- 1 What Is A Culture Hearth?
- 2 The Culture Hearths of Past and Present
- 3 Early Culture Hearth Locations
- 4 Culture Regions
- 5 Cultural Diffusion
- 6 Modern Culture Hearths and Cultural Diffusion
- 7 what does culture hearth mean
- 8 What is the hearth of Mexico?
- 9 What is the cultural hearth of Mandarin Chinese?
- 10 Where are 5 of the earliest cultural hearths?
- 11 What are 3 elements of culture?
- 12 What is culture in a simple definition?
- 13 What is an example of a culture complex?
- 14 Culture Hearths Definition
- 15 what is the definition of cultural hearth
- 16 What is the best definition of cultural hearth?
- 17 What is an example of cultural hearth?
- 18 What is a cultural hearth in geography?
- 19 What are the four cultural hearths?
- 20 Why is cultural hearth important?
- 21 Is Tokyo a hearth?
- 22 Where is the cultural hearth of Christianity?
- 23 Where is the cultural hearth of democracy?
- 24 How do you use cultural hearth in a sentence?
- 25 What cultural hearth was in North America?
- 26 What is the cultural hearth of Mandarin Chinese?
- 27 What is hearth in human geography?
- 28 What are the 8 ancient cultural hearths?
- 29 What are the 5 most influential cultural hearths?
- 30 Why is the Nile River valley a cultural hearth?
- 31 How does a hearth work?
- 32 Why is a hearth called a hearth?
- 33 What is a culture hearth where was this in Africa?
- 34 Is Silicon Valley a cultural hearth?
- 35 What is the cultural hearth of the Middle East?
- 36 Can you have a fire pit in Japan?
- 37 What is the hearth of Roman Catholicism?
- 38 What country is the hearth of Islam?
- 39 What is the cultural hearth of Buddhism?
- 40 What culture is in America?
- 41 What is a cultural hearth quizlet?
- 42 What are synonyms for hearth?
- 43 What is the make sentence of hearth?
- 44 What is an example of a cultural diffusion?
- 45 What is the difference between a culture region and a culture hearth?
- 46 What is often referred to as the heart of a culture?
- 47 What is the hardest language in the world?
- 48 Cultural Hearth
- 49 What is the definition of a cultural hearth?
- 50 phystx
- 51 Cultural Hearth: Definition and Examples from a New Perspective
- 52 The Old World Civilization
- 53 The New World Civilizations
- 54 Types of Cultural Diffusion
- 55 India’s Cultural Hearth
- 56 West Africa as a Cultural Hearth
- 57 Sources
What Is A Culture Hearth?
The Indus Valley Civilization’s ancient city of Harappa is a must-see. Cultural hearths are the places where the ancestors of ancient civilizations first gathered, and they continue to inspire and influence current communities all over the world. According to historians, the globe is divided into seven major Culture Hearths. These are as follows: Prior to the appearance of Culture Hearths around the world, certain conditions had to be met, and all of them shared certain characteristics, such as being in a habitable climate zone, being in close proximity to large river basins, and being geographically isolated from other parts of the world due to mountains, deserts, or seas.
The Nile River Valley
The ancient civilisation of the Nile River Valley developed on the banks of the upper Nile River in Africa, in relative isolation from probable threats from the sea and from invaders of the sparsely inhabited desert, and in relative isolation from the sea. During the summer and fall months, the abundant Nile floods nourished the land, resulting in a bountiful harvest of millet and rye. The abundance of grain harvests gathered contributed to population increase, which in turn resulted in the establishment of a hierarchical structure and the practice of knowledge accumulation through the use of hieroglyphic notes on tablets of wood or clay.
The Indus River Valley
Early livestock settlements have been discovered in the Indus Valley dating back to 8500 BC, although the cultivation of the land began much earlier with more basic tools of wood origin, the pictures of which have been preserved on archaeological sites from the time period. The Indus River’s rich moisture floodplain helped to the development of a sedentary lifestyle that necessitated the development of a more complex social structure. Cotton processing techniques that were later developed aided in the production of the earliest textiles.
The arrival of the Aryan migration to India, along with their cultural influence, occurred approximately 1500 BC, around the same time as the emergence of the Ganges River valley civilisation.
The Wei-Huang Valley
Approximately 5000 years ago, in the Wei-Huang valley region of China, the shift from a nomadic lifestyle to one based on soil agriculture, referred known as the Neolithic Revolution, took place. Despite the fact that the soil was relatively productive, floods occurred on a regular basis, necessitating the construction of dams as well as the movement of enormous quantities of material from one location to another. Up to 5000-3000 BC, there were no big settlements in the Wei-Huang valley zone, but there were a plethora of tiny village-like sites that were prospering.
It represented the beginning of the development of the hereditary monarchies: the Xia (ca.
1750-1100), the Xia (ca.
The Indo-Europeans had a significant impact on the expansion of the future empire, as they introduced bronze and chariots to the Yellow Riverpeople (as Europeans referred to them), as well as other objects of invention that were already common in Mesopotamia, paving the way for the rise of the empire.
According to historical records, the formation of the Zhou Dynasty (1122-256) coincided with the birth of Chinese classical culture.
The Ganges River Valley
The emergence of a plethora of literature during the Vedic period corresponded with the arrival of Aryans on the Indian subcontinent. In addition, the literature gives an understanding of the social organization of Ganges Valley society. Cattle rearing continued to be a significant source of food and income during the early years of Gangescivilization. During this period, a big family community began to grow, which was frequently marked by confrontations between neighbors in pursuit of their neighbors’ livestock.
Although it is commonly translated as “war,” it really means “a chase in search of cows.” The names of various clans and the accomplishments of its members may be found in the literature of that time period.
Mesopotamia can be considered the second most ancient civilization, and it is known to some historians as the Fertile Crescent. This was the culmination of traditions that would be carried forth for many decades to come, and which began with the advent of agriculture in the lush soils of Mesopotamia some 8000 years ago. One of the most important early settlements was Jericho, which has the distinction of being the city with the longest continuous history of human occupancy. Egypt was reunited in 1956, marking a significant step forward in the development of a major cluster of culture and business in the region centered on Egypt’s lower Nile River, north of the Arabian Peninsula, and Mesopotamia.
It is interesting to note that this area was colonized by Arabs predominantly of the Islamic faith, whose emblem is likewise a Crescent, in more recent times.
In the western hemisphere, some 13,000 years ago, tribal groups began migrating in quest of rich territory, beginning in the western hemisphere. While early agriculture may be traced back to 7,000 BCE in the northern hemisphere region of North America, which encompasses Mexico and Central America, the region’s sophisticated civilisation with shared cultural traits emerged just a few thousand years later. According to legend, the cultivation of maize originated around 4,000 years ago. However, owing to the lack of big domestic animals in Mesoamerica, all of the soil preparation was done by hand, which explains why the usage of a wheel came considerably later in Mesoamerica than in other civilizations, compared to other civilizations.
The arrival of the Olmec kings about 1200 BC marked the beginning of the emergence of typical civilization, which resulted in the building of enormous ceremonial centers, drainage works, as well as the fabrication of huge aesthetic artifacts – the iconic Olmec heads.
The demise of the Olmec civilisation, which occurred for causes that are yet unclear, was followed by the emergence of the Maya civilization.
- It is believed that the domestication of cattle began in eastern Sudan as early as 8500 BC, and that the practice was first characterized by nomadic pastoralism. Permanent settlements began to form about 7500 BC, and crops such as sorghum and yams were planted, with each succeeding century bringing with it a new agro-culture. From around 5000 BC until the present, the region was home to a number of tiny Sudanic dynasties, including Ghana, Mali, and the Songhai, whose reigning rulers were generally considered as celestial creatures. Since then, it has become customary to plan the burial of monarchs and their attendants in a manner prescribed by tradition. It was believed that the servants would be of assistance to the kings in the next world. Around this time period, the powers of good in nature and the human mind began to be depicted in forms, pictures, and early writings, with the tendency to link good with rain and fertility, and to conceive it to be a globally unified divine power.
The Culture Hearths of Past and Present
” Culture” is a term that refers to a particular group’s way of life in general terms. It encompasses the social meanings of different parts of life such as race, ethnicity, values, languages, faiths, and dress styles, as well as the social meanings of various aspects of life such as gender and sexual orientation. Despite the fact that many unique cultures are currently popular throughout the world, the cultures that are the most dominant had their beginnings in one of a few regions known as “cultural hearths.” These are the cultural heartlands of many civilizations, and historically, there have been seven major centers from which the most prominent cultural concepts have spread throughout the world.
Early Culture Hearth Locations
Listed here are the seven initial cultural hearths:
- The Nile River Valley
- The Indus River Valley
- The Wei-Huang Valley
- The Ganges River Valley
- West Africa
- The Nile River Valley
They are regarded culture hearths because they are where significant cultural activities such as religion, the use of iron tools and weaponry, highly structured social structures, the creation of agriculture, and the expansion of agriculture all began and spread from, respectively. In terms of religion, for example, the region surrounding Meccais regarded as the cultural heartland of the Islamic religion, as well as the region from where Muslims first journeyed to convert non-Muslims to the Islamic faith.
Culture areas had a significant role in the establishment of early cultural hubs as well. These are geographical places where prominent cultural features can be found. Despite the fact that not everyone in the culture region has the same cultural characteristics, they are frequently impacted by the characteristics of the center in some manner. There are four components of influence that operate inside this system:
- The Core: the geographic center of the area where the most strongly manifested cultural characteristics can be found. As a rule, it is the most densely inhabited and, in the case of religion, it has the most well-known religious sites. The Domain is the area that surrounds the Core. Despite the fact that it has its own set of cultural beliefs, it is nonetheless heavily affected by the Core. The Domain is surrounded by the Sphere, and the Sphere is surrounded by the Outlier.
It is the word used to describe the spread of cultural concepts from the Core (in the case of culture regions) and the hearth (in the case of culture communities). In the field of cultural dissemination, there are three approaches. The first type of diffusion is known as direct diffusion, and it happens when two separate cultures are located in close proximity to one another. Over time, direct interaction between the two civilizations results in the intermingling of their respective cultures and traditions.
- Today’s example might be the similarity in interest in soccer that exists in some sections of the United States and in Mexico, for example.
- Forced diffusion or expansion diffusion is also known as expansion diffusion.
- The word “ethnocentrism” is frequently used in conjunction with forced dispersion.
- This results in those involved in diffusion believing that their cultural views are better to those of other groups, and as a consequence they attempt to impose these concepts on those whom they have conquered via force.
- The majority of cultural imperialism takes place within the context of forced dispersion, which occurs commonly as a result of military or economic aggression.
- This sort of diffusion occurs when cultural ideas are transferred through the intermediary of another culture or even another culture itself.
An illustration of this would be the widespread appeal of Italian cuisine throughout North America. Various forms of technology such as mass media and the internet are all playing a significant part in encouraging this sort of cultural dispersion throughout the world at the present time.
Modern Culture Hearths and Cultural Diffusion
Because cultures evolve through time, new dominating areas of dominant culture have emerged as a result of this development. Places such as the United States, as well as major metropolitan capitals such as London and Tokyo, are today’s modern cultural hotbeds. Areas such as these are referred to be contemporary culture hearths since their cultural characteristics are now prevalent throughout much of the world, and as a result, they are termed modern culture hearths. The popularity of sushi in Los Angeles, California, and Vancouver, British Columbia, as well as the appearance of Starbucks in locations like France, Germany, Moscow, and even China’s Forbidden City are examples of modern cultural diffusion.
Physical obstacles, such as mountain ranges and seas, no longer impede people’s movement, and as a result, cultural ideas are spreading more widely over the world.
People all over the globe are now able to observe what is popular in the United States thanks to the internet and advertising in various types of mass media.
What ever the means by which cultural dispersion happens today or in the future, it has occurred several times throughout history and will continue to do so as new regions of power rise and transmit their cultural characteristics to the rest of the globe.
what does culture hearth mean
American culture is not just defined by its fast-paced lifestyle, fashion, and “to-go” coffee cups; it is also defined by the way it treats its people. It is also a society that embraces a wide range of differences, including diverse religions, races, and nationalities. It is a culture that fosters competitiveness and political correctness, while also attempting to enforce the right to freedom of expression and expression. The culture of the United States of America is predominantly of Western origin, although it has been influenced by European American, Asian American, African American, Latin American, and Native American peoples and cultures as well as other peoples and cultures.
This is the location where new and inventive ideas are born.
What is the hearth of Mexico?
An Aztec hearth was made up of three stones that supported the comalli (comal in Mexican Spanish), a clay griddle on which maize tortillas were cooked and on which the pots were placed, and between the stones were logs that were burnt to provide heat.
What is the cultural hearth of Mandarin Chinese?
Answer and justification are as follows: The Huang He River Basin was considered to be China’s cultural heartland.
From around 2200 BCE to 2200 BCE, the Huang He River Basin (also known as the Yellow River Basin) in Northern China gave home to an early Chinese civilisation known as the Wei Huang.
Where are 5 of the earliest cultural hearths?
Explanation of the response: It was the Huang He River Basin that served as China’s cultural nexus. From around 2200 BCE to 2200 BCE, the Huang He River Basin (also known as the Yellow River Basin) in Northern China was home to an early Chinese civilisation known as the Wei Huang.
What are 3 elements of culture?
Symbols, language, norms, values, and artifacts are some of the most important components of culture. Language makes it possible to have efficient social interactions and has an impact on how individuals conceptualize concepts and things.
What is culture in a simple definition?
In the broadest sense, culture refers to the qualities and knowledge of a specific group of people. It encompasses things such as language, religion, food, social customs, music, art, and other forms of expression.
What is an example of a culture complex?
The sequence of behaviors, beliefs, rituals, and traditions connected with one primary element of life in a specific culture is known as a culture’s way of life. Native American peoples engaged in a wide range of actions and ceremonies, as well as oral traditions, folklore, songs, and stories, all related with the hunting and utilization of buffalo, as an example.
Culture Hearths Definition
Exemplifications of cultural hearths cultural dispersion is defined as follows: There are four major cultural hearths. In a single statement, describe the cultural hearth A definition of cultural hearth in terms of AP Human Geography 4 religious cultural hearths are illustrated in this pdf. What geographical characteristics did ancient cultural hearths have in common? See more entries in the FAQ category.
what is the definition of cultural hearth
DEFINITION of Culture Hearths In the context of culture, a culture hearth is a “heartland,” a source area, an innovation hub, or the genesis of a significant civilization.
What is the best definition of cultural hearth?
Cultural hearths are considered to be the birth points of past civilizations, and they continue to inspire and influence modern communities all over the world today.
What is an example of cultural hearth?
Cultural hearths are considered to be the cradles of ancient civilizations, and they continue to inspire and influence current communities all over the world.
What is a cultural hearth in geography?
A “cultural hearth” is a point of genesis for a significant cultural movement that has spread around the world. Mesopotamia, the Nile River Valley, and the Wei-Huang River Valley are among the ancient cultural hearths that have been discovered.
What are the four cultural hearths?
Ancient Cultural Hearths: A Guide to the Ancient World. The four major hearths are the Tigris-Euphrates River Valley in modern Iraq, the Nile River Valley in Egypt, the Indus River Valley in modern Pakistan, and the Huang Ho River Valley in China. The Tigris-Euphrates River Valley is located in modern Iraq, the Nile River Valley is located in Egypt, and the Huang Ho River Valley is located in China. Each developed on its own hearth before spreading to other parts of the world.
Why is cultural hearth important?
Because individuals travel around on a regular basis as part of their everyday lives, the boundaries of cultural regions are subject to shifting throughout time. A cultural hearth is a term used to describe the location where major cultures first emerged in the ancient past.
Cultures expanded (were dispersed) outward from these locations, conveyed by individuals active in commerce, travel, conquest, or immigration, and eventually reached the rest of the world.
Is Tokyo a hearth?
Places such as the United States, as well as major metropolitan capitals such as London and Tokyo, are today’s modern cultural hotbeds. Areas such as these are referred to be contemporary culture hearths since their cultural characteristics are now prevalent throughout much of the world, and as a result, they are termed modern culture hearths.
Where is the cultural hearth of Christianity?
Because the religion of Christianity originated in Jerusalem, the city has become known as the “cultural hearth” of the religion. Following its inception in Jerusalem, Christianity expanded throughout the region through a process known as hierarchical diffusion.
Where is the cultural hearth of democracy?
Greece is regarded as a cultural hotbed since it was the epicenter of new customs and ideas that spread around the world.
How do you use cultural hearth in a sentence?
Greece is regarded as a cultural hotbed because it served as a hub for the dissemination of new customs and ideas.
What cultural hearth was in North America?
|Term Culture||Definition simply a way life; it is the reason behind people’s beliefs and behaviors|
|Term What is the cultural hearth of North America? What countries presently occupy the area?||DefinitionMesoamerica – Mexico, El Salvador, Guatemala, Belize, Honduras|
What is the cultural hearth of Mandarin Chinese?
Answer and justification are as follows: The Huang He River Basin was considered to be China’s cultural heartland. From around 2200 BCE to 2200 BCE, the Huang He River Basin (also known as the Yellow River Basin) in Northern China gave home to an early Chinese civilisation known as the Wei Huang.
What is hearth in human geography?
Explanation of the response: It was the Huang He River Basin that served as China’s cultural nexus. From around 2200 BCE to 2200 BCE, the Huang He River Basin (also known as the Yellow River Basin) in Northern China was home to an early Chinese civilisation known as the Wei Huang.
What are the 8 ancient cultural hearths?
8 Prehistoric Cultural Hearths
- China’s Huang Valley
- Southeast Asia’s Ganges River Valley
- Pakistan’s Indus River Valley
- Mesopotamia’s Euphrates and Tigris Rivers
- And Mesopotamia’s Huang Valley In Egypt, there is a river called the Nile
- West Africa has a river named the Niger that flows through Mali, Niger, and Nigeria
- The Andes Mountains run through Peru and Chile
- And Middle America is known as MesoAmerica.
What are the 5 most influential cultural hearths?
Hearths from ancient civilizations
- The Nile Valley in Egypt
- Mesopotamia in West Asia
- The Indus River and Ganges River Valleys in India
- The Yellow and Yangtze Rivers in China
- The Nile Valley in Egypt
Why is the Nile River valley a cultural hearth?
Which region in North Africa was home to a cultural hearth? As a cultural hotspot, Egypt and the Nile River valley served as an incubator, a site where new ideas and technologies might be combined to transform an area. Through cultural diffusion, such ideas and inventions spread to various parts of the world.
How does a hearth work?
The hearth, which is made of a non-combustible material, protects the floor of your home from radiant heat, flying embers, sparks, and burning logs that may fall from the fireplace. Although the primary function of a hearth is to provide a layer of protection, many people also use it as a place to store their fireplace equipment and ash buckets when not in use.
Why is a hearth called a hearth?
The term hearth stems from an Indo-European root *ker-, which means “burning,” “heat,” and “fire” and refers to the act of burning (seen also in the word carbon). … It is easy to identify lined hearths because of the presence of fire-cracked rock, which is commonly formed as a result of the heat from the flames inside the hearths chemically altering and cracking the stone.
What is a culture hearth where was this in Africa?
A cultural hearth was formed in West Africa as a result of the growth of the Niger and Senegal River basins, Lake Chad, and other minor waterways such as the Faleme, Benue, and Volta rivers.
Is Silicon Valley a cultural hearth?
Modern culturehearths include cities such as Tokyo, Hong Kong, Paris, London, New York, and Silicon Valley, which are known for their technological advancements and international commerce innovations.
What is the cultural hearth of the Middle East?
THE MIDDLE EAST IS A CULTURAL HUB. New ideas and inventions are born in a cultural hearth and then spread around the world as a result of their success.
… Since ancient times, the Middle East has served as a key cultural crossroads. The Middle East is home to three main religions as well as a plethora of innovations and technological advancements.
Can you have a fire pit in Japan?
Although it appears to be a bad idea when considered in general, the invention of the irori in Japan has made it possible to house an open fire inside a wooden fire pit that is located in the center of their houses, which are also made of wood and have paper doors and straw mat floors; all of this in a cost-effective manner.
What is the hearth of Roman Catholicism?
Roman Catholicism, as a branch of Christianity, may be traced back to the life and teachings of Jesus Christ in Roman-occupied Jewish Palestine around the year 30 CE.
What country is the hearth of Islam?
Roman Catholicism, as a branch of Christianity, may be traced back to the life and teachings of Jesus Christ in Roman-occupied Jewish Palestine about the year 30CE.
What is the cultural hearth of Buddhism?
Northern India is known as the “Heartland of Buddhism” (Modern Day Nepal). In Bodh Gaya, the first pin point on the map represents the location where it is believed the Buddha was born. Following his enlightenment, Buddha went over northeast India as a wandering monk, imparting his enlightenment and teachings to as many people as he could.
What culture is in America?
Even though the culture of the United States of America is predominantly of Western origin, it has been influenced by European Americans, Asian Americans, African Americans, Latin Americans, and Native Americans and their cultures, among other peoples and cultures. Hearth. This is the location where new and inventive ideas are born.
What is a cultural hearth quizlet?
Hearth of the Culture. fresh ideas and breakthroughs that originate in one section of the world and then spread to other parts of the world
What are synonyms for hearth?
‘Hearth of Culture’ fresh ideas and breakthroughs that originate in one section of the world and then spread to other areas of the world
What is the make sentence of hearth?
What is an example of a cultural diffusion?
The term “cultural diffusion” refers to the spread of a culture’s ideas and social activities to people of diverse races, faiths, nations, and other backgrounds. The custom of the German Christmas pickle, which has become famous in the United States, is an example of cultural diffusion in action.
What is the difference between a culture region and a culture hearth?
A cultural sphere is a geographical area in which cultural features are homogenous across all of its inhabitants. The Cultural Hearth is the origination point of ancient civilizations, which continues to inspire and have an effect on current communities around the world today.
What is often referred to as the heart of a culture?
Members of a group, as well as those who are not members of the group, use language to identify individuals inside the group. Some believe that language is the beating heart of a civilization, and that a culture dies if its language dies as a result.
What is the hardest language in the world?
1.Mandarin. As previously said, Mandarin is universally regarded as the most difficult language in the world to learn and master! The language, which is spoken by more than a billion people throughout the world, may be incredibly challenging for those whose original languages do not employ the Latin writing system.
As an illustration, consider the hearth in culture. A definition of cultural hearth in terms of AP Human Geography In a phrase, describe the cultural hearth; define cultural dissemination; list the four primary cultural hearths What geographic elements did ancient cultural hearths have in common?
Download the cultural hearth pdf or view the cultural landscape definition. See more entries in the FAQ category.
What is the definition of a cultural hearth?
Asked in the following category: General The most recent update was made on the 10th of January, 2020. Cultural hearths have been identified. The hearth of a culture. It is possible to have a cultural heart in any location where certain connected changes in land use have occurred as a result of human domestication of plants and animals. The Nile River valley, for example, is an example of a cultural heart. In addition to the Nile River valley, the Indus River valley, the Wei-Huang river, the Ganges River valley, Mesopotamia, Mesoamerica, and West Africa are also considered to be the initial cultural hearths.
These locations are referred to as “culture hearths” because they are where significant cultural activities such as religion, the use of iron tools and weaponry, highly structured social structures, and the development of agriculture had their start and spread from, respectively.
The Nile River Valley, the Indus River Valley, the Wei-Huang Valley, the Ganges River Valley, Mesopotamia, Mesoamerica, and West Africa are some of the regions that fall under this category.
Modern culture hotbeds include cities such as Tokyo, Hong Kong, Paris, London, New York, and Silicon Valley, which are known for their technological advancements and international commerce innovations.
Historical GeographySummary of the Topic:
- Culture hearths
- Colonialism’s impacts
- And so forth.
Why The cultural landscape of the planet has been molded by history. Therefore, studying historical geography is essential in order to comprehend the question “WHY THERE?” For example, why is it that people in Cameroon speak French? Alternatively, why is Islam the predominant religion in Indonesia? For the sake of this introduction to historical geography, we shall focus on two topics: ancient culture hearths and colonialism. DEFINITION of Culture Hearths When we talk about a culture hearth, we are talking about a “heartland,” a source area, an innovation hub, and the site where great cultures began.
- Mesopotamia, the Nile Valley, the Indus Valley, the Wei-Huang Valley, the Ganges Valley, Mesoamerica, West Africa, and Andean America are just a few examples.
When? Recognize the locations of the world’s old culture hearths and their significance. As we continue our exploration of the world’s realms, we’ll look at these in further depth and attempt to answer the question “WHY DO WE CARE?” OBJECTIVE: Construct a generalized picture of the key imperial powers of the previous two centuries, including their geographic locations and the names of their colonies. It is defined as the endeavor by one country to create colonies and impose its economic and cultural ideas on another region.
- When? Find out where the old culture hearths of the world might be found! Our exploration of the world’s realms will continue as we investigate these in greater depth, with the goal of answering the question “WHY DO WE CARE?” OBJECTIVE: Learn about the key imperial powers that have existed in the previous two centuries, as well as the locations of their colonial possessions. ColonialismDEFINITIONthe attempt by one country to create colonies and impose its economic and cultural ideas on another country’s land. What is the reason? What are the motivations for doing something?
“God, Greed, and Glory”WHEN did this happen? a number of early empires
- Greeks, Romans, Chinese, Arab-Islamic Empire (starting in the 7th century), Ottoman Empire (from the 16th century until World War I), and others.
European Colonization is a term used to refer to the process of establishing a nation state in Europe (15th century to 1970s to present) What percentage of the world’s land surface was under the control of Europeans? There have been two waves of European colonialism: 1) Wave1 (1415-1825) and 2) Wave2 (after 1825).
- In the Western Hemisphere, independence was achieved in 1776 and was maintained until 1824
- Mostly settlement colonies and immigration
- 5 major colonial powers, with Spain and Portugal being the most powerful
- In 1774, there were a total of 147 colonies
- Invasion, looting, enslavement, and extinction of indigenous peoples were commonplace.
2) Wave2: This has been going on since the mid-1800s.
- Ten colonial powers ruled over Asia, Africa, and the Pacific, and they established colonies of occupation rather than settlement. The United Kingdom and France are important powers. In 1925, the maximum number of colonies was 168. colonies are seen to be suppliers of inexpensive resources, making them less disruptive than the initial wave.
WHO IS THE CAUSE OF EUROPEAN COLONIZATION?
- Other countries include the United Kingdom (which held 24 percent of the land surface), France, the Portuguese, Spain, Germany, Italy, Denmark, the Netherlands, and Belgium.
The ramifications of European colonization may still be evident in many parts of the world today. As a result, we must be aware of the reasons why countries colonize, when they colonize, and what the consequences of colonization are. With each of the world’s regions that we will be exploring, we shall make an attempt to address these questions. There are a few colonies that have survived to the present day. Apart from that, the countries of Russia and China are the product of previous colonization of neighboring regions; as a result, some people still see these countries as empires today.
The Consequences of Colonization There are just too many negative consequences of colonization to mention them all here.
AIM: To be able to speak about some of the repercussions of colonization.
Cultural Hearth: Definition and Examples from a New Perspective
A bigger idea of cultural hearth includes the concepts of civilization, culture, and cultural dissemination, all of which are subsets of the larger concept of cultural hearth. In order to have a better understanding of the definition and meaning of the term, Historyplex has compiled a few instances from a different perspective.
Across the banks…
Because of the tremendous fertility of the soil, civilizations have always sought refuge near a body of water in the past. With teeming millions of people on the face of the earth, there was also the threat of barbarism looming huge. People took baby steps forward towards a better world, drifting away from barbarism and putting in an effort to develop and discover new things, slowly and gradually through time. This labor of love finally culminated in magnificent, long-lasting civilizations that became stronger with the passage of time and were ultimately destroyed when younger civilizations supplanted them one sunny day.
It was via the numerous channels of transmission that they were spread across vast landmasses.
As a result, the notion of the cultural hearth came into being.
Cultural Hearth – definition
In its most basic definition, a cultural hearth is the location where a culture has started, developed, prospered, and been propagated around the world. It does not confine itself to a single location; rather, it grows prominent enough to be embraced and practiced by a large number of people all across the world. Before delving deeper into the notion, it’s important to first grasp the essence of what culture is about. When we talk about culture, we are referring to the diverse range of activities that are carried out on a day-to-day basis by a group of people who live in a specific geographical location at a specific point in time in history.
An important differentiating trait of a cultural hearth is that it must be prominently shown.
A great number of cultures have existed and continue to exist around the world, but this does not qualify them as a cultural hearth in the traditional sense. A cultural hearth should have characteristics that may draw and absorb the individuals who live within its gaze.
Cultural Hearths of The Ancient Times
Throughout the history of humanity, change has been the primary driving force behind the development of civilisation. With the shifting tendencies in human behavior, various new things have evolved, some of which have been sustained, some of which have been adjusted, and some of which have been rejected. Those who have survived and endured the test of time have been able to establish a cultural hearth in their communities. They had an impact through the introduction of ground-breaking characteristics in agriculture, social organization, religion, armory, machinery, and other fields of endeavor.
Every one of them is a well-known example of a cultural hearth in their own right.
The Old World Civilization
This civilisation is considered to be one of the world’s first civilizations. It first appeared in the Asian nations of Afghanistan, Pakistan, and parts of India and Egypt. It thrived in the vicinity of the Indus river. It was during this civilisation that the use of handicrafts and metals became quite popular. The civilisation is also known as the Harappan Civilization in certain circles.
The Egyptian Civilization
One of the most remarkable aspects of this civilisation is its pyramids, which are also known as Pharaohs, which are a wonder to behold. This civilisation has been around for around 3000 years. In Africa, on the Nile River’s bank, it spread for miles and miles. The practice of agriculture had a significant positive impact on the development of civilisation. They are also credited with developing a distinctive writing system.
The Chinese Civilization
This civilisation began in the vicinity of the Wei river. During this civilisation, irrigation was first introduced to the world. It is a major tributary of the Yellow river and one of its most important.
The Mesopotamia Civilization
This ancient civilisation flourished in the territories that are today comprised of Iran, Iraq, Turkey, and Syria, among other places. At the confluence of two river systems, particularly the Tigris and the Euphrates, stands the city of Nineveh. They are well-known for inventing the wheel in the first place.
The New World Civilizations
This civilisation started in Mexico and spread to portions of Central America, including El Salvador and Guatemala. This civilisation, like the previous civilizations of the old world, is considered a hotspot of new world civilization, similar to the ancient civilizations of the old world. During this period, the Aztecs had great success.
South American Civilization
It constituted part of one of the civilizations that developed on its own before the arrival of the Spanish colonies in the Americas.
Man evolved from being a hunter to being an agriculturalist and domesticating animals. The responsibility for designing their own writing system also falls on their shoulders. Following the Spanish invasion, the culture was annihilated.
Types of Cultural Diffusion
This is the natural process through which two civilizations spread from one another. There are weddings taking place amongst the residents of two areas that have two independent cultures and share trade and commercial links between themselves. Consequently, two diverse cultures get entwined in one environment.
This dissemination occurs as a result of the actions of external actors. Agents can be carriers or even representatives of foreign civilizations. In today’s environment, the media plays an important role in the transmission of culture. Take, for example, the increasing popularity of Japanese animes in the United States, or even the rest of the globe, which may be attributed to the impact of media.
When a minority cultural group is forced to embrace the cultural practices of a more dominant group by coercion rather than free will, this is the consequence. This was common in the past when countries attacked and conquered other weaker countries, forcing them to follow their way of life as a result of the conquest.
Modern Cultural Hearth
As previously stated in the preceding paragraphs, for a culture to be considered a cultural hearth, it must be progressed in all aspects of development in order to be capable of motivating others to adopt its philosophy. The United States, China, Japan, and the United Kingdom are the countries that have made the most progress in recent years. As a result, they serve as the modern-day cultural nexuses of the world. They are world leaders in a variety of categories, including technology, literacy, nutrition, employment, and general level of living, among others.
The criteria for becoming a cultural hearth vary depending on the needs of the civilisation in question at the time of its establishment.
These stepping stones have been replaced by technical ‘know-how’ and innovation in recent years.
India’s Cultural Hearth
India’s Cultural CentersRemember to check out our other posts on this topic. What is a Cultural Hearth, and how does it work?
- In ancient times, a culturalhearth was a place where things like as religion, the use of iron tools and weaponry, highly organized social structures, as well as the development of agriculture, all began and eventually spread from
- Located in northwest India and southeast Pakistan, the Indus River Valley is often regarded as a key cultural center for this region of the world.
The Indus River flows in the centre of the photograph, passing through the Thar Desert. The Indus Valley is surrounded by mountains to the west and the Himalaya Mountains to the north, which form a natural barrier. Farmers continue to cultivate crops in farms adjacent to the Indus River. Take note of how the water from the river helps to keep the crops looking green. Farming along the banks of the Indus River Farming along the banks of the Indus River Two Civilizations are at war with each other.
- There were more than 1,000 settlements along the Indus River in present-day Pakistan in ancient times, about 2600 BC
- The two major regions of civilisation in ancient India were Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro
- A vast area of ancient India and Pakistan
Model of an ancient Indus Valley settlement created using computer simulation.
- Agriculture provided the majority of their income (wheat, barley, dates, vegetables)
- Irrigation was used
- South India and Mesopotamia were two of the countries with which they traded. Wanted: drawing materials for the creation of ceramics, stamps, and sculptures.
The Indus River Valley was a thriving center of commerce. How to Solve the Mysteries of Clay Stamps
- The symbols on the clay stamps are incomprehensible to me. Why? Because no one has ever been able to decipher the code of the symbols and translate them. The language has no relation to any other known language on the face of the planet today
- No one knows exactly what the clay stamps were used for
- No one has a clue.
- It is possible that there were as many as 40,000 inhabitants. They were skilled artisans who used wheeled vehicles in their culture. They belonged to social classes and were excellent city planners.
Today, carts resembling those unearthed in ancient Harappa may still be observed being utilized in the surrounding area.
It was discovered in the ancient city of Harappa. Harappan dwellings were constructed of brick. Several sewers ran beneath the city’s roadways.
- The dwellings at Harappa were all constructed of made baked bricks and were equipped with good drainage systems. Every home was equipped with a well. There were large streets connecting at right angles
- Some towns had citadels perched high on a mound in the middle of their urban areas. Larger structures might be found in the fortress. Perhaps the city’s rulers resided there
- The majority of the population lived and worked in the lower portion of the city.
Large, open-plan living and working spaces were provided in the houses. It was possible to collect rainwater in open areas in the center, which also served as a cool visiting space for tourists. Houses were also equipped with indoor toilets. The Great Baths and the Great Granary are located within Harappa’s Citadel. MOHENJO-DARO
- During its heyday, Mohenjo-daro had a population of around 35,000 people and covered an area of approximately one square mile. It was a well-planned city with one of the oldest urban sanitation systems, if not the earliest. Houses, granaries, baths, as well as meeting halls and towers used as fortifications, were among the structures constructed. By circa 1900 BC, the city had been abandoned, possibly as a result of conflict or climatic change in the surrounding area.
At Mohenjo-Daro, there are granaries (a drawing by the artist). Granaries might have been used to store grain; however, no “remains” of grain have been discovered in any of the granaries. It also had the potential to be utilized for public events or religious ceremonies. No one has a definitive answer. This location has been discovered to contain large volumes of industrial detritus. Stone beads, shell decorations, glazed ceramics, and stone tools may all be made in these workshops, which proves their existence.
- The Great Bath at Mohenjo-Daro is a spectacular structure.
- In the summer months, many of the brick houses were two storeys high, with thick walls and lofty ceilings to keep the interiors cool in the sweltering weather.
- Bracelets fashioned from the shells of marine creatures.
- An artist’s rendition of a landscape from the Indus Valley.
- The residents of Mohenjo-daro and Harappa farmed a variety of crops, including wheat, rice, mustard, peas and sesame seeds, dates, cotton, and other crops.
- They kept dogs, cats, camels, sheep, pigs, goats, water buffaloes, elephants, and chickens among their many other animals.
- A polished metal mirror, a copper hair clip, a little jug with an eye-dropper (for eye medication), and a copper hair pin A Pakistani farmer ploughs his land in a manner similar to that of ancient farmers.
- None of us can say with certainty what happened to these civilisations
- It is estimated that civilizations were all but extinct by 1700 BC. One possible explanation is a change in the course of the Indus River. Flooding might have completely destroyed the fields. Droughts might have been exacerbated by the construction of dams upstream.
- Another factor that has been suggested is a decrease in rainfall.
- It doesn’t matter what caused agriculture to decrease
- People were forced to quit their towns in search of food.
- Archaeologists found the civilisation of Mohenjo-daro and Harappa in the mid-19th century, after which knowledge of these civilizations was lost forever.
West Africa as a Cultural Hearth
Centers of Innovation are sources of information. A variety of “cultural hearths” arose in various regions of the world during the Neolithic and post-Neolithic periods, according to modern researchers’ classification. They were hubs of invention in a variety of fields, including food production, irrigation, the built environment, government, and religion, among others. In consequence, a cultural hearth served as a regional “cradle of civilization,” a place where distinct cultural features, aspects, and values were produced and shared by people from different cultures and backgrounds.
- Compared to the population density of the rest of their respective settings, all cultural hearths were located in metropolitan areas.
- In order to defend crops from animal and insect predators, each had to establish residence patterns and arrange their activity in order to survive.
- To cope with the varying cycles of food production, all developed distinct social stratifications based on divisions of labor that were tailored to the material circumstances of their environments.
- All of them changed their natural environs to construct permanent dwellings—generally made of mud, stone, or brick and mortar—as well as public buildings and facilities.
- They also learnt to use tools and weapons, either by creating them themselves (typically out of bronze, iron, or a mix of the two) or by building strong trading links with peoples who worked in metal.
- West Africa is a continent.
- In the centuries preceding and during the period 500-1590, a large number of peoples migrated into these regions, resulting in the urbanization of West African kingdoms and empires, as well as the widespread use and expansion of metallurgy.
- Other cultural hearths can be found here.
History of West Africa, edited by J. F. A. Ajayi and Michael Crowder, second edition, volume 1 (London: Longman, 1976), pp. 114-151. Nehemia Levtzion, “The Early States of the Western Sudan to 1500,” in History of West Africa, edited by J. F. A. Ajayi and Michael Crowder, second edition, volume 1 (London: Longman, 1976), pp. 114-151. In J. Ki-Methodology Zerbo’s and African Prehistory, volume 1 of General History of Africa (London: Heinemann / Berkeley: University of California Press / Paris: UNESCO, 1981), pp.
Mabogunje’s “Historical Geography: Economic Aspects” is included.