimension, for example, tend to preserve time-honored traditions and customs while viewing social change with scepticism. On the other side, those that have a high-scoring culture adopt a more realistic approach: they stress thrift and diligence in contemporary schooling as a means of preparing for the future.

In the academic context, the terms Monumentalism vs Flexhumility are occasionally used to describe opposing perspectives.


Indulgence refers to a culture that provides for the relatively unfettered satisfaction of fundamental and inherent human urges such as the desire to enjoy life and have pleasure. Restraint refers to a society that suppresses the satisfaction of desires and restricts it via the application of rigorous social standards and regulations. WithCulture CompassTM, you can compare your own preferences to the scores of a nation of your choosing. Try ourCountry Comparison tool to see how your tastes compare to the ratings of a country of your choosing.


The research of Professor Geert Hofstede was one of the most complete investigations of how values in the workplace are impacted by cultural norms in the world. He conducted his research using a large database of employee value scores collected by IBM between 1967 and 1973.The data covered more than 70 countries, from which Hofstede first used the 40 countries with the largest groups of respondents before expanding the analysis to 50 countries and three regions.Subsequent studies validating the earlier findings include respondent groups such as commercial airline pilots and students in 23 countries, civil service managers in 14 countries, and ‘up and coming’ executives in the United States and the United Kingdom.

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Further reading

  • What is meant by culture
  • Why is it vital to manage cultural diversity
  • And other topics.

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通过我们的博客让您深入了解数字营销领域的许多信息,如跨文化沟通、B2B营销,搜索引擎广告,搜索引擎优化,社交媒体营销,网络数据分析等。 商务,跨文化能力研究所,国际网络营销 “Culture is not something made up, but rather something that grows over time and is unique to humans.” Edward T. Hall is a well-known author. Everybody who has worked for more than one firm is aware that each one has its own set of procedures and ways of interacting with its customers and employees. Every organization has its own culture, complete with its own set of conventions and values. It is critical for employee well-being and productivity that these factors are identified and addressed in the company’s culture.

  • The national cultures with which the firm is dealing are a significant factor in determining the company’s cultural identity.
  • Every individual adds their unique set of experiences, beliefs, and talents to the workplace, resulting in a diverse and exciting atmosphere.
  • The interplay of corporate and national cultures, as a result, is critical for self- and other-discovery and understanding.
  • The following are the cornerstones that any organization may examine for themselves and find areas in which they need to make improvements.
  • Because we have colleagues from 17 different countries and work with customers all around the world, cultures are not merely a result of our work, but are essential to our definition.

As a result, for every firm that interacts with worldwide stakeholders, it is critical to develop an organizational culture that is memorable to each of the parties involved.

Key Take Aways

  1. National cultures are a learned feature that distinguishes a group of people living in a certain place. Company cultures are a subculture of national cultures, and they identify the characteristics of this particular group. The four most essential aspects of corporate culture are as follows:
  1. Company culture provides a sense of belonging to the organization and serves as a point of reference for all stakeholders. Companies having stakeholders from a variety of cultural backgrounds must ensure that the four characteristics are understood by all parties involved.

National Cultures

It is the company’s culture that distinguishes it and serves as a point of reference for all stakeholders; Companies with stakeholders from a variety of cultural backgrounds must ensure that the four characteristics are understood by all parties involved, including employees.

Company Cultures

This brings us to the topic of corporate culture. Similarly, Hofstede et al. (2010) dealt with organizational culture and defined it in a manner that was almost identical to their definition of national culture as “the collective programming of the mind that distinguishes the members of one organization from another” (Hofstede and colleagues, 2010, p. 346), emphasizing the parallels between the two definitions. Four characteristics must be portrayed in order to properly understand a company’s culture: The company’s location, the job it does/the sector in which it operates, its staff, and its customers are all important considerations (Rosauer, 2013).

  1. Where are we putting our efforts? What is the reason for doing things around here? The answer is “The Location.” “The Customers” is the answer
  2. What really happens around here is unclear. Answer: “The Work”
  3. Who is responsible for what around here? “The Employees” is the answer.

We’re not sure where we’re headed. What is the reason for doing things around here? The answer is “The location.” How do things get done around here? The answer is “The Customers.” What is the answer? “The Work”; who is in charge of things in this establishment? Employees, to be precise.

The Interaction of Company and National Cultures at effective

Multiculturalism and German culture, in our opinion, are the cornerstones of the four aspects, as outlined by Rosauer (2013). For example, German culture is fundamental to the company’s identity on one hand and is reflected in its logo on the other. Not only is it required for the conduct of business (for external reasons), but it also serves as a gathering place for our personnel (internal reasons). Employees’ cultural variety is important both internally and internationally, regardless of their country of origin.

  • Externally, we use it as a differentiating selling point for our customers.
  • Our key beliefs include acceptance of intercultural contact and appreciation of the benefits that come from it.
  • It is demonstrated on the opposite side that the focus on German values serves as a common ground for this meeting.
  • They work together to decide our company’s standing in the eyes of consumers, workers, and the industry.

On a more specific level, our organization has developed a culture that is distinct in that it combines sectorial, ethnocentric (German), and globalized aspects in an innovative way: 1.Our physical sites The sites are representative of two elements: The geographic location of our headquarters as well as the locations of our customers.

  1. That all workers are familiar with German norms, desire to live in Germany, and are prepared to adjust to the host nation is already a good indication.
  2. The opposite is true for German employees, who all have international experiences, either because they have lived abroad or because they speak English fluently, demonstrating that they have at the very least acquired English.
  3. During working hours, ethnocentric (German) components in our firm are represented through direct criticism, timeliness, a focus on business, and an urge to all employees to follow the office regulations.
  4. Traditional modes of organizational and communication inside a firm are being re-evaluated and altered to meet the ever-changing demands of the workforce.
  5. The interpersonal communication style is casual, and everyone knows each other by their first names.

In addition, the workplace layout encourages casual encounters such as: Our large kitchen is equipped with a foosball table (which is always the focal point of any BBQ), open meeting rooms, and an open-door policy; office doors are only closed during client calls, meetings, or when someone does not want to be bothered.

  1. 3.Our Company’s Employees Moreover, as a precondition, human resource policy is the decisive element in picking the most appropriate candidates for the existing employee pool in terms of both hard and soft skill needs.
  2. People are aware that they will come into contact with people from a variety of cultural backgrounds.
  3. Through this selection procedure, a requirement for who to hire was established, guaranteeing that the candidates met the company’s requirements.
  4. Everyone’s culture is important, and multiculturalism is encouraged.
  5. This provides each employee with a greater sense of security as well as the freedom to express oneself more freely.
  6. The majority of our colleagues are fluent in three or more languages at an expert level and have lived in a number of different countries for several years.
  7. Because many of our clients are B2B enterprises based in Germany, it is vital to adhere to the foundations of traditional German business culture.
  8. Because of the worldwide nature of the situation, it is common to switch to first name basis.
  9. The first name is chosen since the majority of contact is performed in English, and because Anglo-Saxon culture is the dominant civilization in the world.

As a result, finding the right balance between being ourselves and allowing our clients to do the same is critical for us. As is true in every relationship, this is a never-ending learning journey that involves participation and evaluation on all levels.


It is possible to sum up this article in the following way: The organizational culture of a firm is determined by the national cultures with which it interacts. With the help of Rosauer (2013), we demonstrated that every firm must deal with these four factors to understand its organizational culture and what can be done to make it more effective. Its industry, consumers, and workers must all be aware of the overall tastes of the public. The anticipated modes of communication are defined by corporate culture, and as a result, organizational culture is a requirement for productivity and success.

  1. To make matters more complicated, the cultural variety of our staff, combined with an ethnocentric focus, demonstrates how difficult it may be to strike the appropriate balance.
  2. Once it is achieved, however, it is advantageous to all those participating in the process.
  3. This has ramifications for both companies and employees, since it has a direct impact on both productivity and well-being of personnel.
  4. Because there is no such thing as a “right” or “wrong” culture, employers and workers must choose the corporate culture that best suits their needs based on the factors listed above.
  5. Managers must experiment with different ways in order to keep their staff happy while maintaining the company’s defining characteristics.
  6. It is necessary to find a common ground.


E. T. Hall’s Beyond Culture was published in 1989. (2nd ed.). Anchor Books is based in New York. E. T. Hall and M. R. Hall collaborated on this project (2014). Recognizing and appreciating cultural differences. Intercultural Press, Boston, Massachusetts. G. Hofstede, G. J. Hofstede, M. Minkov, G. Hofstede, G. J. Hofstede (2010). Cultures and Organizations are intertwined. The Mind is a piece of software. It is essential for survival to be able to communicate across cultures (3rd ed.). Mc Grawhill Publishing Company, New York.

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  • Three Bell Curves: The Decoding of Business Culture This was retrieved on February 3, 2019 from The significance and purpose of our subsidiaries will be discussed in greater detail in a subsequent piece.
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Levels of Culture

One of the fundamental concepts of culture is that it is comprised of levels and sublevels at various levels. It is helpful to think of culture in terms of five fundamental levels: national, regional, organizational, team, and individual. National, regional, organizational, team, and individual. Sublevels of culture exist at both the physical and intangible levels of each of these levels.

National Culture

Businesswoman from the United States is in Germany for contract discussions with a prominent German bank on behalf of her firm. The meeting is slated to begin at nine o’clock in the morning on Monday. When she gets to the meeting a few minutes before the scheduled start time, she is taken aback by the fact that all of her German colleagues have already taken their seats and are ready to begin the discussion. Soon after, following her return to the United States, she shares her observations with her American colleagues on the German culture she had encountered while in Germany.

  • It’s little when compared to the way Germans value timeliness.” This example highlights the distinctions in national cultures between two civilizations: American and German culture.
  • Despite the fact that nation-states have regional and political diversity, national culture is universal.
  • These beliefs are mainly unconscious and acquired during infancy.
  • When contrasted with the cultural values of another country, the values are elevated to a higher degree of consciousness.
  • Because national values are a reflection of the traditions of the nation-state across time, they will alter slightly from generation to generation, but the fundamental principles will stay the same in their entirety.
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Regional Culture

One of the most exciting aspects of living in the United States is the variety of regional distinctions that distinguish each region of the country. When I was in college in Boston, I heard the word “wicked” thrown around quite a bit. After inquiring with my New England acquaintances about the meaning of the term “wicked,” I discovered that it was used to accentuate a point. If I went to a concert that I really loved, I would remark something like, “Wow, that concert was amazing!” “That concert was wicked great,” as the people of New England would say.

People in Minnesota didn’t comprehend what I was talking about when I used the phrase in chats with friends and family members in the state.

Subgroup of a national culture whose traits are distinct from those of another subgroup.

When referring to a soft drink outside of the United States, it is referred to as “Coke.” Consider the following as an illustration of regional cultural variations and one method in which the differences are expressed: Dianne relocates from Texas to Georgia in order to take advantage of a work opportunity.

Her neighbors and coworkers, on the other hand, do not believe that she is a native of Georgia.

Despite the fact that she identifies as a Georgian, she is frequently reminded that she is not a southerner by her family.

Her regional cultural experiences will shape her perceptions of herself and others on both a conscious and unconscious level, both aware and unconscious. As a result of the cultural effects of her environment, she may come to hold the following assumptions and beliefs:

  • It’s probably best if I simply tell folks that I’m from Texas. Georgians believe that one must be from a certain state in order to be termed a “southerner.” If you are from the south, you must have ancestors or origins that can be traced back to the southern United States. In the South, a “transplant” is not considered to be a real southerner.

What are some of the geographical differences and similarities that you have seen or been a part of in the past? The following graphic can assist you in identifying regional similarities and cultural differences. Fill in the blanks with the names of two areas of a nation or country, such as the West Coast and New England, in the column titled ” Regional Culture Names.” Write down the geographical parallels and contrasts that you see between each of the regions you have selected to identify for each of the cultural expressions that you have mentioned above.

Regional Culture Names Cultural Expression Regional Differences Regional Similarities
Dress code

Organizational Culture

The first thing that comes to mind when you go into a Target Store is What does it appear to be like? What types of products do they have for sale? When you go into a Wal-Mart, what do you see first? What does it appear to be like? What kinds of individuals do you think shop at Wal-Mart? Who is employed there? Although both Target and Wal-Mart are retailers, shoppers have different experiences when they walk into a Target store as opposed to a Wal-Mart store because, while they are both retailers, their buildings are different, the types of products they carry differ from one another, the employees wear different clothes, the layout of a Wal-Mart store is very different from the layout of a Target store, and the behaviors expressed by employees in each organization are specific to that retailer.

These characteristics contribute to the organization’s specific culture, which distinguishes it from the competition.

relates to the particular organizational culture—the culture that distinguishes a company from its rivals and non-competitors.

Team Culture

Lupe is in charge of a business division that comprises sales representatives, engineers, researchers, and members of the customer support team. All teams operate in a variety of ways to achieve their business objectives, but they all have work that is cross-functional in nature, requiring them to rely on one another in order to fulfill their tasks. Lupe is often taken aback by the cultural gaps that exist across the teams, as well as the influence that this has on productivity and sales. She is aware that each team has its own set of working styles, but she was unaware of the extent to which these styles may interfere with the division’s day-to-day business operations.

  • Her researchers are meticulous and methodical in their approach, and they are always criticizing the strategies used by the salespeople.
  • Despite the fact that these departments are successful, Lupe is aware that silos within a business may stifle development and innovation.
  • A team’s culture is defined by the values, beliefs, and conventions that are shown by the members.
  • Members of teams are guided by cultural norms in their clothes and appearance, their language, how they connect to one another, and how they get along with one another.
  • Departments, teams, and workgroups can and will behave significantly differently from one another, even if they are housed in the same building and belong to the same company.

This is normal and expected. Despite the fact that you might not consider personality or temperament to be cultural characteristics, they can and do influence the culture of a team.

Individual Culture

Individuation cultural differences relate to your preferences for things as a result of your own experiences, which may include the impact of your family, your friends, your school, the media, your coworkers, and other people. It is possible to share a national culture, such as being an American, with another individual while also sharing a regional culture, such as living in the Midwest. In fact, you may even be employed by the same company and department as the individual, so having an organizational and team culture.

  1. The effect of family, classmates, school, media, workplace, and geographic location on an individual’s preferences for things are all examples of individual variations that relate to an individual’s preferences for things based on culture and personal experiences.
  2. They are both third generation Chinese Americans who grew up in the neighborhood.
  3. A nationwide nonprofit organization that sponsors grassroots leadership projects in Chinese-American communities across the United States employs Bao and Hua as interns.
  4. Bao and Hua, while having cultural roots that are comparable, have quite different viewpoints on life because of their respective civilizations.
  5. Because of his extended work hours, her father was unable to be present.
  6. It was a major moment in her life since she believed she did not have the mother-daughter bond that many of her contemporaries have.
  7. Hua is the youngest of her family’s four children.

When Hua was growing up, she was surrounded by a large number of relatives who took care of her while her parents were at work.

Whenever Hua had an issue, her elder siblings were there to help her.

When Bao and Hua make programming decisions, Bao handles her decision-making process in a logical and cautious manner, always keeping the program’s and organization’s demands in the forefront of her mind.

The cultural experiences that Bao and Hua have had have formed them into distinct personalities and have had an influence on their managing and leadership approaches.

When Bao was young, she was forced to take responsibility for her actions, which resulted in her being meticulous and cautious in her decision-making.

Although it is necessary to consider and acknowledge these five levels of culture, it should also be remembered that each of these cultures may be manifested in subcultures or microcultures.

Within the national culture of being a “American,” there are regional, county, and city variances that may be seen.

The Core of Our Differences: Eight National Cultural Values to Understand When Working in Diverse Settings

Individuation cultural differences relate to your preferences for things as a result of your own experiences, which may include the impact of your family, your friends, your school, the media, your coworkers, and other individuals. You and another person may have a national culture, such as being an American, while also sharing a regional culture, such as living in the Midwest. In fact, you may even be employed by the same company and department as the individual, so having an organizational and team culture.

Individual differences that relate to an individual’s preferences for things based on culture and personal experiences, including the influence of family, peers, school, media, coworkers, and geographic region.based on who you are and your social upbringing.based on your cultural and personal experiences.

  • Bao, who is 31 years old, and Hua, who is 32 years old, are both Chinese American managers who live in the San Francisco Bay Area.
  • In the same location, they both attended institutions on the East Coast with public policy concentrations, and they both graduated with honors.
  • Both work in the programming department of their business, where they had both worked for four years at the time of their interview.
  • Bao’s mother died while she was a little child, and she was nurtured by her father and aunts until she reached adulthood.
  • Bao reared her younger siblings with the assistance of her aunts.
  • In response, she has become extremely protective of him.
  • It is still possible to speak with her parents, who are still living.

Whenever she asked for or need something, she was always granted it.

As a result, Hua’s temperament and approach to life have become much more laid-back.

While Hua is more easygoing in her approach, she is also more prepared to allow for ambiguity and flexibility in her thinking.

Their distinct cultural experiences have had a significant impact on them despite the fact that they have many comparable cultural experiences.

Having grown up as the youngest child and always knowing that she would be taken care of, Hua has a laid-back attitude about life.

However, it should be noted that each of these five levels of culture may be reflected in subcultures or microcultures, therefore it is vital to consider and acknowledge them as distinct entities.

Within the national culture of being a “American,” there are variances across regions, counties, and cities.

Understanding Cultural Differences

In a previous piece, I used the example of an iceberg to describe cultural differences. The observable cultural aspects are represented by the little tip of the iceberg that can be seen above the surface of the sea. Artifacts, symbols, and practices such as art and architecture; language, color, and dress; social etiquette and customs; and other visible cultural components are all examples of visible cultural elements. Despite the fact that they are the most prominent, observable cultural distinctions account for just ten percent of our collective cultural identities.

  • Cultural ideals, attitudes, and beliefs are all examples of hidden disparities.
  • According to this paradigm, culture is a deep inner core of abstract ideas that materialize as increasingly concrete outer layers when they are exposed to the outside world.
  • Fundamental building blocks are surrounded by unique ideas, attitudes, and customs that serve as the driving force behind cultural systems and organizations.
  • It consists of all of the observable characteristics that distinguish a given culture, such as symbols, man-made artifacts and goods, and historical figures.
  • Surface-level solutions to cultural issues are ineffective.
  • Tangible cultural aspects, such as variations in language or attire, may provide difficulties, but it is the less evident qualities of culture that pose the most difficulties.
  • They have a direct impact on tangible cultural differences.
  • Concentrating on a physical culture trait captures just a small portion of a culture’s overall character.

A set of fundamental cultural values is encouraged, legitimated, and rewarded by the whole cultural system when taken as a whole. The most effective approach of understanding cultural differences is to compare and contrast variances in cultural values amongst people.

National Cultural Values

National cultural values are opinions about what is good, right, and desirable in a society that are widely shared. They are the choices of a national society for dealing with external adaptation and internal integration issues that are threatening its own existence. As a group of individuals responds to the survival difficulties of their common environment, they create different patterns of thoughts, emotions, and behaviors that distinguish them from one another. External environmental strains induced by climate change or resource shortages, as well as dangers to internal social cohesion, are all examples of survival problems.

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An increase in public attention on one pole is matched by a decrease in emphasis on the alternative pole.

For each national cultural value dimension, examples of traits that typify the extreme poles are used to explain what they mean.

The extreme scenarios are offered in order to help the reader grasp the idea.

Individualism vs. Collectivism

Personality types such as individualism and collectivism are concerned with how a person is related to the community. Individualistic societies are characterized by people who perceive themselves to be separate from others. People describe themselves in terms of the pronoun ‘I’ and their own personal characteristics. Individual autonomy and independent thought are highly respected, and the interests and aims of the individual take precedence above the welfare of the collective. Personal attitudes and needs play a crucial role in determining behavior in many situations.

  1. Nuclear families are more prevalent than extended families in terms of size and composition.
  2. Individualistic cultures are characterized by individuals engaging in activities on their own, and social interactions are shorter and less intimate, despite the fact that they are more frequent.
  3. Members are incorporated into in-groups that are powerful and cohesive.
  4. Relational relationships and duties have a vital role in determining one’s actions.
  5. In civilizations that emphasize reliance with others, shared living is emphasized.
  6. Members of such cultures are more likely to choose activities that involve a group of people.

Social connections are becoming longer and more intimate. To what degree do you prefer working independently and having autonomy in decision-making (Individualism), or working in groups and reaching an agreement on decisions (Collectivism) in your work environment?

Power Distance

The concept of power distance is concerned with the extent to which a society accepts and approves authority, power inequalities, and status privileges in a given situation. Members of low Power Distance societies feel that inequities should be reduced to the greatest extent possible. When it comes to power, it is viewed as a source of corruption, coercion, and dominant position. People see one another as moral equals who have common human goals at the most fundamental level. Members are concerned about the well-being of their fellow members and work together with one another.

  1. They have power bases that are both fleeting and sharing (for example, skill, knowledge).
  2. Different social groupings are treated on an equal footing when it comes to participation in government.
  3. It is from below, rather than above, that power distance is defined.
  4. Power is thought to be necessary for maintaining societal order, interpersonal peace, and role stability.
  5. High-Power-Distance Societies are classified according to their power level.
  6. Social mobility on the upward path is limited.
  7. Diverse social groupings participate in governance at varying levels of intensity.
  8. What is your power distance?
Uncertainty Avoidance

Specifically, the degree to which uncertainty is tolerated, as well as the demand for norms and order, are discussed in Uncertainty Avoidance theory. A weak uncertainty avoidance society is one in which individuals are comfortable with situations that are uncertain and uncertain outcomes. They are adaptable and tolerant to change. Members consider a variety of ideas to be valid and embrace a variety of points of view. They have a thoughtful, emotionally steady, and easygoing attitude on life.

  1. It is permissible to break the rules.
  2. It is preferable for members to rely on the word of individuals in whom they have faith than than entering into contractual arrangements.
  3. Members of strong Uncertainty Avoidance cultures feel intimidated by uncertainty, have an emotional need for predictability, and have a high level of aversion to change.
  4. Members formalize their contacts with others, confirm conversations in writing, and accept risks that are more modest and measured in comparison to the general population.
  5. There are strong behavioural standards, official regulations and laws in place, as well as an intolerance for disobeying the rules or engaging in unconventional thoughts or behaviors.

When confronted with uncertain and unpredictable events, do you experience anxiety (Strong Uncertainty Avoidance) or do you simply accept them as they are (Weak Uncertainty Avoidance)?

Gender Egalitarianism

Gender Egalitarianism is concerned with the extent to which a society distinguishes between male and female roles in society. In many countries, cultural conventions concerning the roles of men and women have been determined by biological restrictions on childbearing for a long time. Outside of childbirth, however, sex-role inequalities are largely social constructs, not biological ones. Diverse societies define different social and emotional roles for males and females to varying degrees, depending on their cultural traditions.

  • Both men and women are humble, cooperative, tender, and concerned with the quality of life and the well-being of the weak and less fortunate.
  • Furthermore, in civilizations with a high level of Gender Egalitarianism, ladies and males have equivalent levels of education and literacy.
  • Among civilizations with low Gender Egalitarianism, male social and emotional duties are distinct from those of females.
  • Women are humble, sensitive, and concerned with the overall quality of their lives, according to research.
  • In these communities, females have lower levels of education and literacy than males, and this is especially true in rural areas.
  • Believe that men and women perform separate duties in society (Low Gender Egalitarianism) or that gender roles overlap (High Gender Egalitarianism)?
Assertiveness (Cooperative vs. Competitive)

It is the degree to which people are forceful, confrontational, and aggressive in their social connections that is the subject of assertiveness research. Lack of Assertiveness / In cooperative societies, assertiveness is regarded as socially undesirable behavior. Members in cultures with low assertiveness place a strong focus on humility and sensitivity. Competition is associated with defeat and punishment in their minds. They place a strong emphasis on equality and social solidarity. Humanity, warm relationships, and collaboration are valued in societies with low assertiveness.

  1. Members care more about who you are than they do about what you do for them.
  2. People believe that people are trustworthy by their very nature.
  3. High Assertiveness / Competitive societies, on the other hand, place a high emphasis on assertive, domineering, and ‘tough’ behavior in both men and women.
  4. Aggression is perceived favourably by most people (for example, aggression is associated with winning).
  5. They anticipate aims that are both hard and tough.
  6. Relationships are placed second to business.
  7. Members consider people to be opportunistic in their thinking.

Does your preference for competitiveness, individual success, and constructive workplace discussion (High Assertiveness / Competitive) over cooperation, consensus, and harmony (Low Assertiveness / Cooperative) reflect your personality type?

Orientation to Time

It is concerned with how a civilization handles and controls the passage of time. Members of Short-Term Oriented Societies are more concerned with the present and the past than they are with the present and the future. They place a high priority on immediate gratification. Members want to spend their money now rather than save it for the future. They are completely immersed in the present and are not worried with fears about the past or the future. Members of Short-Term Orientated Societies, on the other hand, may participate in dangerous, pleasure-seeking activities while failing to see the detrimental long-term consequences of their actions.

Members formulate long-term objectives, devise plans, and put in the necessary effort and perseverance to realize their dreams.

Individuals who belong to Future Orientated Societies have good psychological health and social adjustment due to the fact that they believe they are in charge of their life.

Being vs. Doing

Being vs doing is concerned with the extent to which individuals integrate into their natural and social environments, or attempt to master and alter them. In the Being Orientation, it is important to integrate oneself into the world as it already exists; rather than attempting to change or guide the environment, one should concentrate on enjoying and comprehending it. World peace, oneness with nature, and the preservation of the environment are all important ideals to have. Individuals who belong to Being Oriented cultures place a high value on the quality of their lives and believe that being driven just by money is wrong.

People in high-doing oriented societies feel that they have control over their own fate and that anybody can achieve success if they work very hard.

Doing Oriented Societies place a high priority on initiative, and its members exhibit a “can-do” mentality.

They place a high importance on training and development.

These civilizations are characterized by a strong feeling of urgency. Which orientation do you prefer: being content with the ups and downs of life (Being Orientation) or pursuing and achieving life-changing objectives (Doing Orientation)?

Indulgence vs. Restraint

Consumption vs restraint is concerned with the extent to which societal standards encourage individuals to engage in hedonistic pleasure seeking activities. Indulgence-oriented civilizations encourage people to seek pleasure in their daily lives. Members participate in enjoyable activities for their own personal delight. Restraint societies, on the other hand, think that hedonistic enjoyment should be curtailed and governed by stringent societal rules and regulations. Do you routinely seek out opportunities to have fun (Indulgence) or do you believe that engaging in activities only for the sake of personal enjoyment is excessive, dishonorable, and selfish (Restraint)?


Many national cultural value frameworks are mentioned in the cross-cultural literature, including the United States’ own. The frameworks developed by Hofstede and others, as well as Schwartz’s and the GLOBE project, are often regarded as the most empirically sound and practically applicable. The Hofstede, Schwartz, and GLOBE models all have similarities in the value dimensions that distinguish across nations, as well as their mapping of nations and groupings of nations, despite their variations in theoretical approaches and methods of measurement.



Minkov, G.


Cultures and Organizations: The Mental Software of the Human Brain (Vol.

McGraw-Hill Education, New York.




A theory of cultural values is presented, along with some consequences for the workplace.

House, R.

J., Javidan, M., Dorfman, P.

House, R.

J., Javidan, M., Dorfman, P.


Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, California.

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