- 1 Individualism & Collectivism
- 2 Collectivist Culture: Definition & Examples – Video & Lesson Transcript
- 3 What Is Collectivist Culture?
- 4 Examples of Collectivist Cultures
- 5 Collectivism – Wikipedia
- 6 Origins and historical perspectives
- 7 Terminology and measurement
- 8 See also
- 9 Collectivist and individualist cultures
- 10 Examples of Countries with Generally Collectivist Cultures
- 11 Examples of Countries with Generally Individualistic Cultures
- 12 Personality Types
- 13 Collectivism and individualism in Chinese culture
- 14 See also
- 15 Culture and influence in the workplace: Collectivism vs Individualism
- 16 Geert Hofstede and the Cultural Dimensions Theory
- 17 What is individualism and collectivism culture?
- 18 Collectivism
- 19 Individualism
- 20 The influence of two
- 21 Why Your Understanding of Collectivism Is Probably Wrong
- 22 Collectivistic Cultures
- 23 Definition
- 24 Introduction
- 25 References
- 26 Copyright information
- 27 Authors and Affiliations
- 28 Difference Between Collectivist and Individualistic Culture
- 29 What is Collectivist Culture?
- 30 What is Individualistic Culture?
- 31 Difference between Collectivist and Individualistic Culture
Individualism & Collectivism
Cultures influence how we perceive and interact with other people, as well as how we perceive and interact with ourselves. The contrast between individualism and collectivism is one of the most generally acknowledged divisions between different types of civilizations. Individualism places a high priority on one’s own independence. It is more common for individuals in individualist societies to “view themselves as distinct from others, identify themselves based on their particular features, and perceive their attributes as relatively constant and unchanging.” The “interior” of an individualist’s concept of self is more important than the “outside,” with less emphasis placed on external elements such as circumstances and other individuals in the individual’s life.
Individualists prefer to communicate in indirect ways — they say what they mean and place a high value on information that is given plainly and unambiguously — rather than directly and explicitly.
Personal interdependence is highly valued in a collectivist society.
When it comes to collectivism, a person’s sense of self is determined more by their relationships with other individuals or their participation in a group.
- It is common for them to communicate in indirect ways —collectivists indicate what they truly mean, but may say something different in order to avoid confrontation or public disgrace.
- In collectivist societies, the individualist notion of having a more unchanging, true private self is not as alluring as it is in individualist cultures.
- Inversely, to someone who is more individualistic, the collectivist demand for social agreement and collaboration may appear stiflingly conformist, and vice versa.
- You shouldn’t assume that someone is an individualist simply because their cultural background is individualist.
- Even within a very collectivist culture, there will be individuals who are more individualistic in their outlook.
It is more prevalent in heterogeneous groups and environments for people to be adaptable. The desire to participate in intercultural interaction is partially motivated by this desire: we want to absorb diverse cultural frameworks and learn how to apply them in relevant societies and settings.
Collectivist Culture: Definition & Examples – Video & Lesson Transcript
Emily Cummins is the instructor. Include a biography Emily Cummins has a Bachelor of Arts in Psychology and French Literature, as well as an M.A. and a Ph.D. in Sociology from the University of California, Berkeley. Professor at Northeastern University and New Mexico State University, where she has taught Sociology, Anthropology, Social Research Methods, Societal Inequality, and Statistics for Social Research, among other topics. A collectivist society places greater emphasis on the needs of a group or community than on the needs of individuals.
The most recent update was made on November 29, 2021.
What Is Collectivist Culture?
What type of cultural environment do you inhabit? Have you ever given any consideration to how you may define your own culture? If not, now is the time. The term “culture” refers to the ideals that are shared by a group of people. There are many various sorts of cultural values that exist all across the world, and they are all important. The subject of collectivist culture will be discussed in detail in this section of the class. A collectivist society is one that places greater emphasis on the needs of a group or a community than on the needs of an individual.
- People are more likely to collaborate in order to achieve harmony, and group cohesiveness is highly regarded.
- Individuals who are a member of a collectivist culture, on the other hand, do not feel that they are just independent entities floating around in society.
- People in collectivist societies tend to be more outwardly oriented, toward the collective, rather than inwardly oriented, toward themselves.
- Individuals are seen as ‘good’ when they are kind and considerate of the needs of others, to name a few characteristics.
- You will find that your group identity is quite essential in collectivist cultures: rather than thinking of oneself as a single unit, you will discover that the group that you are a member of is really significant.
Examples of Collectivist Cultures
There are several countries that are regarded to have a collectivist culture, including the United States. Here are a number of them, along with some instances to show why we may say this.Koreais an excellent example of a collectivist society, as will be discussed further below. In Korean society, the extended family is immensely important, and loyalty is a significant component of its importance. Collectivism in Korea is characterized by loyalty to one’s family and fellow members, as well as a sense of responsibility toward one’s personal family and toward Korean society as a whole.Shame is also a component of the collectivist culture in Korea.
Collectivist cultures may be found in many nations throughout Asia.
Here is an example of a scenario that we might encounter in an Asian collectivist society.
She may decide to postpone her education for a few years in order to be of greater assistance to her family. In more individualistic societies, a student may prioritize his or her own education over the requirements of his or her family.
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Collectivism – Wikipedia
Collectivism is a value that is defined by an emphasis on cohesion among individuals as well as a preference of the collective over the individual’s interests. In general, individuals or organizations who subscribe to a collectivist worldview are more likely to perceive shared values and goals to be particularly prominent, and they are more likely to show a larger orientation toward their own group than they do toward others. For collectivist persons, the word “in-group” is regarded to be more broadly defined, encompassing a wide range of societal groups ranging from the nuclear family to a religious or racial/ethnic group, among others.
Origins and historical perspectives
It is a value defined by an emphasis on cohesion among individuals as well as the prioritizing of the group above the individual. In general, individuals or organizations who subscribe to a collectivist worldview are more likely to perceive shared values and goals to be particularly prominent, and they are more inclined to be more oriented toward their own group than they are toward others. Individuals who identify as collectivists are said to have a more expansive definition of the phrase “in-group,” which encompasses a wide range of social groupings, from the nuclear family to religious or racial/ethnic communities.
It is a value defined by an emphasis on group cohesion among individuals as well as the prioritizing of the group above the individual. Individuals or organizations who subscribe to a collectivist worldview are more likely to perceive common values and goals to be particularly prominent, as well as to display a higher orientation toward in-group than toward out-group. For collectivist persons, the word “in-group” is regarded to be more broadly defined, encompassing social units ranging from the nuclear family to a religious or racial/ethnic group.
Anarcho-collectivism is a form of collectivism that takes place in a decentralized anarchistic system in which people are compensated for their excess work. A comparison is drawn between collective anarchism and anarcho-communism, in which salaries would be eliminated and everyone would be free to withdraw from a storehouse of products “to each according to his need.” In popular culture, anarchism is connected withMikhail Bakunin, the anti-authoritarian parts of the International Workingmen’s Association, and the early Spanish anarchist movement.
As a political philosophy, corporatism is frequently characterized as one that places a strong emphasis on collective co-operation as one of its core components. According to the definition, the term corpus is derived from the Latin corpus, which means “human body,” and in this context signifies that society should work similarly to a body, via the means of loyalty to a person’s in-group orcorpus.
Collective bargaining is an illustration of the economic concepts of corporatist capitalism. State-sanctioned bargaining is frequently characterized as collectivism.
Terminology and measurement
In empirical literature, the notion of collectivism is referred to by a variety of distinct names. The phrase “interdependent self-construal” is most frequently used to describe this process. Other terms that have been used to characterize the notion of collectivism-individualism include allocentrism-idiocentrism, collective-private self, and subtypes of collectivism-individualism, among others (meaning, vertical and horizontal subtypes). Certain of the difficulties in properly integrating the empirical research on collectivism is argued to be due to inconsistency in vocabulary, according to some theories.
- Individualism against collectivism: A critique and recommended modifications, by S. H. Schwartz, published in 1990. “The lens of personhood: Viewing the self, others, and conflict in a multicultural society,” Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 139–157, doi: 10.1177/0022022190212001.S2CID146606056
- Oyserman, D. (1993). “The lens of personhood: Viewing the self, others, and conflict in a multicultural society,” Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, vol Hui, C. H. (1988). “Measurement of individualism–collectivism.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.65(5): 993–1009.doi: 10.1037/0022-3522.214.171.1243.hdl:2027.42/89930
- Hui, C. H. (1988). “Measurement of individualism–collectivism.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.65(5): 993–1009. Journal of Research in Personality, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 17–36, doi: 10.1016/0092-6566(88)90022-0
- Triandis, H. C., Journal of Research in Personality, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 17–36, doi: 10.1016/0092-6566(88)90022-0
- (1995). Individualism and collectivism are two opposing ideologies. F. Tönnies’s Westview Press is located in Boulder, Colorado (1957). Community and affiliation are important terms in this context. Robert Redfield’s Harper Torchbooks
- Redfield, Robert (1941). Yucatán’s traditional culture is described here. M. Weber, University of Chicago Press
- University of Chicago Press (1930). The Protestant morality and the spirit of capitalism are in opposition to one another. Hofstede, G., ed., New York: Routledge
- Hofstede, G. (1980). The ramifications of culture Hofstede Insights. “National Culture.” www.hofstede-insights.com. Beverly Hills: Sage
- Hofstede Insights. “National Culture.” www.hofstede-insights.com. Overy, Richard (26 October 2021)
- Retrieved 26 October 2021
- (2004). 301. ISBN 978-0-393-02030-4
- Horn, Eva (2006). “Actors/Agents: Bertolt Brecht and the Politics of Secrecy.” Actors/Agents: Bertolt Brecht and the Politics of Secrecy. ISBN 978-0-393-02030-4. The Grey Room.24(1):38–55.doi: 10.1162/grey/2006.1.24.38.S2CID57572547
- Blann, Alex (1977). Marxism and anarchist collectivism coexisted in the International Workingmen’s Association between 1864 and 1872. Blonna
- Esenwein, George Richard
- Esenwein, George Richard (1989). Between 1868 and 1898, anarchist ideology and the working-class movement in Spain were linked. Benjamin Martin, University of California Press, p. 110, ISBN 978-0520063983
- University of California Press
- (1990). In Spain, the Agony of Modernization manifested itself in the form of labor and industrialization. Cornell University Press, p. 88, ISBN 978-0875461656
- Ackelsberg, Martha A., p. 88, ISBN 978-0875461656
- (1991). Free Women of Spain: Anarchism and the Struggle for Women’s Emancipation is a book about anarchism and the struggle for women’s emancipation in Spain. Turcato, Davide. AK Press, p. 61, ISBN 978-1902593968
- AK Press, p. 61, ISBN 978-1902593968
- Turcato, Davide. Understanding Anarchism: Errico Malatesta’s Experiments with Revolution, 1889-1900 is a book written by Errico Malatesta. The publisher is Palgrave Macmillan, and the ISBN number is 978-0230301795. The authors include Lars Calmfors, John Driffill, Seppo Honkapohja, Francesco Giavazzi, and others (April 1988). “Bargaining Structure, Corporatism, and the Performance of the Macroeconomy.” Economic Policy.3(6): 13.doi: 10.2307/13445003.JSTOR1344503
- Grunig, James E. Economic Policy.3(6): 13.doi: 10.2307/13445003.JSTOR1344503
- Grunig, James E. (January 2000). “Collectivism, collaboration, and societal corporatism as Core Professional Values in Public Relations” is the title of this paper. 23–48 in the Journal of Public Relations Research, volume 12, number 1. 3.ISSN1062-726X
- H. R. Markus and S. Kitayama are co-authors of this paper (1991). Cultural influences on the self and their implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation are discussed in this paper. Psychological Review, vol. 98, no. 2, pp. 224–253. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.320.1159.doi: 10.1037/0033-295x.98.2.224. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.320.1159. multiple names: authors list (link)
- Triandis, H. C. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- (1983). The distinction between allocentric and idiocentric social conduct is a significant cultural divide between Hispanics and mainstream society (Technical reports). In a study published in 1991 by the Department of Psychology at the University of Illinois, D. Trafimow and colleagues found that “certain measures of the differentiation between the private self and the collective self” may be used to distinguish between the private self and the collective self. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, volume 60, number 5, pages 649–665. Authors’ list (link): Triandis, H C, Bhawuk, D P S, and Gelfand, M J. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.60.05.649 CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- (1995). This paper is titled “A theoretical and measurement refinement on the horizontal and vertical dimensions of individuality and collectivism.” Taros and colleagues (Taras and colleagues) published Cross-Cultural Research 29(3): 240–275. doi: 10.1177/106939719502900302.S2CID143852368.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- Taras and colleagues (2014). “Is it possible to have two opposite ends of the same stick? The Dimensionality of Individualism and Collectivism: A Multi-Method Examination” (PDF). Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology.45(2): 213–245.doi: 10.1177/0022022113509132.hdl:11693/12980.S2CID9349054
- Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology.45(2): 213–245.doi: 10.1177/0022022113509132.hdl:11693/12980.S2CID9349054
- Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology.45
Collectivist and individualist cultures
Aspects of assessment include biopsychology, comparative cognition, developmental language, individual differences, personal characteristics, personality, philosophy, social methods, statistics, clinical, educational, industrial, and professional items, as well as world psychology and social psychology. Assessment includes biopsychology, comparative cognition, developmental language, and individual differences. Altruism In this section you will find information on Attribution and Attitudes, Conformity and Discrimination, Groups and Interpersonal Relationships, Obedience and Prejudice, Norms and Perception, and Outline.
- Please assist in recruiting one, or if you are qualified, make improvements to this page.
- Individualism and collectivism are discussed in detail under the section Individualism and Collectivism Value Judgments.
- Collective and individualist cultures are often separated into two types.
- Collectivist cultures, such as those seen in China, Korea, and Japan, place a high value on the aims of the family and the workplace over the wants and wishes of individuals.
- People just accept the attitude taken by their society without question.
- Both collectivist and individualistic civilizations have flaws, and neither is without them.
- Individualistic Doers are self-assured and extremely self-sufficient individuals.
They place a high value on individualism and take pleasure in applying their strengths to new challenges. Despite this, they are also highly spontaneous and impulsive individuals who like following their unexpected impulses.
Traits of Collectivism
- We urge everyone to participate in society and to do what is best for society as a whole rather than for their own interests. In the case of families, communities, and the collective, their rights take precedence over those of the individual. Rules foster togetherness, fraternity, and selflessness among people. collaborating and working with others is the norm
- Everyone encourages and supports one another. More than as an individual, we should act as a group, family, or nation. Group with a high level of cohesiveness
Traits of Individualism
- Individual aspirations, initiative, and accomplishment are encouraged by the “I” identity. Individual rights are seen to be the most essential by many people. Rules are intended to maintain a sense of self-importance and individuality. Independence is highly cherished, and there is far less motivation to assist other citizens or communities than there is under collectivism. Being reliant on or dependent on others is generally regarded as a source of embarrassment. People are taught to accomplish things for themselves
- To rely on their own abilities. People work hard to achieve their own goals.
Examples of Countries with Generally Collectivist Cultures
- Egypt, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Iraq, Afghanistan, Cyprus, Ghana, Nepal, Argentina, Armenia, Belarus, Brazil, Ethiopia, Bulgaria, Guatemala, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Mexico, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Morocco, Korea, Lebanon, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Ukraine, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Singapore, Spain, Turkey, Vietnam, Nigeria, Zambia, Kenya, Uganda, Somalia, Poland, the Philippines, Japan, Sri Lanka, Azerbaijan, Polynesia, Greece, and Cuba
Examples of Countries with Generally Individualistic Cultures
- The United States, Australia, the United Kingdom, Canada, the Netherlands, Hungary (post-communist generation), New Zealand, Italy, France, Belgium, Ireland, Switzerland, Germany, South Africa, Luxembourg, the Czech Republic (post-communist generation), Austria, Israel, Slovakia (post-communist generation), Poland (post-communist generation), Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia are all represented.
Attribution is the process of making sense of the acts of others based on information that is available to us. Due to the inaccuracy of the method, significant mistakes frequently occur. Individualistic societies have a significant tendency to attribute a person’s actions to his or her own attributes rather than to the circumstances in which that person finds himself or herself. This is referred to as thefundamental attribution mistake. People who live in collectivist societies are less likely to be prejudiced in this way.
An individualist culture, by contrast, values characteristics such as independence, free will, honesty, authenticity, innateness, solitaryness, assertiveness, one-of-a kindness, outstandingness, determination, decisiveness, self-assurance and strength of character, such as perfectionism and leadership qualities, as well as objectivity and precision in data analysis and pragmatic decision-making; these are all characteristics that are favored in competitive or solitary situations, or both.
In collectivist cultures, the stereotype of a ‘good person’ is reliant, generous, altruistic, politically correct, yielding, sensitive, hesitant, responsive, held accountable by others, disciplined, uniformed, subjected to peer pressure, outgoing, agreeable, and seeking out social groups to which they can belong.
Collectivism and individualism in Chinese culture
In Chinese society, collectivism has a long history that can be traced back to Confucianism. Being a “people of community” (qnt de fènz) () or having a “socialized personality” (shèhu de réngé) () is highly regarded. In addition, there is the (shgu) () personality type, which indicates that you are worldly while being faithful to your family. Lao Zi and Taoism were influential in the development of individualist philosophy in China. According to his teachings, individual pleasure is the foundation of a decent society.
- Asian ideals
- Face (social custom)
- Masculinity vs femininity
- Nevis’s hierarchy of wants
- Power distance
- Uncertainty avoidance
- Western culture
Culture and influence in the workplace: Collectivism vs Individualism
Asian ideals; collectivism; face (social custom); individualism; masculinity versus femininity; Nevis’s hierarchy of wants; power distance; uncertainty avoidance; Western culture
Geert Hofstede and the Cultural Dimensions Theory
As the globe and the workplace grow more globalized and interconnected, the subject of cultural differences in leadership has emerged as a popular topic of discussion in society. Culture and its effect on values in the workplace was the subject of a detailed research conducted by Professor Geert Hofstede, who developed the Cultural Characteristics Theory, an internationally recognized framework for cross-cultural interactions based on six main dimensions. Hofstede’s Cultural Factors Index includes a number of key dimensions, one of which is individualism against collectivism.
The perception, appraisal, and reaction of an organization to the internal and external variables that shape it informs the culture of that organization. Culture has an impact on behavior, and as a result, it is important to the overall effectiveness of a company.
What is individualism and collectivism culture?
When comparing the United States and China, the individualism-collectivism dimension of Hofstede’s theory is dramatically different in each country. On the individualism index, the United States has a score of 91 out of a possible 100 points, but China has a score of 20, which is much lower than the United States’ score. When comparing Western collectivism to Eastern collectivism, collectivism emphasizes the importance of the collective, whereas individualism emphasizes the importance of the individual.
Individualist leadership believes that the ability of an organization to promote the distinctive and creative contributions of its employees is critical to the company’s success.
In actuality, however, leadership and organizational culture are neither one nor the other, and representations of both may be seen in certain parts of any leader and organization, regardless of size or industry.
China, South Korea, Japan, Colombia, Costa Rica, and Indonesia are among the countries with the most collectivistic cultures in the world, according to the World Values Survey. As a result, these cultures, among many others, place a high value on a rigidly defined social framework in which individuals are expected to conform to the ideals of society as well as the in-groups to which they belong. Collectivist cultures in the workplace prioritize the well-being of the team and the company over the well-being of the individual employee.
- In a collectivist society, it is considered good to have values such as acceptance, belonging, and the ability to work well with others.
- They emphasize the significance of team or organizational objectives and requirements.
- As a result, employees are strongly encouraged to adopt the values, perspectives, and motivations of the group, and are discouraged from expressing their own personal values, beliefs, and motivations.
- It has, without a doubt, propelled human civilisation into the modern period of growth.
In order to be effective, collectivism does not have to resemble a utopian society. It also does not have to resemble a restrictive and paranoid culture in which individualism is not allowed to flourish. The workplace, as we know it, is full of nuanced interactions.
If you work in an individualistic workplace culture, you’ll notice that the emphasis is on the individual person and their particular requirements. As early as the nineteenth century, individualism had been a major feature of American culture, and it has continued to thrive in many parts of American life, including the workplace. According to the definition of individualism, workplaces tend to be extremely competitive because it encourages people to feel that doing their best would help them to achieve their professional goals, therefore making them more efficient and successful.
- They are encouraged to express themselves and be distinctive.
- Increased emphasis on the individual, on the other hand, may provide beneficial attention to one person while alienating the others.
- Employees in such a company may experience intense rivalry, which can result in feelings of insecurity, tension, and worry.
- Understanding how to constructively incorporate an individualist work culture into the workplace is the key to creating a healthy individualist work culture.
- In a healthy atmosphere, employees can compete effectively while also contributing to the overall well-being of the team and the business.
The influence of two
Despite the fact that collectivism and individuality are sometimes set against one another, the reality is that communities, cultures, nations, and organizations cannot be classified as either fully collectivistic or purely individualistic in their nature. Unlike people, organizational cultures are not easily categorised into neat square boxes. They alter shape and form with time, are complex, and live between the lines that are blurred.
Why Your Understanding of Collectivism Is Probably Wrong
Consider the following scenario: you’ve won a 2-week, all-expenses-paid trip to a far-off nation. While you aren’t sure where you are, the people around you inform you that you are in a collectivistic culture. What pictures come to mind when you think about it? Are the folks kind and helpful? Are they assisting you and being cooperative? Do they have a strong sense of belonging to their friends and family? If that’s what your gut is telling you, you’re not alone. When I moved to Beijing, it was the intuition that had been hidden away in my brain.
It’s a part of our standard operating procedures.
In the 1990s, cultural psychologists, the majority of whom were located in North America and Europe, devised questionnaires to assess collectivism in different cultures throughout the world (e.g., Singelis, 1994). Collectiveists should support the following statements written by these individuals:
- “When I work with people, I get a good sense of accomplishment.” [quote]”I enjoy sharing small things with my neighbors.”
After the scales were written, the next stage was to ensure that they were accurate and dependable. The surveys passed the statistical reliability tests in a short period of time. People who agreed with the statement “I feel good when I work with others” were more likely to share their possessions with their friends and neighbors. So far, everything is going well. Researchers went out to investigate civilizations all around the Pacific Ocean, armed only with dependable tests and instruments. They began by compiling a list of collectivism-related distinctions that experts were quite certain existed (e.g., Heine, Lehman, Peng,Greenholtz, 2002).
- The Untold Story of Cultural Psychology Within 20 years, researchers had completed enough investigations to be able to pool them all together and do a meta-analysis on the results.
- America, the country of the cowboy, was more collectivistic than Japan in its social structures (Oyserman, Coon,Kemmelmeier, 2002).
- Those in the United States were more collectivistic than people in each of those countries.
- Perhaps the numbers were correct, but people’s assumptions were incorrect – perhaps Japan and China aren’t genuinely collectivistic societies after all!
- Our Microscopes Have a Design Flaw However, the majority of responses steered clear of that tack.
For example, researchers have discovered compelling evidence that people in Japan unconsciously compare themselves to other (supposedly collectivistic) Japanese people, resulting in a lower evaluation of their own collectivism than they would otherwise have (Heine, Lehman, Peng,Greenholtz, 2002).
- The premise was that individuals in some cultures just tend to agree more than they do otherwise – they are more acquiescent.
- In order to resolve this issue, researchers would need to make adjustments to their findings, statistically adjusting for the degree to which individuals prefer to agree.
- Doing “my own thing” might mean different things to different people.
- Researchers suggested that the solution to this problem was to create scales regarding certain occurrences (Peng, Nisbett,Wong, 1997).
- If we could only get our microscopes to work properly, we might be able to discover the truth.
- However, there is one thing that all of these theories have in common: they are concerned with our microscopes rather than our notions.
- Researchers who looked in the proper areas have already discovered a few indications that had been scattered.
Tight links and the sharing of irrigation water in the hamlet bred both harmony and discord in the community.
“Even while tensions exist under the surface, passions are strong, and grudges are still held, the surface of the relationship is managed to reflect harmony.” Another clue can be located in Ghana, which is a long distance away.
People in Ghana were far more prone than Americans to assume that their friends were covertly scheming against them, when compared to individualistic Americans.
Pieces that aren’t going to fit And the evidence continues to mount, indicating that these are not isolated instances of collectivism, but rather are a regular aspect of collectivism in its overall structure.
When participants read about, for example, an excited colleague who volunteered to assist them in reviewing an important work assignment, they were asked to write about what they thought may happen next.
In spite of the fact that Chinese participants perceived their coworkers as more of a family with a stronger sense of shared identity than their American counterparts, this level of alertness prevailed.
In contrast to popular belief, the developing theory holds that this tension arises because of collectivism, rather than that it exists in spite of collectivism.
Rice’s Unwavering Vigilance There are, of course, numerous additional contrasts between China and the United States of America.
A cultural revolution occurred in China as well, which had the effect of putting neighbor against neighbor and having long-lasting effects on people’s desire to trust others (Wang, 2017).
Moreover, in order to dive deeper into these probable factors, the researchers that conducted the vigilance study contrasted locations inside China.
People in the southern hemisphere have been cultivating paddy rice for years.
Rice farmers were required to arrange irrigation networks and muster double the amount of manpower per hectare than wheat farmers were had to do in order to succeed (TalhelmOishi, 2018).
Even now, people living in rice-growing areas exhibit more characteristics of collectivism than individuals living in wheat-growing areas (Talhelm et al., 2014).
Rather from being based on disparities in the national political system, they were based on differences in the territorial borders of collectivism.
Collectivism is being de-idealized.
The early collectivism scales were really concealing this image, as it turns out.
For example, my recent research has discovered that persons who live in collectivistic societies are more likely to agree with the statement “We should keep our elderly parents at home with us.” Take a look at Figure 2.
People in the United States were more likely than those in other countries to believe they would find more supportive friends if a friend advised them to split up with a new lover when I asked them to picture it.
Collectivism frequently places a high priority on things other than warmth and well-being.
The validity of this perspective shows that the solution to cultural psychology’s open secret rests less in the removal of self-reports and more in the formulation of appropriate questioning techniques.
In spite of their communal tendencies, the Chinese people sometimes have feelings of suspicion toward one another, as seen here.
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Entry of a reference work for the first time online: DOI:
Of the cultural differences that exist, one notable distinction is the relative importance placed on personal aspirations vs the aims of the community to which the individual belongs. Collective cultures are characterized by individuals seeing themselves primarily as members of a greater total (for example, the family), and their motivation is driven by the rules and duties imposed by the collective unit (Triandis1995). Collectivistic civilizations are characterized further by the difference between their horizontal and vertical dimensions.
Since the early 1990s, cultural syndromes grouped around the idea of collective units vs the individual person have been studied for centuries (e.g.,gemeinschaftversusgesellschaft among German researchers), a new generation of scholars has taken up the cause.
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| 1.3.4 – Individualist or CollectivistIndividualist or CollectivistTheway you responded to the Sharing theRewards exercise tells you something about how you feel regarding individualachievement and reward. Most Americanschoose to divide the available pool in a disproportionate way; they do notgenerally divide the money equally. Thistendency to stress either individuality or a more collective response is oneof the most widely distributed traits around the world. Not every culture is at one end or the otherof the spectrum, but the majority tend to favor one over the other in everydaylife. Knowing about the basis of this Collectivism versus Individualism constructwill help you to recognize, understand, and anticipate attitudes in differenttypes of cultures.Individualist� The individual identifies primarily with self, with the needsof the individual being satisfied before those of the group. Looking afterand taking care of oneself, being self-sufficient, guarantees the well-beingof the group. Independence and self-reliance are greatly stressed and valued.In general, people tend to distance themselves psychologically and emotionallyfrom each other. One maychooseto join groups, but group membershipis not essential to one�s identity or success. Individualist characteristicsare often associated with men and people in urban settings.|
Look at the list of characteristicsand behaviors given below. If you decide the statement ismore likelyto apply to people living in an individualist culture, write “I”in the underlined blank space; if you think it is characteristic of acollectivist culture, write “C.”Characteristicsand Behaviors
|1.||People answer the phone by giving the name of the organization.|
|2.||People give cocktail parties.
|3.||Inter-group rivalry is strong.
|4.||Employee-of-the-year awards are offered.
|5.||People adhere to tradition.
|6.||People are promoted based on production and results.
|7.||Contracts in business are used frequently.
|8.||There is a need for autonomy.
|9.||People change jobs frequently.
|10.||People believe that conflict clears the air.
|11.||There is a need for affiliation.
|12.||Short-term relationships are common.
|13.||It�s okay to stand out.
|14.||Face-saving is important.
|15.||It�s common for mothers to ask their preschoolers what theywant to wear each day.
|16.||Self-help books are popular.
|17.||Decisions are made by consensus.
|18.||The language has one word for mother�s brother, another forfather�s brother.
|19.||Marriages are arranged.
|20.||People have potluck dinners.
Difference Between Collectivist and Individualistic Culture
It is important to note that both collectivist and individualistic cultures are concerned with how individuals in a society prioritize and manage their relationships and objectives. They are frequently considered as being diametrically opposed to one another. Collectivist cultures place a high importance on group cohesiveness above individual interests, and they see long-term connections as essential because they help the collective achieve its goals. Individualistic cultures, on the other hand, place a strong emphasis on the person.
What is Collectivist Culture?
Collectiveist culture is distinguished by the prioritization of collective cohesion over individual objectives. It believes that long-term partnerships are crucial because they help the community achieve its goals. A collectivist society is one in which the individuals of a people are willing to give up their own advantages for the sake of the advancement of the entire community. In their minds, individuals are not considered to be separate entities, but rather as interconnected with one another.
- An individual’s primary interest is not only himself and his immediate family, but also the well-being of other people.
- As a result, kinship and community are extremely important.
- When making big choices, it is often preferable to confer with the other members of the group first.
- As an example, characteristics like as the tone of voice, eye contact, facial expression, and body position are more accurate predictors of how a person is feeling than the words he or she is really speaking.
In traditional cultures, this pattern of cultural behavior is frequently observed. Collectivistic societies include countries such as South Korea, China, and Japan as well as Indonesia, Ecuador, India, Brazil, Guatemala, and Venezuela. Korea is a collectivistic society (Cherry, 2020).
What is Individualistic Culture?
Individualistic culture is characterized by the emphasis placed on human independence and freedom. Societies with individualist cultures are divided on the question of whether tradition, the church, or other social institutions have the authority to prescribe a person’s limitations. It is in opposition to the ideas of collectivist societies, which place a high value on tradition and communal objectives. Thus, if someone is forceful and self-sufficient, he or she is favourably regarded. Individualistic cultures place a strong emphasis on the rights of individuals, their distinctiveness, and their ability to rely on themselves.
Someone from a collectivist society, on the other hand, may use words such as “dependable parent,” “faithful employee,” and “caring leader” to describe themselves.
Although it has been noticed that individualistic cultures are becoming increasingly prevalent around the world, it is unclear whether or not this is related with an improvement in socioeconomic level.
Difference between Collectivist and Individualistic Culture
Individual ambitions are placed second in a collectivist culture, which emphasizes communal cooperation over individual aspirations. It believes that long-term partnerships are crucial because they help the community achieve its goals. Individualistic culture, on the other hand, emphasizes the importance of personal individuality and freedom.
Korea, China, Japan, Indonesia, Ecuador, India, Brazil, Guatemala, and Venezuela are among the countries that have been categorised as collectivistic by the World Bank. In comparison, some of the countries that are characterized as individualistic are the United States, Australia, Germany, South Africa, and Ireland (to name a few examples).
Consequently, the self-image in collectivist societies is typified by the word “we,” because the focus is towards others. Individualistic cultures, on the other hand, are characterized by a strong emphasis on the “I,” as the emphasis is on inwardness.
How Individuals are Viewed
Individuals in collective cultures are perceived as interconnected with one another, whereas individuals in individualist cultures are perceived as separate and autonomous units.
In collectivist societies, the importance of kinship and community cannot be overstated. An individual’s primary interest is not only himself and his immediate family, but also the well-being of other people. In exchange, others may be counted on to help out when the going gets tough.
Individualistic cultures, on the other hand, are characterized by people being more preoccupied with their personal family and close friends. As a result, when an individual is confronted with a difficulty, he is expected to be self-sufficient.
Collaborative cultures often require that big choices be discussed with the other members of the group before being implemented. They are more reliant on and loyal to their more central ingroups than to their peripheral ingroups. Individualistic cultures, on the other hand, tend to have people who are more reasonable in their decision-making (Le Febvre, RebeccaFranke, 2013). They have also been noted to be more independent in their decisions and to disagree with the notion that elements such as tradition and religion should limit a person’s choices and abilities.
Collectivist cultures place a greater emphasis on the context of communication rather than the content of the communication (Triandis, 2001). As an example, characteristics like as the tone of voice, eye contact, facial expression, and body position are more accurate predictors of how a person is feeling than the words he or she is really speaking. Members in individualist cultures, on the other hand, have been seen to be more outspoken and direct in their expressions of their thoughts and feelings.
Collectivist Vs Individualistic Culture
- People who live in collectivist and individualistic cultures are concerned with how individuals in a society prioritize and manage their relationships and aspirations
- This is true in both cultures. Individualistic culture emphasizes personal individuality and freedom over collective aims, whereas collectiveist culture emphasizes unity over individual ambitions. Those from collectivist cultures describe themselves as “we,” whereas those from individualistic cultures describe themselves as “I” or “myself.” Individuals in collective cultures are perceived as interconnected (as evidenced by their decision-making behaviors), whereas individuals in individualist cultures are perceived as separate units. Collectionist societies, in contrast to individualist cultures, place a great value on kinship and community. Members in individualistic cultures place greater emphasis on the substance of communications rather than the environment in which they are delivered.
Jean Brown is a Licensed Professional Teacher, a Registered Psychologist, and a freelance academic and creative writer. She holds degrees in psychology and education. Teaching social science courses at the undergraduate and graduate levels has been a passion of hers for many years. Jean has also served as a research adviser and panel member for a number of psychology and special education papers that have been presented to the public. Her certificates include TESOL (Tampa, Florida), Psychiatric Ward Practicum Certification, and Marker of Diploma Courses, to name a few of her accomplishments.
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CiteAPA 7Brown, G.
Cultures that are collectively oriented vs individualistically oriented There is a distinction between similar terms and objects.
MLA 8Brown, gene, “Difference Between Collectivist and Individualistic Culture.”