What Is Material Culture In Sociology

Material and Non‐Material Culture

Material culture refers to the physical objects, resources, and spaces that people use to define their culture, and ideas associated with these objects are described by sociologists as two interconnected aspects of human culture: the physical objects of the culture and the ideas associated with these objects. Homes, neighborhoods, cities, schools, churches, synagogues, temples, mosques, offices, factories and plants, tools, means of production, commodities and products, stores, and so on are all examples of what is included in this category of objects.

In the United States, for example, technology is a critical component of contemporary material culture.

When we speak about nonmaterial culture, we are referring to the nonphysical concepts that individuals have about their culture.

For example, the non-material cultural concept of religion is comprised of a collection of concepts and beliefs about God, worship, values, and ethics that are not based in material culture.

When discussing nonmaterial culture, sociologists refer to a variety of methods that a culture employs to form the ideas, feelings, and actions of its members.

material culture

HomeLifestyles Concerning Social Issues Sociology Material culture, tools, weapons, utensils, machinery, ornaments, art, structures, monuments, written records, religious imagery, clothes, and any other ponderable items made or utilized by people are all included in this definition. If all human people on the face of the planet were to cease to exist, nonmaterial parts of civilization would be extinguished along with them. However, evidence of material culture would continue to be there until it was completely destroyed.

  1. The fact that the effect of material culture has differed from society to civilization appears to be undeniable.
  2. The Industrial Revolution, the second big revolution in technology since the Renaissance, began about 1800 and was centered on the harnessing of energy from coal, oil, gas, and heat for use in manufacturing processes.
  3. Educate yourself about the first atomic bombs that were tested and used during World War II.
  4. On August 6 and 9, 1945, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, killing an estimated 210,000 people each time.

This infographic explains what these early bombs were, how they operated, and how they were utilized in combat. Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. is a publishing company that publishes encyclopedias. Michael Ray has made several revisions and updates to this article in the most recent version.

material culture definition

In a given culture, tangible items or “things” that are either associated with, symbolize, or were created by a group of people are referred to as “things.”

Examples of Material Culture

Guide to Proper Pronunciation and Usage Manufactured-culture syllabification: manufactured-culture Phonetic Spelling is a method of pronouncing words in a phonetic manner.

  • MuhtIR-ee-uhl kUHl-chuhr is pronounced as /muhtIR-ee-uhl kUHl-chuhr/ in American English. English in the United Kingdom: /muh-tIUH-riuhl kUHl-chuh/

Phonetic Alphabet of the International Phonetic Alphabet

  • American English is pronounced /mtril klr/, whereas British English is pronounced /mtril kl/.

Usage Notes

  • Material cultures in the plural
  • When compared to material culture, non-material culture is considered to be a sort of culture.

Related Quotation

  • “At its most fundamental level, material culture is vital because it serves as a protective shield against the environment. For example, we build a shelter to protect ourselves from the elements while also providing ourselves with privacy.” (2006)
  • (Kendall 2006:45–46).

Additional Information

  • The origin of the words “material” and “culture” may be found at etymonline.com, an online etymology dictionary.

Related Terms

“Sociology in Our Times: The Essentials,” by Diana Kendall, published in 2006. Wadsworth Publishing Company, Belmont, California, 5th ed.

Works Consulted

Margaret L. Andersen and Howard Francis Taylor collaborated on this work. 2011.Sociology: The Essentials (Sociology: The Essentials). Wadsworth Publishing Company, Belmont, California, 6th ed. Bruce, Steve, and Steven Yearley are three brothers. The SAGE Dictionary of Sociology was published in 2006. SAGE Publications, Thousand Oaks, California. Brym, Robert J., and John Lie are co-authors of this work. Sociology: Your Compass for a New World was published in 2007. Wadsworth Publishing Company, Belmont, California, 3rd ed.

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Jary, David, and Julia Jary are three members of the Jary family.

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Wadsworth Publishing Company, Belmont, California, 8th ed.

Kimmel and Amy Aronson are co-authors of this paper.

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John Macionis is the author of this work.

Sociology, 14th edition.

4th edition of Sociology: A Global Introduction, published in 2012.

Macmillan Dictionary (Macmillan, n.d.) is a dictionary published by Macmillan ().

Oxford University Press published the Merriam-Webster Dictionary in the year 2000.

Bruce Ravelli and Michelle Webber are co-authors of this work.

Pearson Education, 3rd edition.

Richard Schaefer is the author of this work.

McGraw-Hill Education, New York.

A Dictionary of Sociology was published in 2005.

Jon M.

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The tenth edition Wadsworth Publishing Company, Belmont, California. Contributors to the Wikipedia project. (N.d.) Wiktionary is a free online dictionary. The Wikimedia Foundation is a non-profit organization dedicated to advancing knowledge and understanding via the use of the internet ().

Citethe Definition of Material Culture

ASA is an abbreviation for the American Sociological Association (5th edition) Kenton Bell, ed., “material culture,” in Open Education Sociology Dictionary, 3rd edition, 2013. The date of retrieval is February 2, 2022. (). Material culture is defined by the American Psychological Association (6th edition) (2013). Among the entries in K. Bell’s (ed.) Open education sociology dictionary are: This information was obtained from the Author-Date – Chicago Manual of Style (16th edition) Kenton Bell is the editor of this volume.

  1. In the Sociology Dictionary of Open Education.
  2. .
  3. The Sociology of Education Dictionary is free to use.
  4. 2nd of February, 2022.

Material Culture

Material culture refers to the physical objects that humans surround themselves with and that have significance for the members of a cultural group. Material culture can be defined as follows: It is mostly objects that are created inside a community; but, it may also include things that are obtained directly from the natural environment or that have been retrieved from ancient or distant societies. It can be contrasted with other cultural forms such as ideas, images, practices, beliefs, and language, all of which can be considered as being independent of any specific material component or substance mixture.

  1. For disciplines such as archaeology and anthropology, material culture serves as the raw data for understanding different communities throughout the world.
  2. “The system of things” circulates sign value within a society, articulating cultural differences and meanings, according to Jean Baudrillard, who was inspired by Marx’s theory of production and exchange to investigate how the “system of objects” circulates sign value.
  3. Recently published work on the sociology of consumption has repeatedly acknowledged that material items are not only valuable in and of themselves, but that they may also serve as indicators of social position and cultural location.
  4. Consumption of material goods can help individuals find their identity within a society (CsikszentmihalyiRochberg Halton 1981), but it also has negative consequences for the environment and depletes limited resources (Molotch 2003).
  5. Material items are involved in relationships between human beings, serving as both a topic for discussion and a resource for the construction of meaningful narratives (HindmarshHeath 2003).

Nevertheless, the direct, bodily embodied “material connection” between individuals and their environment also unleashes the cultural meanings and practices inherent in the materiality of the environment’s objects and materials (Dant 2005).

References:

  1. J. Baudrillard’s The System of Objects was published in 1996. Verso, London
  2. Csikszentmihalyi, M., and Rochberg-Halton, E. (1981) The Meaning of Things. Csikszentmihalyi, M., and Rochberg-Halton, E. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
  3. Dant, T. (2005), Materiality and Society (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge). Hindmarsh, J., and the Open University Press, Maidenhead. C. Heath’s Transcending the Object in Embodied Interaction was published in 2003. Discourse, the Body, and Identity, edited by J. Coupland and R. Gwyn, New York: Routledge. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan
  4. Molotch, H. (2003). Where Stuff Comes From. E. Shove, Comfort, Cleanliness, and Convenience in the Workplace (New York: Routledge, 2003). Berg, Oxford
  5. Berg, Oxford
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3.1F: Material Culture

When it comes to the social sciences, material culture is a word that refers to the interaction that exists between objects and social relationships. Objectives for Learning

  • Show how material culture may aid a sociologist’s understanding of a given society by providing instances of it.

Key Points

  • Understanding a culture’s relationship to materiality may be used to examine social and cultural views. People’s relationships with and perceptions of items are influenced by their social and cultural backgrounds. Because of their understanding of culture as a symbolic system with adaptive functions that varies from one location to the next, anthropologists have come to believe that various cultures have diverse patterns of persisting customary sets of meaning
  • For anthropologists, there are two types of culture: material culture and symbolic culture. Material culture reflects different kinds of human activity, while symbolic culture reflects a different kind of human activity. They also constitute different kinds of data and require different methodologies to study. In this perspective of culture, which came to dominate anthropology between World War I and World War II, each culture was defined by its own boundaries and had to be understood as a whole, on its own terms. Cultural relativism, which holds that there are no “better” or “worse” civilizations, but rather only “different” cultures, is the product of this process.

Key Terms

  • Material culture is a phrase used in the social sciences to refer to the link between objects and social ties. It was first used in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries and has been used since then. Human-created symbolic culture (also known as “human-made symbolism”) is a notion used by archaeologists, social anthropologists, and sociologists to denote the cultural domain that has been developed and lived in exclusively by Homo sapiens.

According to the social sciences, material culture is the interaction that exists between objects and social relationships. Material culture is comprised of the tangible artifacts that people have created. It is inevitable that these things will reflect the historical, geographic, and social circumstances of their birth. For example, the clothing that you are wearing now may provide information to academics in the future about the styles of the day. Clothes as a manifestation of material culture: Fashion is considered to be an aspect of material culture.

  1. As a result, the link between a culture’s relationship to materiality may be used to explore social and cultural attitudes and behaviors.
  2. It is also known as “material culture” or “material history” by historians.
  3. In this way, anthropologists distinguish between material and symbolic culture, not only because they represent various forms of human activity, but also because they contain different types of evidence and necessitate different approaches for investigation.
  4. Ultimately, this leads to the notion that there are no ‘better’ or “worse” cultures, only different cultures, leading to the belief in cultural relativism.
  5. Aspects of computer culture that are material in nature: For the majority of people, computers are becoming an increasingly regular element of their everyday lives.

Material Culture

The study of material culture is concerned with objects, their qualities, and the materials from which they are constructed, as well as the ways in which these material elements contribute to our knowledge of culture and social interactions. It calls into question the historical separation between the natural sciences, which are primarily concerned with the study of the material world, and the social sciences, which are primarily concerned with the understanding of society and social interactions.

  • It also challenges the belief, which has been maintained by academic divides as well as philosophical paths, that the object and the subject are two distinct entities, with the latter being assumed to be immaterial and the former thought to be inert and passive in nature.
  • The subject of agency, as well as the manner in which things may have certain effects or allow and authorize specific behaviors or cultural practices, is a prominent area of contention in the literature on material culture.
  • The concept of objectification is central to many of these studies, though it may be conceptualized in a variety of ways depending on the disciplinary and theoretical perspective taken.
  • Despite the fact that material culture studies span a wide range of disciplines, there are still ideas, methodologies, and views that are firmly rooted in a particular field or field of study.
  • After the beginning of ethnographic fieldwork, it was only after this that the study of material culture began to be considered less essential.
  • Empirical study in this topic examines specific genres of material culture, such as food or clothes, and empirical and theoretical work extends this to investigate categories of items, such as gifts and commodities, as they are located within broader systems of trade.

Also of importance is how objects “move” between domains and various value systems as the practices and meanings surrounding physically changing items change in tandem with the objects themselves.

General Overviews

Despite the fact that understandings of material culture have a long history, they have frequently been implicit in ethnographic work, and as the dates of the texts picked here demonstrate, it is only recently that these problems have been addressed directly. Since the late 1990s, a growing number of handbooks and edited collections have been published, seeking to bring together major works or to introduce and summarize the area as a whole. The Journal of Material Culturewas established in 1996 as a result of a desire to provide a forum for innovative material culture research.

  • An approach comparable to this is used in two handbooks that were published in 2006 and 2010:Tilley, et al.
  • 2006edited handbook is quite thorough in terms of the number of topics addressed.
  • Both handbooks are available on Amazon (and archaeology).
  • Using artifacts from ethnographic research, Henare et al.
  • Additionally, two single-authored volumes have been chosen to go alongside these edited collections because they provide important summaries of the fundamental approaches to material culture that have been taken, as well as the ramifications of these methods.
  • Buchli, V. (ed.) 2002. Buchli, V. The reader who is interested in material culture. Berg Publishing Company, Oxford. There are subjects ranging from visual culture to heritage to consumerism covered in this edited collection, which is a compilation of work affiliated with the Material Culture Group at University College London. A good introduction to the discipline for undergraduate and postgraduate students, as well as individuals conducting research in the area
  • T. Dant published a paper in 2007 titled In the social world, material culture is important. The Open University Press is based in Buckingham, United Kingdom. In Henare, A. and Holbraad, M., eds., Introduction to the Themes and Theories of Material Culture and Their Relevance for Sociology (especially suitable for sociology undergraduates), the authors provide an introduction to the themes and theories of material culture as well as their relevance for sociology (especially suitable for sociology undergraduates). Thinking about things in an anthropological way: theorizing about artifacts. Routledge is based in London. edited collection of worldwide ethnographic experiences that, when put together, take the technique of thinking through things—developing theory via objects seen in the field
  • Hicks, D., and M. Beaudry, eds. 2010. Hicks, D., and M. Beaudry, eds. 2010 The Oxford handbook of material culture studies is a collection of essays written by scholars in the field. The Oxford University Press is located in Oxford, England. However, rather than celebrating the interdisciplinarity of material culture studies, this handbook focuses on discipline-specific viewpoints. It has twenty-eight chapters authored by leading specialists from a variety of disciplines. Journal of Material Culture is a journal that is particularly relevant to academics and students in the fields of anthropology and archaeology. The company was established in 1996. The Handbook of Material Culture, edited by C. Tilley, W. Keane, S. Küchler, M. Rowlands, and P. Spyer, is published by SAGE and based in the Department of Material Culture at University College London (managing editors)
  • It contains extensive interdisciplinary research into material culture broadly conceived. SAGE Publications, London. A total of thirty-three chapters written by subject matter specialists from a diverse variety of fields are included, and it analyzes fundamental theoretical viewpoints via the use of empirical examples. In addition to highlighting future study prospects, it also provides a “looking back”
  • It is appropriate for material culture scholars and students. Woodward, I., et al., 2007. Understanding the material culture of a place. SAGE Publications, London. In this introduction to material culture, multidisciplinary research is brought together
  • It contains suggested future readings and is particularly valuable for undergraduate students of material culture.

The year 2002 was the year of Buchli’s ed. The reader who is interested in material culture Berg Publishing, Oxford. There are subjects ranging from visual culture to heritage to consumerism covered in this edited collection, which is a compilation of work produced by the Material Culture Group at University College London. A good introduction to the discipline for undergraduate and postgraduate students, as well as those conducting research in the area. 2007; T. Dant’s et al. It is material culture that is present in the social environment.

  • In Henare, A.
  • Anthropological theory of artifacts is a way of thinking through things.
  • Beaudry, editors.
  • Hicks, D., and M.
  • A handbook on material culture studies published by the Oxford University Press.
  • However, rather of celebrating the interdisciplinarity of material culture studies, this handbook focuses on discipline-specific viewpoints.
  • Research and students in anthropology and archaeology will find the Journal of Material Culture to be of particular interest; it is published biannually.
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Published by SAGE and based in the Department of Material Culture at University College London (managing editors); includes extensive interdisciplinary research into material culture broadly conceived; Tilley, C., W.

Küchler, M.

Spyer, eds.

Handbook of material culture.

SAGE Publications Ltd., London.

Researchers and students working in the field of material culture can benefit from this book since it highlights future study areas as well as “looking back.” The year 2007 belongs to I.

Knowing what is meant by material culture is important.

SAGE Publications Ltd., London. In this introduction to material culture, multidisciplinary research is brought together; it contains suggested future readings and is especially valuable for undergraduate students of material culture.

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Material Culture

Many of sociology’s early texts have a long history of thinking about the significance of objects and material culture in social life, dating back to the field’s earliest days. When these issues were revived in the middle of the twentieth century, it was largely due to the work of key sociological and historical philosophers, who helped to spark a renewed interest in the study of objects. Objects were first addressed by sociologists of culture and art, and researchers from a variety of disciplines, such as anthropology, cultural studies, and media studies, were among the first to produce a substantial body of work on the subject of material culture.

  • In general, sociological analyses are people-centered, analyzing how institutional elements of art worlds impact the objects created and emphasizing explanations of meaning-making that are more concerned with the social status of the audience than with the symbolic properties of the item.
  • A shift toward materiality, which has its origins in anthropology but has gained popularity in sociology more recently, emphasizes the material features of items and how these impact their usage and symbolic significance over the long term.
  • This subject has prompted an ongoing cross-disciplinary discussion regarding whether things have the ability to act independently of their surroundings.
  • Items have also been seen as power structures, influencing categories and morals, ritualizing iconography, maintaining social interactions as tools of states and institutions, and organizing action through the physical environment, among other things.

Journals and Textbooks

A number of publications from a variety of areas, including the Journal of Material Culture, Science, Technology, and Human Values, the Journal of Consumer Culture, Social Studies of Science, and Environment and Planning, have established themselves as the gold standard for work on material culture.

The journals Cultural Sociology and Theory, Culture, and Society are both geared toward cultural sociology, although they also publish articles on material culture. See Woodward 2007, Understanding Material Culture, for a textbook on the subject.

  • Cultural Sociology is a branch of sociology that studies culture. Since its inception in 2007, Cultural Sociology has served as the official magazine of the British Sociological Association. It is published four times a year and contains research on sociological analyses of culture, as well as on the environment and planning. ‘Environment and Planning’ is an interdisciplinary magazine that publishes four peer-reviewed publications that are focused on urban planning, the built environment, infrastructure, and human geography. Environmental and Planning D: Society and Space is particularly interesting, while all four journals have published research that is relevant to historians of material culture, including the Journal of Consumer Culture. This multidisciplinary publication is published three times a year in a variety of disciplines. The Journal of Consumer Culture, which was established in 2001 and publishes articles on consumption and consumer culture, as well as the Journal of Material Culture, were both established in 2001. The inaugural issue of the Journal of Material Culture appeared in 1996. This multidisciplinary publication, which is based in the United Kingdom, publishes research on the link between artifacts and social relationships. Science, Technology, and Human Values is a quarterly journal that is published in English. Science, Technology, and Human Values is the official journal of the Society for Social Studies of Science, and it was first published in 1976. Articles in the subject of science and technology studies, as well as Social Studies of Science, are published biweekly in this journal. The first issue of this well regarded biweekly publication was released in 1971. Social Studies of Science is an interdisciplinary magazine that publishes social assessments of science, technology, and medicine, as well as theoretical, cultural, and societal perspectives. Original work on the relationships between culture and society is published by this journal. It was first published in 1982 and is published biweekly
  • Ian Woodward, 2007. Understanding the material culture of a place. SAGE Publications, London, DOI:10.4135/9781446278987 A textbook that organizes the topic in a useful and consistent manner. Perspectives from a variety of fields and experts are brought together in debate, and essential ideas and recommendations for additional reading are provided in summary form.
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Material Vs Symbolic Culture – Culture – MCAT Content

Material culture refers to the interaction between items and social relationships, whereas symbolic (or nonmaterial) culture refers to the ideas, beliefs, values, or conventions that influence the way a society is organized and functions. Material Culture is a term that refers to the way things are made. Material culture is a term used in the social sciences to refer to the link that exists between objects and social ties. Material culture is comprised of the tangible artifacts that people have created over time.

For example, the clothing that you are wearing now may provide information to academics in the future about the styles of the day.

The link between culture and materialism may be used to analyze social and cultural attitudes, as can the relationship between a culture and money.

Symbolic Culture

A symbol is a thing, normally made of material, that is intended to symbolize another object (usually abstract), even if there is no meaningful link between the two objects. In their view, human beings have acquired a universal human capacity to classify experiences, encode and convey them symbolically, such as through the use of written language, over the course of their evolutionary history. These symbolic systems began to grow independently of biological development as soon as they were learnt and passed down via generations of teachers.

  • Cultures may, on the other hand, readily move from one group of people to another when certain elements of the culture are present.
  • The fact that culture is dynamic, can be taught and learnt, and may thus serve as a potentially quick form of adaptation to changes in physical conditions is a significant advantage.
  • Thus, anthropologists make a distinction between material and symbolic culture, not only because they represent various forms of human activity, but also because they contain different types of data and need the use of different approaches in order to be studied properly.
  • A culture is defined as the set of ideas and practices held by a group, whereas a society is defined as the collection of people who hold such views and practices.
  • Nonmaterial culture, on the other hand, is made up of the ideas, attitudes, and beliefs that exist inside a society.
  • Culture is built on a common set of symbols and meanings that are shared by all people.
  • Important Phrases Material culture is a word used in the social sciences to refer to the link between objects and social ties.

Symbolic culture is defined as follows: It is a concept used by archaeologists, social anthropologists, and sociologists to denote the cultural domain that has been produced and inhabited exclusively by Homo sapiens, and it is defined as follows: Culture: may be defined as all of the ideas, assumptions, artifacts, actions, and procedures that contribute to a common way of life and are shared by a population.

The term anthropological refers to a person who is involved in the study of elements of people in the context of historical and current society.

Society and Culture Culture Summary & Analysis

Everything created, taught, or shared by the members of a community, including values, beliefs, behaviors, and tangible things, is considered to be part of the culture. Culture is something that is learnt, and it differs considerably from one community to the next. We begin learning about our culture from the minute we are born, since the people who nurture us encourage particular habits and teach their own interpretations of what is acceptable and bad in their own way. Despite the fact that civilizations differ greatly, they are all divided into two categories: material culture and nonmaterial culture.

Material Culture

Every item created, taught, or shared by the people of a community is considered to be part of its culture. This includes values, beliefs, habits, and physical artifacts. Cultur is something that is learnt, and it differs enormously from one community to the next. When we are born, we begin learning about our culture because the people who raise us encourage particular habits and teach their view of what is acceptable and bad. Cultural differences aside, all civilizations are divided into two distinct categories: material culture and nonmaterial culture (or vice versa).

  • Everything created, taught, or shared by members of a community, including values, beliefs, behaviors, and tangible artifacts, is considered to be part of the culture. Culture is acquired, and it differs enormously from one community to the next. When we are born, we begin to learn about our culture because the people who nurture us encourage particular habits and teach their view of what is proper and bad. Despite the fact that civilizations differ considerably, they are all divided into two categories: material culture and nonmaterial culture.

As an illustration, jewelry that denotes a person’s marital status is a prevalent type of material culture. A metal band is worn on the left ring finger of the left hand to signify that the wearer is married in the United States of America. A notice like this isn’t necessary in smaller, less industrialized communities where everyone knows everyone other. In certain regions of India, ladies wear a necklace to signify that they are married, which is a tradition. In Northern Europe, persons who are married wear their wedding rings on the right side of their hands.

Nonmaterial Culture

Nonmaterial culture refers to the intangible parts of a culture, such as its values and beliefs, that cannot be seen or touched. Nonmaterial culture is comprised of thoughts and ideas that define who we are and distinguish us from members of other civilizations. It is not limited to physical objects.

  • When it comes to culture, nonmaterial characteristics include values and beliefs, which are intangible aspects of a culture. We are defined by our nonmaterial culture, which comprises of thoughts and ideas that determine who we are and distinguish us from other members of our society.

As an illustration, many women in the United States now consider thinness to be a criterion of beauty. In Ghana, on the other hand, the majority of the population considers American fashion models to be sickly and unappealing. In that culture, as well as others, robustness is seen as a more attractive characteristic than skinniness.

  • The exact concepts that people hold to be true are referred to as beliefs. Beliefs are supported by values.

For example, Americans believe in the right to freedom of expression and feel that individuals should be able to speak whatever they want without fear of retaliation from the authorities. Many Americans feel that freedom is a fundamental right that should be protected by the government and that people should be allowed to live their lives as they see fit with the least amount of interference from the government.

Material Culture and Nonmaterial Sociology Homework & Assignment Help

Material Culture and Nonmaterial Culture are two types of culture. In terms of content, our cultural toolbox may be separated into two main categories: material culture and nonmaterial culture (Ogburn, 196611922). It is the concrete or tangible works that people of a society develop, utilize, and exchange that are referred to as material culture. Initially, raw materials or natural resources such as ore, wood, and oil are used to create products of material culture. These raw resources are converted into useable things with the use of technology (ranging from books and computers to guns and tanks).

In the case of a pair of scissors, technology involves the knowledge and expertise required to create them out of metals such as iron, carbon, and chromium (Western-rn!991).

II For example, we build a shelter to protect ourselves from the elements and to give ourselves with comfort and security.

Why are you dressed in the precise clothing that you are wearing right now?

NO material culture is comprised of the abstract or intangible human constructions of society that have the ability to affect people’s actions and decisions.

Beliefs are a fundamental component of nonmaterial culture; they are the mental acceptance or conviction that certain things are true or real.

Confidence in II Beliefs include the belief in a supreme entity and the believe in another individual.

We may also have faith in objects associated with material culture. When we go by airline, for example, we think that we will be able to fly lit:n.ooo feel and 10 arrive at our destination even if we know that we would not be able to do so without the airplane.

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