- 1 Examples of Culture
- 2 Culture Linked to Geography
- 3 Identifying Examples of Cultures Around You
- 4 Recognizing Examples of Culture
- 5 Culture Shock
- 6 Understanding Culture
- 7 Culture Examples & Types
- 8 Table of Contents
- 9 What Does Culture Mean?
- 10 Different Types of Culture
- 11 Elements of Culture
- 12 Examples of Culture
- 13 Prompts About Culture:
- 13.1 Register to view this lesson
- 13.2 Unlock Your Education
- 13.3 Resources created by teachers for teachers
- 14 What Is Culture?
- 15 Defining Culture and Why It Matters to Sociologists
- 16 How Sociologists Define Culture
- 17 Why Culture Matters to Sociologists
- 18 Definition of CULTURE
- 19 material culture
- 20 Culture definition
Examples of Culture
In general, culture may be defined as the traditions, arts, and social interactions that are unique to a certain nation, people, or other group to which individuals identify or belong. It may also be characterized as an appreciation for the arts and for human intellectual progress in other fields of study. In both perspectives, examples of culture may be a useful tool for gaining a fast knowledge of the subject matter. illustrative of culture
Culture Linked to Geography
Some features of culture are associated with a specific geographic area, such as a country or a geographic region.
National Identity (Country-Specific Culture)
Visiting a new (to you) nation and marveling at the way people in that country speak, think, and act, especially in comparison to what you’re accustomed to in your home country, is not uncommon when traveling.
- The languages of a country have an impact on its national identity and enable for successful communication. Dialects and accents can be used to distinguish between different subcultures that exist within a country. As countries approach their culture, they typically reflect this approach in how they spend their collective time, money, and energy
- This approach may also be mirrored in their legal system. Fashion, family life, and commercial interactions, among other aspects of a country’s etiquette and customs, can play an important part in shaping its culture. The use of nonverbal communication varies substantially from country to country. When viewed from a different perspective, the hard handshake that is required in the United States might be perceived as hostile. The beliefs of a country, both religious and historical in nature, are frequently at the heart of that nation’s culture
As an illustration, consider the following instances of cultural exposure peculiar to a particular country or national identity. It goes without saying that there are regional distinctions from one country to the other.
It’s likely that the place where you live has a distinct cultural identity, especially if you live in a somewhat large civilization like the United States. For example, in the United States, there are some cultural indicators that are shared across the country, such as a love of baseball and American football, or a fondness for apple pie and french fries. There are, nevertheless, significant cultural distinctions across different parts of the country as a whole.
- Being identified as a southern drawlor and speaking in a southern dialect helps people recognize a person as being originally from a specific region of the United States (the South). Throughout Canada, the slang vocabulary differs greatly from one location to the next. From one part of a country to another, different terms might be used to refer to the same subject in different ways. For example, carbonated beverages such as soda, pop, and soft drinks are referred to as such in different regions. Certain meals have a tendency to be connected with a specific geographical location. A deep dish pizza, for example, is the standard in Chicago, whereas a thinner crust pizza is the usual in New York
- Weather occurrences that are prevalent in a certain place are indicative of the culture of that region. Weather disasters such as hurricanes, fires, blizzard and tornadoes as well as typhoons can affect individuals in different parts of the world. Because of the way their inhabitants prefer to vote in many democratic nations, some qualities tend to be linked with areas within such countries.
Those are only a few illustrations of the cultural variances that might occur across various regions of the same nation.
Culture of Diversity
Depending on your location (state, city/town/province/country), you may live in a community that is extremely welcoming of individuals of various colors, genders, sexual orientations, national origins, or other aspects of variety. Then you are part of a community that places a high value on variety to the point where it is an integral element of the culture and identity of the people living there.
- The community calendar may be jam-packed with festivals and activities that bring together members of the community of many races and nationalities. Citizens who were born in other countries may be able to benefit from instructional lectures and research resources available at their local library. The possibility exists of many sporting activities available to residents of all genders, ages and abilities levels, including those who are impaired
- The agendas of municipal officials, local companies, and religious groups may encourage a wide range of attractive retail, educational, and religious activities
- Nevertheless, this is not guaranteed. Classes in community education that are specifically designed for foreign language acquisition may be easily available at reasonable prices. Diverse neighborhoods with a high concentration of immigrants are more likely to celebrate cultural diversity. Every September, for example, the city of New York stages a distinctive Caribbean Carnival.
Those activities would be exemplified as manifestations of a diverse culture in a community. Some communities are extremely accepting of differences and strive to be inclusive of all members. This frequently results in instances of cultural dissemination.
Identifying Examples of Cultures Around You
Everywhere you look, there are examples of culture to be found.
Working culture may be demonstrated in a multitude of ways, including how people dress, how offices are constructed, how workers are treated, and the manner in which a company incorporates its culture into its goods and services, as well as the manner in which it portrays itself to consumers.
- The design of an office might be either informal or formal. To foster a sense of equality among employees as well as comfort and productivity, employees may be encouraged to dress in a more informal manner. On important milestones in workers’ life, such as their birthdays, weddings, births, and funerals of family members, management may demonstrate a caring and friendly attitude by giving them cards and presents. Customer service excellence, personal acknowledgement of valued customers, and business participation in community and philanthropic organizations are all examples of how a caring culture may be presented
- There may be a cultural connection between the design and placement of the offices, with senior personnel having larger offices or cubicles that are the furthest away from the entrance.
The attitudes and behaviors of your coworkers are examples of the corporate culture that exists at your workplace.
Popular culture is determined by the activities of the general public. A person’s popular culture may be defined by what they listen to, what they read, what they dress, and how they communicate with others.
- The most popular music in a culture may come from performers who have made it to the Billboard Top 100 or from the newest YouTube pop sensations. In addition, social media influencers can have an impact on which businesses are in demand as well as which activities or fashions are most popular. Best-selling novels, as well as famous films and television series, may have a significant impact on the attitudes and experiences of a culture’s citizens. The ability to swiftly connect and exchange ideas through social networking may be a valuable tool for people of various ages, ethnicities, hobbies, genders, and sexual orientations. Fashion trends may serve as a barometer for cultural trends. Casual clothing may indicate a more laid-back lifestyle, but rapidly changing fashion may reflect rapidly changing cultural trends. Language is a crucial tool for conveying popular culture experiences to others. To describe the contemporary culture, a variety of languages and slang terms can be used in conjunction.
Almost everything on this list is an example of popular culture.
Trends may shift in an instant; what is today’s pop culture craze could be yesterday’s news in the blink of an eye.
High Culture and Sophisticated Taste
In addition to the traditional meaning of culture, which refers to the attitudes and ideas held by a whole group of people, there is another definition of culture as well. This term is associated with high culture. In this context, possessing what has come to be characterized as refined taste in the fine arts or humanities is referred to as having “culture.” Examples of this type of culture include the following:
- An appreciation for opera
- A love of classical music
- Taking pleasure in the ballet
- Seeing and admiring art displays
- Reading excellent literature, particularly the classics
- And so on. Gourmet cuisine is something to be admired. superb wine knowledge and competence at a sophisticated level
It is sometimes referred to as “cultured” to describe those who have an appreciation for such things. Ironically, persons who enjoy this form of culture are more likely than others to be critical of popular culture. People who are perceived to be members of the so-called “cultural elite” may choose to distance themselves from popular culture or from what is believed to be standard practice in society.
Recognizing Examples of Culture
You may not consider yourself to be exposed to these many forms of culture on a daily basis, but you instinctively understand that certain attitudes, thoughts, and ideas exist when you visit a certain location, even if you do not think about it. In addition, you can detect the difference between other civilizations just by looking at them.
- When you visit a stuffy and formal law office, the experience is going to be very different than when you visit a casual digital start-up. Invariably, traveling to a modern city like Amsterdam will feel different than traveling to an extremely conservative nation like a Muslim country in the Middle East.
Throughout your day you are exposed to a wide range of attitudes, feelings, ideas, and items that are all manifestations of culture. These examples are related to the form of culture that may be characterized simply as a group of people’s common attitudes, values, and beliefs.
This form of culture is vital because it helps you learn how to think, act, and feel in a way that is acceptable to the majority of people in society. The reason for experiencing culture shock when you suddenly relocate to a new nation or begin interacting with a new group of individuals who have quite different attitudes and beliefs from those you are accustomed to is also explained.
It is critical to understand the various meanings and forms of culture that exist. When you consider various instances of culture, you gain a greater awareness of the world around you, as well as the ideas, beliefs, and values that you encounter on a daily basis. Investigate how slang impacts the English language in order to have a better understanding of culture and its impact. Reviewing this dictionary of major terminology in cultural anthropology can help you improve your abilities to discuss and explain cultures.
Culture Examples & Types
Tiffany Schank, Christopher Muscato, and Lesley Chapel are among the stars of the show.
- Tiffany Schank is a model and actress. Tiffany Schank has been a humanities instructor at a community college for more than five years. They hold a Master of Liberal Studies in art from Fort Hays State University, as well as a Ph.D. in humanities, which they are currently working on. An Associates of Arts in Fine Art from Western Nebraska Community College and a Bachelor of Arts in Fine Art from Chadron State College have been earned by Tiffany, who is also a professional artist. Instructor’s bio may be found here. Christopher Muscato is a writer and musician who lives in New York City. His master’s degree is in history, and he is a history professor at the University of Northern Colorado. See my bio
- Contributor with Expertise Lesley Chapel is a woman who lives in the town of Lesley Chapel in the town of Lesley Chapel. Lesley has been a history professor at the university level for the past seven years, specializing in American and world history. She holds a Master’s degree in History from Columbia University. See my bio
Discover what culture is all about. Explore the meaning of culture, gain an understanding of the numerous sorts of cultural groupings, and witness various categories and instances of culture in action. The most recent update was on September 30, 2021.
Table of Contents
- How to Define Culture
- Different Types of Culture
- Elements of Culture
- Examples of Culture
- Categories of Culture
- Summary of the Lesson
What Does Culture Mean?
Despite the fact that many people are unaware of it, everyone is a member of a culture of some form. There are examples of culture all around us since culture is defined as the groupings of art, beliefs, knowledge, rituals, and habits that people adhere to in their daily lives. It is frequently something we do not consider since it has been ingrained in us as a result of the culture in which we live. In the context of a community, culture may be described as the cultural norms that people experience.
For example, many Muslim people consider it appropriate for women to be seen wearing a Hijab, or head covering, as part of their cultural identity.
Because human conduct is mostly learnt, the cultural standards that one adheres to throughout one’s life are also learned, for the most part. People are frequently unaware that their cultural standards exist because they are constantly exposed to them on a daily basis.
Different Types of Culture
Material culture and immaterial culture are the two sorts of culture that exist in contrast to one another.
- Technological, artistic, and architectural items are examples of material culture. Literary, philosophical, mythological, and spiritual activities are examples of immaterial culture, as are values, beliefs, and spiritual practices. Non-physical objects that are not dependent on the physical objects of this world are referred to as “non-physical objects.” It is the beliefs and ideologies that individuals embrace as facts in their life that are the real problem.
Culture-specific norms may be separated into two groups, which are formally defined as follows: formal rules and informal rules. Formal norms are things such as laws that are essential to the operation of a society’s institutions. They are the rules that individuals are required to obey inside a culture, and they might vary from one culture to another. It is possible that the formal norms of Canada will not be applicable in the United Kingdom, for example. Unwritten rules are practices or traditions that exist within a community or even a family.
One example of these standards is the customs surrounding the figure of Santa Claus: in the United States, it is customary for children to leave a cup of milk out for Santa Claus on December 24th, although in other countries, this is not the case.
Elements of Culture
The aspects of culture are as follows:
- Cultural Norms – As previously established, cultural norms are the “rules” of society that define what is acceptable and undesirable behavior within the culture in which they dwell. Norms can differ from one society to the next in several cases. For example, in the United States, it is typical to tip servers at restaurants, but in China, it is not customary to tip servers at restaurants. A society’s values are the belief system that governs what is good and bad in a society, or simply what is acceptable and undesirable among the individuals who live inside that society. Example: A culture’s ideas on the importance of family are considered a value within that culture. Cultural elements such as language play an important role in a society’s development. To be efficient in social relationships, as well as to comprehend and interpret items, language and the capacity to communicate with other people are essential skills. Symbols – Many distinct symbols or signs may be found in different cultures, and they are frequently used to elicit a specific sensation or emotion. In the cancer treatment culture, for example, ribbons are used to signify cancer treatment and to raise awareness about cancer fighting, with different colors of ribbon symbolizing different types of malignancies. Artifacts – Artifacts are tangible things that are unique to a particular culture. These artifacts might be artefacts that demonstrate the progress or changes that have occurred in society. In the case of the Mona Lisa by Leonardo da Vinci, a well-known artwork that depicts the society, attire, and common sitting of a person in 1503, in the context of da Vinci’s cultural surroundings
Examples of Culture
Here are a few instances of culture:
Prompts About Culture:
Define the notion of culture in at least three to four sentences.For example: Culture comprises a wide range of aspects, including how individuals perceive symbolic images.
Graphic Organizer Prompt 1:
Create a poster, chart, or other sort of visual organizer that identifies and depicts the different types of culture—material culture and nonmaterial culture—and how they differ from one another. Remember to include at least three examples of each kind in your essay. You can refer back to the lesson, but make an effort to recollect as many instances as you can from memory. For example, pottery is considered to be a part of material culture.
Graphic Organizer Prompt 2:
Create a poster, chart, or some other sort of visual organizer that identifies and quickly discusses the aspects of culture—social structure, traditions, religion, language, government, economics, and the arts—and why they are important. For example, you may sketch a church or a synagogue to represent religion.
Produce an article of one to two pages in length that describes subgroups of cultural expression and history. Consider include an examination of subcultures, countercultures, high culture, and low culture in your paper. For example, low culture tends to be more inclusive than high culture in terms of inclusion.
Produce an essay of at least one to two pages in length in which you reflect on your own personal experiences with cultural diversity. Make careful to think about the different types, components, and subgroups of culture, and to provide instances of each. Consider the following scenario: As a child, you were immersed in high culture, thanks to your parents’ regular excursions to opera performances and museums.
What is culture and its examples?
A group of people’s culture is defined by the cultural norms, values, and beliefs that they adhere to.
For example, the culture of working long hours is one that most Americans adhere to, although many other cultures do not share this belief system.
What are some examples of culture?
Different religious and moral views and values that a person identifies with are examples of culture. The contrast between Christian and Buddhist culture is striking. Another example would be the contrast between American and Korean cultures.
What are the 4 types of culture?
Cultural norms are divided into four categories: formal and informal, material and immaterial, and artifact-based.
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What Is Culture?
The image is courtesy of Getty Images/Saha Entertainment. Culture is defined as the features and knowledge of a certain group of people, and it includes language, religion, food, social behaviors, music, and the arts, among other things. Cultural patterns, interactions, cognitive constructs, and comprehension are defined by theCenter for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition as common patterns of behavior and interaction that are learnt via socialization, according to the Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition As a result, culture may be defined as the development of a group identity that is influenced by social patterns that are exclusive to the group.
The anthropologist Cristina De Rossi of Barnet and Southgate College in London told Live Science that culture encompasses “religion, food, what we wear, how we wear it, our language, marriage, music, what we believe is right or wrong, how we sit at the table, how we greet visitors, how we behave with loved ones, and a million other things.” “Culture encompasses religion, food,” she said.
According to Arthur Asa Berger, the word “culture” comes from a French phrase that, in turn, comes from the Latin word “colere,” which meaning to tend to the ground and flourish, or to cultivate and nourish, or to cultivate and nurture.
The fall of the Roman Empire had a significant impact on Western civilization. The image is courtesy of Chase Dekker Wild-Life Images/Getty Images. ) In recent years, according to Khan University, the phrase “Western culture” has come to refer to the cultures of European nations as well as those countries that have been extensively impacted by European immigration, such as the United States. Western culture may be traced back to the Classical Period of the Greco-Roman era (the fourth and fifth centuries B.C.) and the development of Christianity in the fourteenth century as its origins.
- Throughout the past 2,500 years, a slew of historical events have contributed to the development of Western culture.
- 476, paved the way for the development of a succession of often-warring nations in Europe, each with its own culture, after which the Middle Ages began.
- According to Ohio State University historian John L.
- As a result of elites being compelled to pay more for scarce labor, survivors in the working class have gained more influence.
Today, Western culture can be found in practically every country on the planet, and its influences may be traced back to its origins.
Buddhism has a significant role in the civilizations of various Eastern countries. Three Buddhist monks are seen here on their way to the Angkor Wat temple. The image is courtesy of Getty Images/Saha Entertainment. Far East Asian culture (which includes China, Japan, Vietnam, North Korea, and South Korea) and the Indian subcontinent are commonly referred to as Eastern culture in general. When compared to Western culture, Eastern culture was highly impacted by religion throughout its early history, but the cultivation and harvesting of rice had a significant impact on its evolution as well, according to a study report published in the journal Rice in 2012.
- This umbrella term, on the other hand, encompasses a vast array of traditions and histories.
- Thus, Hinduism rose to prominence as a significant force in Indian culture, while Buddhism continued to have an impact on the cultures of both China and Japan.
- In the case of Chinese Buddhism, for example, according to Jiahe Liu and Dongfang Shao, the philosophy of Taoism, which stresses compassion, frugality, and humility, was taken.
- During the period 1876 to 1945, for example, Japan ruled or occupied Korea in various forms.
Da de los Muertos costumes for children in traditional attire (Image courtesy of Getty/Sollina Images.). The geographical territory that encompasses “Latin culture” is large and diverse. For the sake of this definition, Latin America is comprised of the regions of Central America, South America and Mexico where Spanish or Portuguese is the main language. Beginning in the 1400s, Spain and Portugal colonized or influenced a number of locations across the world, including those listed above. Some historians (such as Michael Gobat, “The Invention of Latin America: A Transnational History of Anti-Imperialism, Democracy, and Race,” American Historical Review, Vol.
- Because of this, Latin cultures are extremely diverse, and many of them combine indigenous customs with the Spanish language and Catholicism brought by Spanish and Portuguese invaders to form hybrid cultures.
- These impacts are particularly evident in Brazil and the countries of the Western Hemisphere’s Caribbean region.
- A notable example is Da de los Muertos, also known as Day of the Dead, which is a celebration dedicated to commemorating the fallen that is observed on November 1st and 2nd.
- According to the Smithsonian American Art Museum, Mexican immigrants to the United States carried the festival with them, and in the 1970s, artists and events focused attention on Da de los Muertos as a way of expressing their Chicano (Mexican-American) ancestry.
In recent years, the holiday has gained widespread recognition in the United States.
Middle Eastern culture
A family from the Middle East sits down to supper together (Photo courtesy of Getty/Jasmin Merdan). The Middle East is roughly defined as the area including the Arabian peninsula as well as the eastern Mediterranean region. According to the Encyclopedia Britannica, the North African countries of Libya, Egypt, and Sudan are also occasionally mentioned. The word “Middle Eastern culture” is another umbrella term that incorporates a wide range of cultural customs, religious beliefs, and everyday routines from all around the Middle East and North Africa.
- Despite the fact that there is tremendous religious variety in the Middle East, Islam is the religion with the greatest number of adherents, and Islam has played a key part in the cultural development of the region.
- According to the Metropoliton Museum, the death of the religion’s founder, Muhammad, in 632, was a watershed event in the development of Middle Eastern culture and civilization.
- Consequently, a split developed between Shia Muslims, who held the value of bloodline in high regard, and Sunni Muslims, who held that leadership should not be passed down through the familial lineage.
- Their rites and customs differ somewhat from one another, and the divisions that exist between the two groups frequently lead to conflict.
- Areas that were once part of the Ottoman Empire are known for distinctive architecture that is influenced by Persian and Islamic styles.
African woman from the Maasai tribe, sitting with her infant close to her home in the African country of Kenya (Photo courtesy of hadynyah/Getty Images.) ) Africa has the longest history of human habitation of any continent: it has been inhabited since the beginning of time. According to the Natural History Museum in London, humans started there approximately 400,000 years ago and began to spread to other parts of the world around the same time period. Researchers led by Dr. Tom White, who works as a Senior Curator of Non-Insect Invertebrates at the Smithsonian Institution, were able to find this by analyzing Africa’s ancient lakes and the species that lived in them.
- African culture differs not just across and within country borders, but also inside those borders.
- According to Culture Trip, Nigeria alone has more than 300 tribes, which is a significant number.
- Because of this, large urban centers sprung up along the Eastern coast, which were frequently linked together by the transportation of raw resources and commerce from landlocked portions of the continent.
- According to Britannica, Northwest Africa has significant linkages to the Middle East, whereas Sub-Saharan Africa shares historical, geographical, and social traits with North Africa that are considerably distinct from those of the former.
- The traditions of these cultures developed in a variety of contexts that were vastly diverse.
The Batwa, for example, are a tribe of indigenous people that typically live a forager’s lifestyle in the jungle, and they are one such group. Maasai herders, on the other hand, herd their sheep and goats on broad pastures and rangelands.
What is cultural appropriation?
Cultural appropriation, according to the Oxford Reference dictionary, is defined as follows: “A phrase used to describe the taking over of creative or artistic forms, concepts, or practices by one cultural group from another.” A non-Native American wearing a Native American headdress as a fashion item would be one example of this practice. The fashion house Victoria’s Secret was highly condemned in 2012 after a model was dressed in a headdress that looked like a Lakota war bonnet, according to the newspaper USA Today.
As well as jewelry influenced by Zuni, Navajo, and Hopi styles from the desert Southwest, the model wore turquoise, demonstrating how cultural appropriation can group tribes with vastly distinct cultures and histories into a single stereotypical image through the usage of turquoise.
Sikh restaurateur and social media influencer Harjinder Singh Kukreja responded to Gucci on Twitter, noting that the Sikh Turban is “not a hip new accessory for white models, but rather an object of religion for practicing Sikhs.” Turbans have been worn as ‘hats’ by your models, although practicing Sikhs knot their turbans properly fold-by-fold.
One thing is clear about cultures, no matter how they appear on the surface: they change. According to De Rossi, “Culture appears to have become important in our linked globe, which is made up of so many ethnically different nations, but which is also rife with conflicts related with religion, ethnicity, ethical values, and, fundamentally, the aspects that make up culture.” “Culture, on the other hand, is no longer set, if it ever was. In its essence, it is fluid and in perpetual motion.” Consequently, it is impossible to characterize any culture in a singular manner.
A body known as the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) has been established by the United Nations to identify cultural and natural heritage as well as to conserve and safeguard it.
It was signed by UNESCO in 1972 and has been in force since since.
Stephanie Pappas is a contributing writer for Live Science, where she writes on a variety of subjects ranging from geology to archaeology to the human brain and psychology.
Her undergraduate degree in psychology came from the University of South Carolina, and her graduate certificate in scientific communication came from the University of California, Santa Cruz.
Defining Culture and Why It Matters to Sociologists
When we talk about culture, we are referring to a wide and diversified collection of primarily immaterial elements that make up our social lives. Cultural values and beliefs are defined by sociologists as being those that individuals have in common and may be used to characterize them as a group. Language, communication, and customs are also defined by sociologists as belonging to a culture. The tangible artifacts that are shared by a community or society are also considered to be part of its culture.
How Sociologists Define Culture
Cultural understanding is one of the most significant notions in sociology because sociologists acknowledge that culture plays a critical role in our social interactions. It is critical in the formation of social interactions, the maintenance and challenge of social order, the determination of how we make sense of the world and our role in it, as well as the moulding of our everyday actions and experiences in a democratic society. Non-material as well as material components are included in its composition.
- To summarize, Using these categories as a starting point, we may say that culture is comprised of our knowledge, common sense, assumptions, and expectations.
- It is also the symbols we use to represent meaning, ideas, and concepts (what sociologists refer to as ” symbology “).
- Culture is also defined by what we do, how we act, and how we perform (for example, theater and dance).
- Religion, secular holidays, and athletic events are all examples of collective behaviors in which we engage.
- Architecture, technical devices, and apparel, among other things, are all included in this category of culture.
- Parts of material culture are more usually referred to as cultural products than they are as material culture.
- Material culture arises from and is molded by the non-material parts of culture, as well as by the material aspects of culture.
- In contrast to this, the interaction between material and non-material culture is not one-sided.
- In the case of a strong documentary film (an part of material culture), it is possible that people’s attitudes and beliefs would change (i.e.
- As a result, cultural goods have a tendency to follow patterns.
In the case of music, cinema, television, and art for example, what has gone before affects the values, beliefs, and expectations of individuals who engage with them, which in turn affects the development of further cultural goods in the future.
Why Culture Matters to Sociologists
Because it plays such a big and crucial part in the development of social order, sociologists place a high value on culture in their research. When we talk about social order, we’re talking about how society is stable because people have come to agree on rules and conventions that allow us to collaborate, function as a society, as well as (hopefully) live together in peace and harmony. There are positive and negative sides to social order, according to sociologists. Both tangible and non-material parts of culture, according to the notion of traditional French sociologist Émile Durkheim, are significant in that they help to hold society together.
- Durkheim discovered via his studies that when individuals gather together to participate in rituals, they reinforce the culture that they share and, as a result, strengthen the social bonds that bind them together even more.
- Karl Marx, a well-known Prussian social theorist and activist, is credited with establishing the critical approach to culture in the field of social sciences.
- Subscribing to popular ideas, conventions and beliefs keeps individuals involved in uneven social institutions that do not operate in their best interests, but rather benefit a powerful minority, according to his reasoning.
- Marx’s theory is based on the assumption that success comes from hard work and dedication, and that anyone can live a good life if they do these things.
- In addition to being a force for tyranny and dominance, culture also has the potential to be a force for innovation, resistance, and self-determination.
Definition of CULTURE
Cul·ture|ˈkəl-chər first and foremost, the beliefs, practices, arts, and so on of a specific civilization or group of people, region, or period a research project on the Greek language and culture youth culture in today’s world Her work demonstrates the impact of popular culture on her. A unique society that has its own beliefs, methods of life, and artistic expressions, for example, is referred to as an ancientculture. It is critical to become familiar with various cultures. an approach of thinking, acting, or functioning that is prevalent in a particular location or organization (such as a business) The corporate/business culture of the organization is geared at increasing revenues.
2:the traditional beliefs, social structures, and material characteristics of a certain race, religion, or social group also: the distinctive characteristics of everyday existence (such as diversions or a style of life) that individuals in a certain location or period share popularculture Southernculture the collection of common attitudes, beliefs, objectives, and activities that distinguishes a certain institution or organization a business culture that is concerned with the bottom line in-depth investigation into the impact of computers on print culture c:the collection of values, norms or social practices connected with a specific field, activity, or societal trait It will take time to transform the materialistic society.
Human knowledge, belief, and action are all linked into a pattern that is dependent on the ability to learn and transfer information to following generations.
the process of developing one’s intellectual and moral faculties, particularly via education 6. expert care and instruction beautyculturecultured;culturingklch- ri,klch- ri,klch- ri,klch- ri,klch- ri
HomeLifestyles Concerning Social Issues Sociology Material culture, tools, weapons, utensils, machinery, ornaments, art, structures, monuments, written records, religious imagery, clothes, and any other ponderable items made or utilized by people are all included in this definition. If all human people on the face of the planet were to cease to exist, nonmaterial parts of civilization would be extinguished along with them. However, evidence of material culture would continue to be there until it was completely destroyed.
- The fact that the effect of material culture has differed from society to civilization appears to be undeniable.
- The Industrial Revolution, the second big revolution in technology since the Renaissance, began about 1800 and was centered on the harnessing of energy from coal, oil, gas, and heat for use in manufacturing processes.
- Educate yourself about the first atomic bombs that were tested and used during World War II.
- On August 6 and 9, 1945, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, killing an estimated 210,000 people each time.
- Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc.
- Michael Ray has made several revisions and updates to this article in the most recent version.
- Individual and group striving over generations has resulted in a group of people accumulating a vast store of knowledge and experience, as well as beliefs and values, attitudes, and meanings. Culture includes hierarchies, religion, notions of time, roles, spatial relationships, concepts of the universe, as well as material objects and possessions. In general, culture refers to the systems of knowledge that are shared by a reasonably significant number of individuals. Cultural expressions are communicated, and cultural expressions are communicated
- Culture, in its broadest meaning, is cultivated behavior
- That is, it is the sum of a person’s learned, collected experience that is passed down through social transmission, or, to put it another way, it is conduct acquired through social learning. A culture is a way of life for a group of people-the behaviors, beliefs, values, and symbols that they accept, typically without questioning them, and that are passed down from one generation to the next through communication and imitation. Culture is a means of communicating symbolically. Skills, knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and motivations of a group are just a few of the symbols that may be used. The meanings of symbols are taught and purposefully preserved in a culture through the institutions of that society
- And Culture consists of patterns of and for behavior acquired and transmitted by symbols, which constitute the distinctive achievement of human groups, including their embodiment in artifacts
- The essential core of culture consists of traditional ideas and especially their attached values
- Culture systems may be considered on the one hand as products of action, and on the other hand as conditioning influences upon further action
- As defined by the United Nations, culture is “the sum total of the learned behaviors by a group of people that are widely recognized to be the tradition of that group of people and are transferred from generation to generation.” In other words, culture is a collective programming of the mind that separates the members of one group or category of people from the members of another group or category of people.
- Human nature, according to this viewpoint, is determined by the ideas, meanings, beliefs, and values that people learn as members of society. People are defined by the lessons they have learned. Optimistic versions of cultural determinism believe that human beings have the ability to accomplish and be whatever they desire regardless of their environment. According to some anthropologists, there is no universally acceptable “correct way” to be a human being. While the “right method” is usually always “our way,” it is virtually never the case that “our way” in one civilization will be the same as “our way” in any other society. It is only through tolerance that a well-informed human being can maintain a proper attitude. The optimistic version of this theory holds that human nature is infinitely malleable and that human beings can choose the ways of life that they prefer
- The pessimistic version holds that people are what they have been conditioned to be and that they have no control over this. Human beings are passive animals that do whatever their culture instructs them to do, regardless of their actions. In response to this theory, behaviorism is developed, which places the reasons of human behavior in a world that is completely beyond human control.
- Different cultural groupings have distinct ways of thinking, feeling, and acting. There are no scientific standards that can be used to determine whether one group is essentially superior or inferior in comparison to another. The study of cultural variations across people and cultures implies the acceptance of a cultural relativism viewpoint. Neither for oneself nor for one’s society does it represent a return to normalcy. If one is interacting with groups or communities that are not similar to one’s own, it is necessary to exercise caution. Information regarding the nature of cultural differences across cultures, their origins, and effects should be obtained before making any decisions or taking any action. Parties that grasp the causes for their differences in opinions have a better chance of achieving a successful outcome in negotiations
- In ethnocentrism, the conviction that one’s own culture is superior than that of other civilizations is asserted over time. It is a type of reductionism in which one lowers the “other way” of living to a distorted version of one’s own way of existence. This is especially significant in the case of international business transactions, when a corporation or a person may be under the impression that techniques, materials, or ideas that worked in the home country will likewise work in the foreign country. Consequently, environmental variations are not taken into consideration. Ethnocentrism may be classified into the following categories when it comes to international business transactions:
- A preoccupation with specific cause-and-effect correlations in one’s own nation causes important elements in business to be disregarded. In order to ensure that all major factors have been at least considered while working abroad, it is always a good idea to consult checklists of human variables. Even though one may be aware of the environmental differences and problems associated with change, one’s primary focus may be on achieving objectives that are specific to one’s home country. A corporation or an individual’s efficacy in terms of worldwide competitiveness may be diminished as a result of this. The objectives defined for global operations should likewise be global in scope
- While it is acknowledged that there are differences, it is expected that the accompanying modifications are so fundamental that they can be accomplished without difficulty. An examination of the costs and benefits of the planned modifications is always a good idea before proceeding. A change may cause significant disruption to essential values, and as a result, it may encounter opposition when it is attempted to be implemented. Depending on the change, the costs of implementing the change may outweigh the advantages received from implementing the change.
EXAMPLES OF CULTURAL MANIFESTATIONS Cultural differences present themselves in a variety of ways and to varying degrees of depth in different contexts. Symbols are the most surface representations of culture, while ideals represent the most profound manifestations of culture, with heroes and rituals filling in the gaps.
- Symbols are words, actions, pictures, or things that convey a specific meaning that can only be understood by people who are familiar with a certain culture or tradition. New symbols are readily created, but old symbols are quickly demolished. Symbols from one particular group are frequently imitated by other groups as well. This is why symbols are considered to be the most superficial layer of a society
- Heroes are individuals, whether historical or contemporary, real or imaginary, who exemplify attributes that are highly regarded in a community. They also serve as examples for appropriate behavior
- Rituals are group activities that, while often redundant in terms of achieving intended results, are thought to be socially necessary in order to maintain social order. Therefore, they are carried out most of the time just for their own sake (as in ways of greeting others, showing respect to others, religious and social rites, etc.)
- Values serve as the foundation of a society’s culture. They are broad inclinations for preferring one state of affairs above another in comparison to other states of affairs (good-evil, right-wrong, natural-unnatural). Many values are held by people who are completely unaware of them. As a result, they are frequently unable to be addressed, nor can they be immediately viewed by others. It is only through seeing how people behave in different situations that we may deduce their values. Symbols, heroes, and rituals are the physical or visual parts of a culture’s activities that are visible to the general public. When practices are understood by insiders, the real cultural meaning of the practices is disclosed
- Otherwise, the practices remain intangible and remain hidden.
The manifestation of culture at various levels of depth is seen in Figure 1: LAYERS OF CULTURE Within oneself, even people from the same culture, there are multiple levels of mental conditioning to contend with. At the following levels of development, several layers of culture may be found:
- The national level is one that is associated with the entire nation
- On the regional level: This refers to the disparities that exist between ethnic, linguistic, and religious groups within a country. When it comes to gender disparities (male vs. female), the gender level is associated with these differences. It is associated with the disparities between grandparents and parents, as well as between parents and children at the generational level. It is associated with educational chances as well as inequalities in occupational prospects. The corporate level: This level is associated with the specific culture of a given organization. Those who are employed are covered by this provision.
MOUNTING CULTURAL DIFFERENCESA variable can be operationalized using either single-measure or multivariate methodologies, depending on the situation. After the domain of a concept has been empirically sampled, a single-measure technique is used to measure its domain; a composite-measure technique is used to construct an index for the concept after several indicators have been used to measure its domain after the concept has been empirically sampled.
According to Hofstede (1997), a composite-measure approach has been developed to quantify cultural differences across various societies:
- It assesses the degree of inequality that occurs in a society using a power distance index. UCAI (Uncertainty Avoidance Index): This index evaluates the extent to which a society perceives itself to be threatened by uncertain or ambiguous situations. Individualism index: The index measures how individualistic a society is in comparison to other societies. Individuals are expected to look for themselves and their immediate families exclusively, which is what individualism is all about in a society where people are expected to look after themselves and their immediate families only. In contrast, collectivism is a social structure in which individuals discriminate between in-groups and out-groups, and they expect their in-groups (relatives, clans, organizations, etc.) to care after them in exchange for their complete commitment. Specifically, the index assesses the amount to which the major values are assertiveness, money, and things (success), and that the dominating values are not caring for others or for the quality of life. Womanhood (in a romantic relationship) would be on the other end of the scale.
CULTURAL DIFFERENCES ARE BEING RECONCILIATED Consciousness of one’s cultural heritage:
- Before embarking on a worldwide assignment, it is likely that it will be important to ascertain any cultural differences that may exist between one’s own nation and the country in which the business will be conducted or conducted. Where there are differences, it is necessary to determine whether and to what extent the practices of one’s native nation can be adapted to the foreign setting. The majority of the time, the alterations are not immediately noticeable or palpable. Certain features of a culture may be learnt consciously (for example, different ways of greeting people), while other differences may be learned unconsciously (for example, different ways of dressing) (e.g. methods of problem solving). The development of cultural awareness may not be a simple process, but once completed, it will unquestionably aid in the completion of a work efficiently in a foreign setting. Discussions and reading about different cultures absolutely aid in the development of cultural awareness, but the perspectives expressed must be carefully weighed before they are shared. Sometimes they represent incorrect prejudices, a judgment of merely a subset of a certain group of individuals, or a circumstance that has since experienced significant changes. It’s usually a good idea to obtain a variety of perspectives on a single culture.
Cultures grouped together:
- Some nations may have many characteristics in common that contribute to the formation of their cultures (the modifiers may be language, religion, geographical location, etc.). Based on the information gathered from previous cross-cultural research, nations can be classified according to their shared values and attitudes. When travelling inside a cluster, less changes are likely to be observed than when going from one cluster to another.
Determine the amount of global participation by asking the following questions:
- It is not necessary for all businesses operating on a global scale to have the same level of cultural knowledge. Figure 2 depicts the extent to which a company’s understanding of global cultures is required at various levels of participation. The further a firm progresses away from its primary duty of conducting domestic business, the greater the need it has for cultural awareness and understanding. The necessity of increasing cultural awareness as a result of expanding outward on more than one axis at the same time becomes even more apparent.
Figure 2: Cultural Awareness and the Degree to Which the World Is Involved G. Hofstede is cited as a source (1997). Cultures and organizations are like software for the human brain. McGraw-Hill Education, New York. Here are a few recent publications. Firms Considering Expanding Into New Markets Face Culture Shock. However, the temptation of reconstruction contracts in locations such as Afghanistan and Iraq may tempt some corporations to take on more risk than they are prepared to take on in the United States.
However, the tremendous rehabilitation of countries damaged by conflict has the potential to trip up even the most experienced among them.
Language and cultural differences must also be taken into consideration.
The United States government’s conference on reconstructing Afghanistan, held in Chicago last week, went a long way toward identifying prospects in the country.
The first lesson is to abandon ethnocentric beliefs that the world should adjust to our style of doing business rather than the other way around, as is commonly done.
Chinese representatives provided a wealth of information to U.S.
The qualities of patience, attention, and sensitivity are not commonly associated with building, but they may be beneficial in cultures that are different from our own.
[New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education.] Do We See Things the Same Way?
These studies show that taking cultural variations into account when utilizing observation techniques in cross-cultural research, as well as in practical contexts such as performance assessment and international management, is crucial.
Culture has an important role in research and management, according to the findings of this study.
[Karakowsky, LiKarakowsky] (2001). Do We See Things the Same Way? The Implications of Cultural Differences for Research and Practice in Cross-Cultural Management The Journal of Psychology, volume 135 number 5, pages 501-517.]