- 1 Culture and Communication
- 2 The Relationship Between Communication and Culture
- 3 Characteristics of Culture
- 4 Glimpses of Culture
- 5 The Role of Technology and Media
- 6 Issues and Areas of Study
- 7 Bibliography
- 8 The Effect of Culture in Communication – Glassdoor Career Guides
- 8.1 More power distance versus less power distance
- 8.2 Individual-focused versus group-focused
- 8.3 More uncertainty avoidance versus less uncertainty avoidance
- 8.4 Indulgence versus self-restraint
- 8.5 More context versus less context
- 8.6 Affective versus neutral
- 8.7 Social resources-based versus skill-based
- 9 Culture definition
- 10 Cultural Communication
- 11 How Does Culture Affect Communication?
- 12 Communication & Culture – Media Studies 101
- 13 Discussion
- 14 References
- 15 The Importance of Culture and Communication
- 16 Author Contributions
- 17 Conflict of Interest
- 18 References
Culture and Communication
In cultural studies, the term “culture” refers to a complex collection of information (knowledge), folklore (lore), language (language), rules (rituals), habits (ways of life), attitudes (attitudes), beliefs (beliefs), and customs (customs) that bind and give a common identity to a particular group of people at a specific point in time. Every social unit develops its own culture. Even in two-person partnerships, over time, a culture emerges and evolves. In friendships and romantic relationships, for example, partners build their own histories, shared experiences, linguistic patterns, rituals, habits, and conventions, all of which contribute to the development of a unique character that distinguishes the relationship from others in a variety of ways.
Groups also form cultures, which are made up of a collection of norms, rituals, practices, and other traits that define the social unit as a whole and give it its own identity.
Organizations also have cultures, which are typically visible in certain patterns of dress, the arrangement of workspaces, the forms and functions of meetings, the manner in which people think about and talk about the nature and direction of the company, leadership styles, and other characteristics.
A society or national culture also contains components such as notable historical events and people, political ideologies, social traditions, family practices, religion, economic ideologies and practices, belief and value systems, and legal conceptions and systems of law, among other things.
While each culture has its own set of distinguishing features (or mix of qualities), all civilizations perform some functions that are similar to all.
The Relationship Between Communication and Culture
At any given point in time, the term “culture” refers to a complex collection of information and traditions (such as folklore and language), rules and rituals, habits and ways of life, attitudes and beliefs, and customs) that binds and gives a common identity to a particular group of people (as opposed to a generalized term such as “race” or “ethnicity”). The development of culture occurs in all social groupings. Over the course of a relationship, even between two people, a culture forms. In friendships and romantic relationships, for example, partners develop their own histories, shared experiences, language patterns, rituals, habits, and customs, all of which contribute to the development of a unique character that distinguishes the relationship from others in a variety of different ways.
- A culture is formed by a collection of norms, rituals, practices, and other traits that define the social unit as a whole.
- It is the location of a group’s customary meetings, whether meetings begin on time or are delayed, the themes addressed, the manner in which decisions are taken, and the manner in which the group socializes that, over time, become defining and distinguishing characteristics of its culture.
- It is the cultures connected with a community or a nation that are the most rich and complex, and the term “culture” is most generally used to refer to these traits, which include language and language-usage patterns, rituals, regulations, and conventions, among other elements.
- A culture is developed through time by any social unit, whether it be a relationship, a group, an organization, or a society.
In particular, three such roles that are particularly significant from a communication standpoint are (1) relating individuals to one another, (2) providing the foundation for a shared identity, and (3) offering an environment for interaction and bargaining among members.
Characteristics of Culture
Cultures are diverse and multidimensional, and they have many facets. As has been seen in the preceding chapters, cultures are complex “structures” that are comprised of a diverse range of features. When compared to the cultures of organizations and, particularly, civilizations, the cultures of partnerships and groups are comparatively straightforward. A major contributor to the broad knowledge of the complexity of culture, and the significance of communication in comprehending and coping with cultural variations at the societal level, Edward Hall (1959, 1979) is a sociology professor at the University of California, Los Angeles.
- Many people believe that the features of their own cultures are reasonable and make excellent sense, which is not always the case.
- It’s possible that, for example, someone who happens to be in a love relationship that is defined by public shows of affection may think that the actions of other individuals who have more quiet relational cultures will appear weird, or even wrong.
- Even worse, the individual could be persuaded to believe that the “reserved” connection is shallow and lacking in passion.
- Some people, who are accustomed to casual group gatherings, may find the strict adherence to formal meeting norms weird and stiff.
- Someone who comes from a society in which a guy is only allowed to have one wife may feel it highly improper that another culture allows a man to have numerous wives, and vice versa.
- Cultures shift and evolve over time.
- Cultural transformation is influenced by a variety of factors.
Everyone who participates in a communication encounter brings the total of his or her personal experiences gained from previous (past or present) cultural affiliations into the conversation.
Travel and communication technologies substantially expedite the transmission of messages from one cultural setting to another, and cultures come to affect one another in both little and big ways as a result of communication.
Cultures are mostly absent from everyday life.
Language, of course, is clearly evident, as are greeting norms, distinctive symbols, locations, and spaces, among other things.
For example, it is possible to watch persons kissing as they welcome one another, but it is impossible to discern what the action implies in the context of the culture of their relationship, group, organization, or society unless one has a great lot of cultural information.
An further illustration would be that beefsteak is considered a great dish in some cultures. If, on the other hand, one were a vegetarian or a member of a society where the cow is revered, the same steak would have a completely different cultural connotation and significance.
Glimpses of Culture
In part because of the factors mentioned above, there are limited opportunities to “see” culture and the dynamic interaction that occurs between culture and communication. When cultural conventions are violated or when there is cross-cultural interaction, there are two instances in which such chances present themselves. A cultural convention, ritual, or custom is violated when someone does something that is considered inappropriate by the rest of the culture. This can include speaking in a foreign language while conversing, standing closer than usual while conversing, or discussing topics that are not typically discussed openly.
When people go to other groups, organizations, and, especially, other societies, they are frequently presented with – and so become aware of – a variety of customs, rituals, and conventions that they were previously unaware of.
Once again, one gets a look into the concept of “culture” as well as the mechanisms through which individuals establish and adapt to cultural norms and values.
The Role of Technology and Media
All of society’s institutions serve to enable communication, and in doing so, they all contribute to the formation, diffusion, and evolution of culture in some way or another. The use of communication mediums such as television, movies, radio, newspapers, compact discs, magazines, computers, and the Internet, on the other hand, plays a significant role in society. Inasmuch as media expand human powers for message creation, duplication, transmission, and storage, they likewise expand and magnify actions aimed at fostering culture.
All forms of media such as television shows, films, websites, video games, and compact CDs are produced by humans and, as a result, reflect and further extend the cultural viewpoints of their authors.
Issues and Areas of Study
Understanding the nature of culture and how it affects communication is beneficial in a variety of ways, as follows. To begin, it contributes to the understanding of the origins of differences between the behaviors, beliefs, values, and customs of distinct groups and communities, as well as a reminder of the communication process that resulted in these disparities. People’s tolerance for cultural diversity may and should be increased as a result of this information. Secondly, it contributes to an understanding of how individuals adjust to new relationships, groups, organizations, and societies as well as the cultures of each of these groups, organizations, and communities.
Researchers and politicians in this field are likewise grappling with a number of questions.
Will the cultures of individuals from groups, organizations, and civilizations that have extensive access to and control over communication media outweigh the cultures of individuals from cultures that have limited resources and access to, as well as little control over, communication media?
Can knowledge be used to help individuals more comfortably and effectively adapt to new relationships, groups, organizations, and societies?
Additionally, see:Globalization of Culture Through the Media;Group Communication;Intercultural Communication, Adaptation and;Intercultural Communication, Interethnic Relations and;Interpersonal Communication;Language and Communication;Organizational Communication;Types of Relations;Social Change and the Media;Social Goals and the Media;Society and the Media;Symbols.
Gudykunst, William B. Gudykunst, William B. (1991). Effective Intergroup Communication is essential for bridging differences. Sage Publications, Newbury Park, California. Gudykunst, William B., and Kim, Young Y. Gudykunst, William B. (1984). It is a method of intercultural communication called “Communication with Strangers.” Random House Publishing Company, New York. Edward T. Hall is the author of this work (1959). The Silent Language is a kind of communication that is not spoken. Doubleday Publishing Group, New York.
- Hall is the author of this work (1979).
- Doubleday Publishing Group, New York.
- Ruben have collaborated on this project (1992).
- HarperCollins Publishing Company, New York.
- Kim, Young Y.
- Multilingual Matters is based in Clevedon, England.
The third edition of Communication and Human Behavior.
David Ruben and Lea Stewart are co-authors of the paper (1998).
AllynBacon Publishing Company, Needham Heights, Massachusetts.
Corporation for Cultural Development (Culture, Inc.) Oxford University Press is based in New York.
Ruben is an American businessman and philanthropist.
The Effect of Culture in Communication – Glassdoor Career Guides
Different cultures have their own ways of transmitting information, which are referred to as communication styles. Each is impacted by the culture in which they live. Culture-based differences between social groups, especially those that affect communication, may be described using a framework established by the Dutch psychologist Geert Hofstede. It is one of numerous ways that can be used to describe culture-based differences between social groups. Communication styles in different cultures are based on this framework and other strategies, and they are as follows:
More power distance versus less power distance
This Hofstede dimension is concerned with whether or not people who have substantially less authority accept uneven power systems in their social group as legitimate. While their acceptance of power-based inequities implies a society with greater power distance, their unwillingness to do so shows a culture with less power distance, according to the research. The communication style employed in the first kind is likely to be one that is authoritarian and top-down in its approach. The latter culture, on the other hand, is more inclined to embrace a democratic approach that strives for a common understanding.
Individual-focused versus group-focused
Because they fundamentally study the same concepts, two of Hofstede’s dimensions, masculinity vs femininity and individuality versus collectivism, can be placed together under the individual-focused versus group-focused dimension, according to the author. In accordance with this new categorization, communication styles in different cultures can be distinguished based on whether they promote individual-focused goals such as assertiveness and heroism as well as material reward and achievement, or whether they promote group-focused goals such as modesty, cooperation, life quality, and concern for the weak.
More uncertainty avoidance versus less uncertainty avoidance
In his research, Hofstede distinguished between cultures that are comfortable with ambiguity and civilizations that are not. The former is more likely to hold workers accountable for their communication, whilst the latter is more likely to place control over the narrative at each level of the information exchange process. Communication styles are also different. More information may be found at: How to Make Your Salary Negotiable
Indulgence versus self-restraint
Civilizations that are more prone to fulfill their needs were separated from cultures that are less likely to do so in this dimension, according to Hofstede. Communication experts of the former kind are more likely than communicators of the latter type to be less trustworthy over the course of a conversation.
More context versus less context
This facet of cultural difference has to do with how a culture values the surroundings in which it exists. In the context of communication, a communicator from a culture that places less value on context is more likely to concentrate on the communication itself and the development of materials to support it, whereas a communicator from a culture that places more value on context is more likely to concentrate on the communication’s surrounding circumstances, such as social relationships between stakeholders and their personal agendas.
Affective versus neutral
A cultural difference’s value for context is represented by this dimension of cultural difference. In the context of communication, a communicator from a culture that places less value on context is more likely to concentrate on the communication itself and the development of materials to support it, whereas a communicator from a culture that places more value on context is more likely to concentrate on the communication’s surrounding circumstances, such as social relationships between stakeholders and their individual agendas.
Social resources-based versus skill-based
Furthermore, cultures may also be distinguished based on whether they place a greater emphasis on social resources or on talents. For example, in the first kind, which is popular in developing countries, the sharing of information is managed by social networks, which are often intolerant to criticism or disagreement. Communicating with people who come from cultures that are built on social resources might be counter-productive. Cultures that are built on skills, on the other hand, are often found in sophisticated nations.
Communication is improved as a result of this.
- Individual and group striving over generations has resulted in a group of people accumulating a vast store of knowledge and experience, as well as beliefs and values, attitudes, and meanings. Culture includes hierarchies, religion, notions of time, roles, spatial relationships, concepts of the universe, as well as material objects and possessions. In general, culture refers to the systems of knowledge that are shared by a reasonably significant number of individuals. Cultural expressions are communicated, and cultural expressions are communicated
- Culture, in its broadest meaning, is cultivated behavior
- That is, it is the sum of a person’s learned, collected experience that is passed down through social transmission, or, to put it another way, it is conduct acquired through social learning. A culture is a way of life for a group of people-the behaviors, beliefs, values, and symbols that they accept, typically without questioning them, and that are passed down from one generation to the next through communication and imitation. Culture is a means of communicating symbolically. Skills, knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and motivations of a group are just a few of the symbols that may be used. The meanings of symbols are taught and purposefully preserved in a culture through the institutions of that society
- And Culture consists of patterns of and for behavior acquired and transmitted by symbols, which constitute the distinctive achievement of human groups, including their embodiment in artifacts
- The essential core of culture consists of traditional ideas and especially their attached values
- Culture systems may be considered on the one hand as products of action, and on the other hand as conditioning influences upon further action
- As defined by the United Nations, culture is “the sum total of the learned behaviors by a group of people that are widely recognized to be the tradition of that group of people and are transferred from generation to generation.” In other words, culture is a collective programming of the mind that separates the members of one group or category of people from the members of another group or category of people.
- Individual and group striving over generations has resulted in a group of people accumulating a vast store of knowledge and experience, as well as beliefs and values, attitudes, and meanings. Culture includes hierarchies, religion, notions of time, roles, spatial relations, concepts of the universe, as well as material objects and possessions. Essentially, culture is a set of knowledge systems that are shared by a vast number of individuals. Communication is culture, and culture is communication. When we think of culture in its broadest meaning, we mean cultured conduct
- That is, the sum amount of a person’s learnt, collected experience that is passed down via social transmission, or, to put it another way, behavior acquired through social learning. A culture is a way of life for a group of people-the behaviors, beliefs, values, and symbols that they accept, typically without questioning them, and that are passed down from one generation to the next through communication and imitation of the previous generation. Symbolic communication is what culture is all about. Skills, knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and motivations of a group are only a few of the symbols used to represent it. It is via a society’s institutions that the meanings of symbols are learnt and consciously preserved
- Culture consists of patterns of and for behavior acquired and transmitted by symbols, which constitute the distinctive achievement of human groups, including their embodiment in artifacts
- The essential core of culture consists of traditional ideas and especially their attached values
- Culture systems may be considered on the one hand as products of action, and on the other hand as conditioning influences upon further action
- Culture systems may be considered on the one hand as products of action, and on the other hand as conditioning influences upon further action. In general, culture is defined as the sum total of the acquired behaviors of a group of people that are believed to be the tradition of that group of people and are passed down from generation to generation. Culture is a collective programming of the mind that separates members of one group or category of people from members of another group or category of people.
- Different cultural groupings have distinct ways of thinking, feeling, and acting. There are no scientific standards that can be used to determine whether one group is essentially superior or inferior in comparison to another. The study of cultural variations across people and cultures implies the acceptance of a cultural relativism viewpoint. Neither for oneself nor for one’s society does it represent a return to normalcy. If one is interacting with groups or communities that are not similar to one’s own, it is necessary to exercise caution. Information regarding the nature of cultural differences across cultures, their origins, and effects should be obtained before making any decisions or taking any action. Parties that grasp the causes for their differences in opinions have a better chance of achieving a successful outcome in negotiations
- Diverse cultural groupings have distinctly different ways of thinking, feeling, and behaving. In order to determine whether one group is intrinsically superior or inferior to another, there are no scientific standards. A cultural relativism viewpoint is assumed while examining variations in culture among people and cultures. Neither for oneself nor for one’s society does it entail a state of normalcy on the part of the individual. If one is interacting with groups or communities that are unlike to one’s own, it is necessary to exercise caution. Culture variations across cultures, their causes, and effects should be thoroughly researched before making any decisions or taking any actions. Parties that grasp the causes for their differences in opinions have a better chance of achieving a successful outcome during negotiations
- A preoccupation with specific cause-and-effect correlations in one’s own nation causes important elements in business to be disregarded. In order to ensure that all major factors have been at least considered while working abroad, it is always a good idea to consult checklists of human variables. Even though one may be aware of the environmental differences and problems associated with change, one’s primary focus may be on achieving objectives that are specific to one’s home country. A corporation or an individual’s efficacy in terms of worldwide competitiveness may be diminished as a result of this. The objectives defined for global operations should likewise be global in scope
- While it is acknowledged that there are differences, it is expected that the accompanying modifications are so fundamental that they can be accomplished without difficulty. An examination of the costs and benefits of the planned modifications is always a good idea before proceeding. A change may cause significant disruption to essential values, and as a result, it may encounter opposition when it is attempted to be implemented. Depending on the change, the costs of implementing the change may outweigh the advantages received from implementing the change.
EXAMPLES OF CULTURAL MANIFESTATIONS Cultural differences present themselves in a variety of ways and to varying degrees of depth in different contexts. Symbols are the most surface representations of culture, while ideals represent the most profound manifestations of culture, with heroes and rituals filling in the gaps.
- Symbols are words, actions, pictures, or things that convey a specific meaning that can only be understood by people who are familiar with a certain culture or tradition. New symbols are readily created, but old symbols are quickly demolished. Symbols from one particular group are frequently imitated by other groups as well. This is why symbols are considered to be the most superficial layer of a society
- Heroes are individuals, whether historical or contemporary, real or imaginary, who exemplify attributes that are highly regarded in a community. They also serve as examples for appropriate behavior
- Rituals are group activities that, while often redundant in terms of achieving intended results, are thought to be socially necessary in order to maintain social order. Therefore, they are carried out most of the time just for their own sake (as in ways of greeting others, showing respect to others, religious and social rites, etc.)
- Values serve as the foundation of a society’s culture. They are broad inclinations for preferring one state of affairs above another in comparison to other states of affairs (good-evil, right-wrong, natural-unnatural). Many values are held by people who are completely unaware of them. As a result, they are frequently unable to be addressed, nor can they be immediately viewed by others. It is only through seeing how people behave in different situations that we may deduce their values. Symbols, heroes, and rituals are the physical or visual parts of a culture’s activities that are visible to the general public. When practices are understood by insiders, the real cultural meaning of the practices is disclosed
- Otherwise, the practices remain intangible and remain hidden.
The manifestation of culture at various levels of depth is seen in Figure 1: LAYERS OF CULTURE Within oneself, even people from the same culture, there are multiple levels of mental conditioning to contend with.
At the following levels of development, several layers of culture may be found:
- The national level is one that is associated with the entire nation
- On the regional level: This refers to the disparities that exist between ethnic, linguistic, and religious groups within a country. When it comes to gender disparities (male vs. female), the gender level is associated with these differences. It is associated with the disparities between grandparents and parents, as well as between parents and children at the generational level. It is associated with educational chances as well as inequalities in occupational prospects. The corporate level: This level is associated with the specific culture of a given organization. Those who are employed are covered by this provision.
Associated with the nation as a whole, at the national level Within a country, there are regional variances that are associated with ethnic, linguistic, and religious diversity. Gender disparities (female vs. male) are associated with the gender level. The generational level is associated with the disparities between grandparents and parents, parents and children, and grandparents and grandchildren; and The social class level is associated with educational chances and inequalities in occupational options.
- It assesses the degree of inequality that occurs in a society using a power distance index. UCAI (Uncertainty Avoidance Index): This index evaluates the extent to which a society perceives itself to be threatened by uncertain or ambiguous situations. Individualism index: The index measures how individualistic a society is in comparison to other societies. Individuals are expected to look for themselves and their immediate families exclusively, which is what individualism is all about in a society where people are expected to look after themselves and their immediate families only. In contrast, collectivism is a social structure in which individuals discriminate between in-groups and out-groups, and they expect their in-groups (relatives, clans, organizations, etc.) to care after them in exchange for their complete commitment. Specifically, the index assesses the amount to which the major values are assertiveness, money, and things (success), and that the dominating values are not caring for others or for the quality of life. Womanhood (in a romantic relationship) would be on the other end of the scale.
CULTURAL DIFFERENCES ARE BEING RECONCILIATED Consciousness of one’s cultural heritage:
- CULTURAL DIFFERENCES ARE BEING CONVERTED Awareness of one’s own culture:
BRIDGE THE GAP BETWEEN CULTURAL DIFFERENCES Cultural sensitivity:
- Some nations may have many characteristics in common that contribute to the formation of their cultures (the modifiers may be language, religion, geographical location, etc.). Based on the information gathered from previous cross-cultural research, nations can be classified according to their shared values and attitudes. When travelling inside a cluster, less changes are likely to be observed than when going from one cluster to another.
There are numerous characteristics that certain nations share and which contribute to the shaping of their respective cultures (the modifiers may be language, religion, geographical location, etc.). On the basis of data gathered from previous cross-cultural research, nations may be categorized based on their shared values and attitudes. When travelling inside a cluster, as opposed to when going from one cluster to another, less changes may be predicted.
- Some countries may have many characteristics in common that assist to shape their cultures (the modifiers may be language, religion, geographical location, etc.). Based on the information gathered from previous cross-cultural research, nations may be categorized based on their shared values and attitudes. When travelling inside a cluster, less changes may be predicted than when going from one cluster to another.
Figure 2: Cultural Awareness and the Degree to Which the World Is Involved G. Hofstede is cited as a source (1997). Cultures and organizations are like software for the human brain. McGraw-Hill Education, New York. Here are a few recent publications. Firms Considering Expanding Into New Markets Face Culture Shock. However, the temptation of reconstruction contracts in locations such as Afghanistan and Iraq may tempt some corporations to take on more risk than they are prepared to take on in the United States.
- However, the tremendous rehabilitation of countries damaged by conflict has the potential to trip up even the most experienced among them.
- Language and cultural differences must also be taken into consideration.
- The United States government’s conference on reconstructing Afghanistan, held in Chicago last week, went a long way toward identifying prospects in the country.
- The first lesson is to abandon ethnocentric beliefs that the world should adjust to our style of doing business rather than the other way around, as is commonly done.
- Chinese representatives provided a wealth of information to U.S.
- The qualities of patience, attention, and sensitivity are not commonly associated with building, but they may be beneficial in cultures that are different from our own.
- [ENR (2003).
- [New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education.] Do We See Things the Same Way?
- These studies show that taking cultural variations into account when utilizing observation techniques in cross-cultural research, as well as in practical contexts such as performance assessment and international management, is crucial.
- Culture has an important role in research and management, according to the findings of this study.
[Karakowsky, LiKarakowsky] (2001). Do We See Things the Same Way? The Implications of Cultural Differences for Research and Practice in Cross-Cultural Management The Journal of Psychology, volume 135 number 5, pages 501-517.]
The universal challenge of figuring out how to live together as a community has been a persistent difficulty for all people. In order to address and handle this situation, which necessitates some level of structure, it is vital that it be communicated with and via others. That is, people coordinate their everyday meaningful acts through the use of situated webs of language and nonlinguistic methods as they engage with one another in their daily social lives. Alternatively, these located webs might be understood as cultural protocols relating to communication and interaction.
Because societies shape their respective codes according to their local means and meanings, that is, according to their own sets of beliefs, values, and rules for managing their lives both individually and collectively, this distinctiveness is a result of the reality that societies shape their respective codes according to their respective means and meanings.
Cultural communication is defined as follows: “the social enactment of learned systems of symbolic resources, premises, rules, emotions, spatial orientations, and notions of time” that groups of people use to shape distinctive and meaningful communal identities, relationships, and ways of living and being.
It is possible to use both verbal and nonverbal communication methods in conjunction with the rules for utilizing and understanding them.
In order to fully understand cultural communication, it is necessary to develop a definition that is more specific.
Real-life examples of places where communication may be seen, heard, felt, and experienced that have been empirically accessible and documented assist in explaining cultural communication.
Indeed, cultural communication treats culture and people as distinct sets of social actors whose lives are composed of intricate webs of nuanced expressions and attendant meanings, wherein each enactor plays a role in animating the symbolic resources that comprise their richly diverse schemes of life, rather than as broad brushstrokes in which the features of everyday life occur uniformly and generically.
How Does Culture Affect Communication?
Instantaneous communications and an ever-expanding internet have made the globe a much smaller place, posing both challenges and possibilities as we communicate with individuals from all over the world, regardless of their cultural backgrounds. Cultural differences stand out as one of the most difficult issues we face in this new and complicated world of communication. Individuals’ participation in organizations and their ability to function within communities are influenced by their cultural background.
- There are several opportunities for misinterpretation.
- These patterns include: Communication styles differ from one another.
- Words and phrases are employed in a variety of contexts.
- Besides words, gestures and facial expressions play a significant role in nonverbal communication.
- Conflict is viewed differently by different people.
- Despite the fact that conflict is not often sought in the United States, people in this country are encouraged to deal with issues as they arise.
- Various approaches of completing jobs are used.
There are a variety of reasons for this, including varying levels of resource availability, varying conceptions of time, and varying attitudes about how relationship-building and task-oriented labor should be integrated.
Decision-making differs from one person to the next.
The ability to delegate decision-making duties to others is highly appreciated in several Southern European and Latin American nations.
Disparities in attitudes toward disclosure have been identified.
Questions that seem normal to you may seem invasive to someone who comes from a different cultural background.
Different ways of approaching knowledge.
Europeans value knowledge received by counting and measuring more highly than information gained through other ways.
The six patterns of cultural difference might assist you in better understanding those who are different from you.
In practice, MindTools recommends that you acquire the fundamentals of the culture and language of the people with whom you will be interacting in order to avoid miscommunication and misunderstanding. The following suggestions were also made on the website:
- Recognize that a person’s behaviors and emotions are frequently influenced by their cultural background, and that while they may be different from yours, they are still appropriate
- Accept the fact that team members speak various languages, practice different faiths, and have other cultural distinctions
- Take into account the unique requirements of team members, such as various vacations and varied operating hours. If you are uncertain about cultural differences, you should ask inquiries. To guarantee that team members pursue a path of understanding and acceptance, lead by example by being polite.
Working across cultural boundaries is nearly a given in today’s society, especially for individuals involved in a variety of communication-related disciplines of study or employment. As a result, the University of Houston-online Victoria’s Bachelor of Arts (BA) in Communicationand Bachelor of Science (BS) in Communicationdegree programs educate students for a global environment with the inclusion of the course Intercultural Communication in the curriculum. In this course, we will discuss ideas and studies on how individuals from various cultures interact, as well as cultural variables that impact communication styles and the potential conflicts that might arise as a result of these differences.
- Learn more about the onlineB.S.
- in Communicationdegree programs offered by the University of Houston-Victoria.
- Cross-Cultural Communication: Tools for the Mind Do you have a question or issue about this article?
- Please get in touch with us.
Communication & Culture – Media Studies 101
Part One: Examining Media-Related Texts mediatexthack In the study of communication, we examine questions such as: what is communication, why do we communicate, how do we communicate, and for what purpose do we communicate. Communication is, at its most fundamental level, the interchange of information and meaning. Communicating is something we do all of the time, in a variety of circumstances such as with one another (interpersonal communication), with other cultural groups or subgroups (intercultural communication), or with enormous groups of people (mass communication), to mention a few.
- Culture is a phrase that is frequently used in academic settings as well as in everyday speech and discourse, and it refers to a variety of notions and understandings.
- For the sake of communication studies, we may define culture as a collection of learned behaviors that are shared by a group of individuals as a result of their contact.
- To its members, however, the artifacts, and even the existence of cultural behaviors and schemas, may appear inconsequential or unnoticeable.
- The existence of these subcultures might be for many years or it could be for a brief amount of time.
Cultures differ in many ways, but they all share a number of characteristics, including a common language or linguistic marker, the definition of proper and improper behavior, a sense of family and social relationships (i.e., mother, friend, etc.), ornamentation and artistic expression, as well as a concept of leadership or the decision-making process.
- Cultures are defined by the learned behaviors and schemas that people have acquired over time.
- Human societies are characterized by the fact that individuals acquire and convey cultural markers via interaction with one another, making it difficult to distinguish between the terms “culture” and “society” in human civilizations.
- Being that culture is something that is shared, it is critical to understand culture and communication in terms of how they relate to one another.
- As we can see, communication facilitates the dissemination and reiteration of cultural traditions.
- Take note of the focus on recurrent communication: culture is not created in a single instance of communication, but rather in the repeated interchange of information and the reinforcement of the ideas and values that it contains, all of which are communicated within a specific instant.
- Circuit of culture is a method of investigating a culture’s products as complex objects that are influenced by and have an impact on a variety of different elements within that culture.
- After quickly going over each of the five elements on the diagram, it’s worth applying what you’ve learned to a well-known type of communication in culture.
Representation is the process through which meaning is communicated to an audience, a user, or a co-communicator.
Taking pink as an example, what does the color pink symbolize in your cultural context?
Because our culture generates a spectrum of viable and non-viable identity alternatives, which are presented, polished, and renegotiated via our communication and exchange of cultural items, our identities are moulded by our cultural heritage.
Production—in this case, it refers to the process of creating meaning.
It is possible for an individual to convey message about themselves through their clothing or headgear choice.
Making movies and uploading them to YouTube is one way for a terrorist group to create meaning about itself.
Alternatively, others may find this production to be a challenge to their prevailing views or values.
Consumption is the inverse of production.
It doesn’t matter if it’s an outfit, a discussion, or a pop-song; text consumption reflects cultural values and expectations — complying to cultural values and expectations leads to unproblematic consumption since it’s what we anticipate, and it matches our internalized schema.
Consider Lady Gaga’s nine-minute long music video, which was built around a tale of female violence.
Finally, the term “regulation” refers to the mechanisms that restrict the creation, distribution, and consumption of textual materials.
It would be like to examining only the tyres of your automobile in order to determine why it is not running.
In some cases, these variables may lend support to the text or reinforce a cultural perspective, while in other cases, they may contradict or oppose a cultural paradigm.
However, as the media and communication environment becomes more globalized, it is becoming increasingly vital to consider the specificities of intercultural communication.
- If you had to describe culture in your own words, what would you say? Try to grasp a particular mode of communication or a particular media content by using the five factors du Gay offers to that situation.
Du Gay and colleagues (1997) published Doing Cultural Studies: The Story of the Sony Walkman in 1997. Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, California; Milton Keynes, England: Open University.
The Importance of Culture and Communication
My honor is to serve as the first section editor ofCulture and Communication, a new part of Frontiers in Communication that will be published in the near future. When Frontiers asked me about this position, I was apprehensive about taking on the responsibility. However, after discussing the prospect with coworkers and family members, as well as considering the possible benefits of such a business, I enthusiastically embraced the challenge and opportunity presented. My responsibilities as the first section editor of Culture and Communication included developing the breadth of this section’s content.
- The section is theoretically and methodologically multidisciplinary, and it welcomes approaches from social scientific, humanistic, critical/cultural, rhetorical, performative, and other perspectives to participate.
- Communication may be described as the interchange of information in its broadest sense.
- Cultural studies are the study of culture.
- It is the goal of this section to encourage interdisciplinarity and improve our understanding of global and glocal concerns by covering research on the confluence of culture and communication.
- We are interested in expanding our theoretical and methodological understandings of culture and communication, which is why this area exists.
One of the six markers of a quality submission, and one that the Associate Editors, myself, our reviewers, and our future readers will be interested in reading, is the following: Among the criteria for consideration are that (1) culture is at the heart of the research, (2) the work contributes to our understanding of communication, (3) the work is theoretically and/or methodologically innovative, (4) the work is timely, (5) the work adheres to open science practices, and (6) the work is timely.
- It is vital that culture is at the forefront of all entries in this part, which is titled “Culture and Communication.” What exactly does this imply?
- Consequently, researchers may approach culture from a more culturally sensitive perspective, where culture is defined as the common values, beliefs and practices of a group of people (Brislin and Yoshida, 1994;Croucher et al., 2015).
- In addition to a continuous component that flows through the history of the culture, culture also includes a dynamic component that continuously shifts as the culture responds to statewide, national, and global shifts in politics, economics, and communication flow.
- The research that is submitted to this area must contribute to our understanding of communication in general.
- Whenever I am reviewing a work, I always ask myself, “What have I learned about communication from this manuscript?” I believe this is an important question to ask.
- Furthermore, we cannot draw conclusions from research that do not employ reliable methods of measurement.
In order to further our understanding of communication, it is essential that all pieces be subjected to a thorough review process for validating their claims.
I’ve heard far too many stories about editors who are only interested in things that are based on theory.
I would say that as a field, we are still in the process of learning about methodology.
In this part, however, this will not be the case.
We are also interested in pieces that are conceptually motivated.
As a result, we encourage pieces that are theoretically and/or methodologically varied and come from a variety of paradigmatic orientations.
We live in a world where we can no longer limit ourselves to publishing for the benefit of other academics.
During the time it takes me to write this introduction, the globe is engulfed in the Covid-19 epidemic, and the United States is in the throes of the Black Lives Matter movement.
This section will also make an effort to publish research that is relevant to the current situation.
The majority of submissions are decided on within 3–4 weeks after submission, and if approved, the manuscript is made available for anybody to read within 2 months of submission.
It can take up to 4–6 months for a manuscript to be approved after it has completed the review process.
After those six or more months, however, only individuals who are subscribers to the journals (individual or institutional) will be able to access the work.
What is the data’s timeliness in this case?
The sixth and final indication is the degree to which open science is respected.
As a result, we urge all submitters in this section to make their data available to others when they ask for it.
It is critical that we cultivate an environment of openness and access to information for everyone.
All methodology, theoretical approaches, settings, and philosophical perspectives are encouraged to be presented and discussed.
In a similar vein to Afifi (2017)’s editorial statement, I wish to publish research that is relevant to the public debate. On behalf of the Associate Editors, we look forward to receiving your submissions and are pleased to announce that this part of Frontiers has officially launched!
The author certifies that he or she is the lone contributor to this work and that he or she has given permission for it to be published.
Conflict of Interest
There are no commercial or financial affiliations that may be perceived as a possible conflict of interest, according to the author, and the study was done in that manner.
Keene, J. R., Bowman, N. D., and Keene, N. D. (2018). A layered framework for thinking about open science activities is presented. Communication Research Reports, volume 35, pages 363–372. doi: 10.1080/08824096.2018.1513273 CrossRef Full Text|Google Scholar|Google Scholar and Yoshida, T. (Brislin and Yoshida, 2003). (eds.). (1994). Moduls for Cross-Cultural Training Programs to Help People Improve Their Intercultural Interactions Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, California. Google Scholar is a search engine that allows you to look up information on the internet.
Why is it important to consider the veracity of communication?
Rahmani have published a paper in which they discuss their research (2015).
Public Health Research and Practice, 1, 71–87.
Communicating about culture and health: conceptualizing techniques that are culture-centered and culturally sensitive.