What Is An Afb Culture

Acid Fast Bacilli (AFB) Smear and Culture Testing

Doctors Jacob Donnelly (MD) and Jasper Zheng (MD) are Pathology Residents at the University of Pennsylvania. Dr. Anna Romanelli, Medical Director of the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory, has a PhD in microbiology.

Introduction:

In any laboratory test technique, it is a fundamental premise that the validity of the test is strongly dependent on the use of specimens that have been correctly collected, labeled, handled, or kept prior to and during the testing process. Microbiological tests are not as uniform as other types of laboratory testing; the method in which a sample is processed and the findings are interpreted is largely influenced by the information supplied with the specimen during collection. Erroneous findings as a result of specimen mismanagement can have a negative impact on patient care and outcomes, as well as hospital infection control, the amount of time patients spend in the hospital, expenses, and the efficiency of the laboratory.

AFB smear and culture tests for Acid Fast Bacilli (AFB) are the primary subject of this lab best practices blog, which will go over the proper specimen collecting and processing procedures.

AFB smear microscopy is a technique for doing a rapid and affordable microscopic analysis of clinical specimens using a fluorochrome stain (fluorescein is used).

Even when utilizing staining methods unique to mycobacteria, such as Nocardia spp., only a few other species may be stained, which is particularly true for Nocardia spp.

After that, it is incubated at 37 degrees Celsius for up to six weeks.

Methodology:

  • AFB smear – fluorescence staining
  • AFB culture – B-D MGIT system and conventional culture medium
  • AFB smear – fluorescence staining

Specimen Collection

  • Health Systems at the University of California, Davis
  • Hospital Based Clinics / HBC
  • Physician Clinics Network / PCN
  • Others

Materials:

  • Plastic biohazard bags, both small and big in size, as well as biohazard stickers, are also available.

Acceptable Specimen Type(s):

  • The following is the recommended practice for collecting specimens and sputum for the first diagnosis of tuberculosis: Cough specimen collected in the early morning, deep cough specimen collected three (3) consecutive days – If more than one specimen is obtained during the same 24-hour period, a minimum of eight (8) hours must be allowed between each specimen. – The minimum admissible specimen volume is two (2) milliliters (mL). Refrigerate until ready to be transported

Bronchial Washing:

  • Two (2) milliliters (mL) is the preferred minimum permissible volume
  • Keep refrigerated until transported.

Pleural Fluid:

  • The preferred minimum volume is two (2) milliliters
  • Keep refrigerated until transported.

FIGURE 1: *The blue fluid displayed in the photo is used as an example of 2-3 mL, or the quantity of fluid required from the patient. Figure 2:

Unacceptable Conditions:

  1. The specimens that have not been labeled with the patient’s name or identifying information
  2. It is necessary to obtain a clinical specimen within eight hours of collecting the preceding specimen. A clinical specimen that was obtained more than three (3) days after it was collected
  3. Upon arrival, the specimen was leaking
  4. Insufficient specimen volume (less than 2 mL)
  5. Insufficient specimen volume Substances that cause interference

Result Report Timing

  1. After receiving AFB smears, they are reported within 24 hours of receipt
  2. AFB cultures are reported when growth begins and identification is made, or when no growth occurs at the end of the 7th week of the culture.

Possible Results:

At 100x magnification, the following number of AFBs were observed: 1+ (Rare) = 1-9 out of every 100 fields 2+ (Few) = 1-9 / 10 fields = 2+ (Few) fields Moderate = 1-9 in field 3+ (Moderate). 4+ (Many) = larger than 1-9 / field of four or more AFB Could Not Be Located Smear was not carried out.

AFB Culture:

  • Species identification of Mycobacteria bacteria
  • After 6 weeks, there was no development of Mycobacteria
  • This was unsatisfactory.

Patient instructions:

Please carefully read and follow the procedures outlined below.

  1. Please carefully read and follow the actions outlined in the next section.

Please carefully read and follow the procedures listed below.

Cup Instructions

  1. To remove any excess sputum or saliva from the sterile container, rinse it outside if at all possible. Allow enough time for drying to take place. Secure the sample container lid with a strip of Parafilm and check that it is completely sealed. Individual specimens should be placed in the proper individual small or big biohazard bag. Ensure that each specimen is accompanied by a copy of the order slip (order slips should be put in the biohazard order slip pocket).

To remove any extra sputum or saliva from the exterior of the sterile container, as shown in Figure 3.

Give yourself plenty of time to dry. In Figure 4, each specimen should be placed in its own small / big biohazard bag, with a copy of the matching order slip included in the bag for each specimen (order slips are to be placed in the biohazard order slip pocket)

Resources:

  1. Procedures for Collection of Induced Sputum Specimens from Children, by Lindsay R. Grant and colleagues, published in Pediatrics. In “How to Collect and Ship COVID-19 Samples,” published in Clinical Infectious Diseases: an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, Oxford University Press, April 2012, the authors explain how to collect and ship COVID-19 samples. ‘Acid-Fast Bacilli (AFB) Smear and Culture’ published by MicroGen Diagnostics on April 28, 2020. The smear and culture of Acid-Fast Bacilli (AFB) are performed at the State Public Health Laboratory, which is part of the Department of Health and Senior Services. Sputum Collection
  2. ISDH: Sputum Collection

What Is an AFB Stain?

Procedures for Collection of Induced Sputum Specimens from Children, by Lindsay R. Grant and colleagues (2001). “How to Collect and Ship COVID-19 Samples,” published in Clinical Infectious Diseases: an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, Oxford University Press, April 2012. ” Acid-Fast Bacilli (AFB) Smear and Culture,” MicroGen Diagnostics, April 28, 2020. The smear and culture of Acid-Fast Bacilli (AFB) are performed at the State Public Health Laboratory, which is part of the Department of Health and Senior Services.

How Does an AFB Stain Test Work?

Acid fastness is a distinctive property shared by a group of bacteria that distinguishes them from other bacteria. Because they have been dyed with a particular medical dye, they will retain their color even after being subjected to decolorizing acid, which would ordinarily cause the color to fade. Under a microscope, this makes them simple to observe and distinguish from one another. Your doctor will obtain a sample of your sputum (mucus in your lungs or airways) using one of four procedures.

  • Coughing. Your doctor will most likely rely on collecting some of the material that you cough up for an AFB stain
  • This is referred to as induction of coughing. If you do not have a productive cough, your doctor may instruct you to inhale aerosolized saline to induce coughing
  • This is known as bronchoscopy. Gastricaspiration is an invasive technique in which your doctor examines your airway or lungs through a scope and collects sputum
  • It is performed by your doctor. In the event that sputum is ingested rather than coughed out, your doctor will be able to recover it from your stomach.

The sputum is sent to a laboratory, where it is spread onto a tiny dish and tested. A fuchsia-colored dye is given to the sample by the use of a procedure known as the Ziehl Neelsen technique. The color penetrates the bacteria’s cell walls and becomes trapped within them. It is possible to remove the color from surrounding material by rinsing with a specific acid solution. Bacteria that cause TB, for example, are not harmed by the acid and retain their pink hue. It is easier to perceive and recognize them as a result of this — and the test is also less costly, more widely available, and more generally trustworthy.

When Your Doctor May Order an AFB Stain

There are a variety of reasons why you could require this examination, including: You are suffering from a lung infection. If you are experiencing signs of a lung infection, your doctor may order an AFB stain to determine the source of the illness. Coughing up blood, considerable weight loss, fever, chills, and exhaustion are some of the most common signs of achronicorrhea. You have tuberculosis and are at high risk. If you have tuberculosis and a skin or blood test indicates that you have the disease, or if you have a weakened immune system as a result of a condition such as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), your doctor may order this test to determine whether or not the disease is present.

  • You have tuberculosis (TB) outside of your lungs.
  • An AFB stain may be used by your doctor to determine whether it is harming your lungs as well as other organs.
  • Infections with HIV, AIDS, or a comparable illness increase your chances of acquiring tuberculosis (TB).
  • This test can determine if you have contracted the disease.

You’ve been infected with tuberculosis. Finally, if you have been successfully treated for tuberculosis, your doctor may order this test. An AFB stain can be used to establish that your recovery has been completed and that the TB has been eradicated.

What Do the Results Mean?

It is deemed a negative result if your AFB stain does not include any bacteria that will stay onto the dye after being exposed to it. This indicates that you are not likely to develop tuberculosis or another mycobacterial infection in your lungs at this time. If there is just a small number of bacteria that retain their dye color, the findings may be regarded an early positive or inconclusive, depending on the circumstances. The greater the number of bacteria visible under a microscope, the more intensely positive and infectious you are most likely to be.

If you are diagnosed with tuberculosis, you will be treated with anti-tuberculosis medications.

Your provider may request additional scans or tests to obtain additional information about your condition if your findings are unclear or if your doctor believes that the test may not have been reliable in its results.

Are There Risks to an AFB Stain Test?

There are no dangers associated with an AFB stain examination. You should be aware that your doctor may need to perform a bronchoscopy or stomach aspiration in order to extract sputum, and there are risks connected with this phase of the operation. The AFB stain test is not uncomfortable, even if you cough, which is a common indicator of a lung infection. However, you may experience some moderate discomfort when coughing, which is normal. There is no need to prepare anything ahead of time.

Acid-Fast Bacillus (AFB) Culture and AFB Stain

When to order the test and when not to order the test are recommended. It is possible to include related or preferred tests. For diagnosing the presence of Mycobacterium organisms, the gold standard test is performed.

Mnemonic

Ordering or not ordering the test is based on these recommendations. Included in this category are tests that are related or preferable. For identifying the presence of Mycobacterium organisms, the gold standard test is the gram stain method.

Methodology

Process(es) that were employed to carry out the test. Stain/Culture/Identification/Susceptibility

Performed

The exam is carried out on certain days of the week. Sun-Sat

Reported

The anticipated turnaround time for a result, starting from the time that ARUP receives the specimen. 1 to 62 days AFB staining time is 24 hours.

New York DOH Approval Status

The New York State Department of Health has authorized the test, as shown by this symbol. The New York Department of Health and Mental Hygiene has authorized this test.

Specimen Required

The New York State Department of Health has authorized the test, as shown by the checkmark. According to the New York Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, this test is acceptable.

You might be interested:  The Character Of A Company's Corporate Culture Is Not Shaped By Which One Of The Following

Reference Interval

For a certain illness condition, the normal range/expected value(s) is defined. It is possible to have aberrant ranges as well. As of the 20th of May, 2013 Acid fast bacilli were not detected in the culture.

Identification is carried out on the positives. Susceptibility testing was carried out on all of the early isolates of the M. tuberculosiscomplex. Testing for resistance was carried out on important isolates of Mycobacterium that were not M. tuberculosis complex isolates.

Interpretive Data

Preliminary information for the test. Contains illness information, patient result explanations, suggestions and specifics of testing. Also contains information on linked disorders and an explanation of probable patient outcomes Standard ComplianceCategory of Compliance

Note

Additional details about the test will be provided. Respiratory specimens, bodily fluids, CSF, stomach aspirates, and urines that are less than 5 mL in volume and less than 40 mL in volume will be marked as volume unsatisfactory in the report. When positive cultures are identified, they are reported as quickly as possible. The AFB stain, the AFB detection of positives, and the susceptibility tests are all invoiced separately from the culture procedure. Individual DNA probes and assays are used to determine the presence of a positive culture, and they are invoiced separately.

  • When the presence ofM.
  • Susceptibility testing will be carried out on organisms isolated from a sterile source as well as isolates of Mycobacterium TB complex, Mycobacterium chelonae, Mycobacterium abscesses, Mycobacterium fortuitum complex, Mycobacterium immunogenum, and Mycobacterium mucogenicum.
  • kansaii and M.
  • The use of M.
  • For more on AFB susceptibility, see Antimicrobial Susceptibility – AFB Mycobacteria (AFB Mycobacteria) (ARUP test code 0060217).

CPT Codes

It is intended that the American Medical Association Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes supplied in ARUP’s Laboratory Test Directory serve simply as a source of reference. The codes represent our interpretation of CPT coding regulations, which is based on American Medical Association (AMA) recommendations that are released annually. CPT codes are supplied solely to aid customers with billing and are not intended to be used for diagnostic purposes. ARUP strongly advises clients to double-check CPT codes with their Medicare administrative contractor, since regulations may change from state to state.

ARUP Laboratories bears no liability for billing errors that occur as a result of relying on the CPT codes that have been published.

Components

Components of the examination

Component Test Code* Component Chart Name LOINC
0060152 Culture, Acid Fast Bacilli 543-9

* It is not possible to order tests using component test codes.

In order to finish interface builds, the information supplied here is insufficient. To access the Interface Map, please click on the sidebar link in the left-hand navigation bar.

Aliases

Other titles for the exam that are descriptive. Synonyms.

  • AO stain
  • Auramine-rhodamine stain
  • Auramin-rhodamine stain

Acid-Fast Bacillus (AFB) Culture and Acid-Fast Bacillus (AFB) Stain

AFB Smear and Culture: The Test

NOTE: This article is based on research that draws on the sources listed in this page, as well as the combined experience of the Lab Tests OnlineEditorial Review Board, to come up with its conclusions. This article is evaluated by the Editorial Board on a regular basis, and it may be amended as a consequence of the review process. Any new sources that are referenced will be added to the list and differentiated from the original sources that were utilized in the essay. Sources consulted for the current review A.B.

  1. Sahm are co-authors of Scott’s Diagnostic Microbiology, which was published by Mosby Elsevier in St.
  2. Pages 478-508 in Scott’s Diagnostic Microbiology 12th Edition.
  3. Tuberculosis is diagnosed using a series of tests.
  4. The date of access was January 2011.
  5. Guidelines for the Use of Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests in the Diagnosis of Tuberculosis have been updated.
  6. The date of access was January 2011.
  7. Herchline is credited with inventing the phrase (December 17, 2010).

Through the use of the internet, you may access this resource.

(February 29, 2009) Mayo Clinic is a medical center in Rochester, Minnesota.

Through the use of the internet, you may access this resource.

(12th of November, 2010) The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases is a federally funded research organization.

Through the use of the internet, you may access this resource.

(Updated on November 2010) Organización Mundial de la Salud.

Through the use of the internet, you may access this resource.

A rapid molecular detection method for tuberculosis and rifampin resistance was developed by C.

N Engl J Med 2010; 363:1005-1015.

N Engl J Med 2010; 363:1005-1015.

Minion J, Leung E, Menzies D, Pai M.

The Lancet Infectious Diseases, October 2010, 10(10):688-98.

Through the use of the internet, you may access this resource.

Sources that have been used in previous reviews Clayton L.

Taber’s Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary is a medical dictionary published by Taber’s Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary.

Davis Company is based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Pagana, Kathleen D.; Pagana, Timothy J.; Pagana, Timothy J.

St.

M.

TB.

Available on the internet at the following link: Kirchner, J.

Do AFB-positive sputum smears indicate that treatment has been unsuccessful?

Through the use of the internet, you may access this resource.

Jerant and colleagues (2000 May 1).

Through the use of the internet, you may access this resource.

Sadovsky, R.

(2001 May 15).

Through the use of the internet, you may access this resource.

Frequently Asked Questions, as well as Questions and Answers, regarding tuberculosis.

Through the use of the internet, you may access this resource.

The Merck Manual of Medical Information-Home Edition is a comprehensive resource for medical information.

Tan, L.J., et al (2000 June 28, Updated).

The American Medical Association is a professional organization dedicated to the advancement of medical knowledge and practice.

Mazurek, G.; Villarino, M.; Mazurek, G.; Mazurek, G.

Specifications and Instructions for Using the QuantiFERON®-TB Test for Diagnosis of Latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection CDC stands for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Through the use of the internet, you may access this resource.

Co-infection with tuberculosis and HIV.

Through the use of the internet, you may access this resource.

Tuberculosis in History.

Through the use of the internet, you may access this resource.

Through the use of the internet, you may access this resource (2002 January).

Available online at via (2002 January).

Available online at via (2002 January).

Available online at via.

Tuberculosis and Its Burden on the World.

Skin test for tuberculosis.

Tuberculosis.

Introduction to the genus Mycobacteria in the field of mycobacteriology.

Mycobacteriology, Acid-Fast Staining Procedures for Mycobacteria, and Mycobacteriology.

Hall et al (2001).

2, No.

Infect Medicine 18(1):28-30, 2001, according to Medscape.

Tuberculin Purified Protein Derivative (Mantoux) Tubersol is a tuberculin purified protein derivative (Mantoux) tubersol.

is a pharmaceutical company based in New York (Swiftwater, PA).

L.

Test for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex culture identification using the AccuProbe system.

Through the use of the internet, you may access this resource.

Attention, please, to the readers: Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis is now defined in a revised manner.

Through the use of the internet, you may access this resource.

(April of 2006) Tuberculosis: a general overview of the disease.

The date of access was December 10, 2006.

Tuberculosis, according to the World Health Organization.

The date of access was December 10, 2006.

The date of access was December 10, 2006.

FTP access is available: (2006 April).

Fact Sheet from the National Center for HIV/AIDS, STD, and TB Prevention’s Division of Tuberculosis Elimination.

The date of access was December 10, 2006.

Pagana, Kathleen D.

955-957 in Mosby’s Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference, 8th Edition, Saint Louis, MO: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO.

Moore, DAJ, and colleagues developed a microscopic-observation drug-susceptibility assay for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB). The New England Journal of Medicine published a 35-page article in 2006 titled “1539-1550.”

AFB Smear and Culture

NOTE: This article is based on research that draws on the sources cited in this article, as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests OnlineEditorial Review Board, to come to its conclusions. The Editorial Board reviews this article on a regular basis, and it may be updated as a result of the review. It will be necessary to add any new sources cited to the list and differentiate them from the original sources that were used. Current Review’s sources were taken from A.B. Forbes and D.F.

  • Louis, Missouri in 2007.
  • Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (July 1, 2010 Reviewed).
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDCP) is a government organization that works to prevent and control diseases.
  • January 16, 2009 / 58(01); 7-10.
  • the author’s initials (T) et al (December 17, 2010).
  • Originally published on January 29, 2009 In the United States, Mayo Clinic is a medical center that specializes in treating patients with chronic illnesses.
  • Through the use of the internet, you may find out more about January 2011 was the most recent date of access.

Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases of the National Institutes of Health (NIH).

Through the use of the internet, you may find out more about January 2011 was the most recent date of access.

Fact Sheet on Tuberculosis Through the use of the internet, you may find out more about January 2011 was the most recent date of access.

Boehme and colleagues.

N Engl J Med2010; 363:1005-1015.

A study by Minion et al., with contributions from Leung E, Menzies D and Pai M A comprehensive review and meta-analysis of microscopic-observation drug susceptibility testing and thin layer agar assays for the identification of drug-resistant TB It was published in The Lancet Infectious Diseases on October 10, 2010 at 688-698.

  1. Through the use of the internet, you may find out more about January 2011 was the most recent date of access.
  2. Clayton L.
  3. Thomas, Clayton L.
  4. Taber’s Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary is a medical dictionary published by Taber’s Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary Inc.
  5. Davis Company .
  6. (2001).
  7. Louis, MO-based Mosby’s Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference is in its fifth edition.

Heimerdinger is the author of this article.

TB.

Available via the internet at the following website: KIRKNER, J.

(2000 February 1).

The American Family Physician is a medical professional that specializes in family medicine.

Jerant and colleagues (2000 May 1).

Through the use of the internet, you may find out more about R.

How to Make the Diagnosis of Tuberculosis in Children The American Family Physician is a medical professional that specializes in family medicine.

Frequently Asked Questions, as well as Questions and Answers, regarding tuberculosis (TB).

The Merck Manual of Medical Information-Home Edition is a comprehensive resource for medical information and education.

Treatment and testing for latent tuberculosis infection have been revised according to an ATS/CDC statement.

Through the use of the internet, you may find out more about G.

Villarino are two of the most well-known names in the field of genetics (2002 December 18 Updated).

Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention The Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report is a weekly publication that provides information on mortality and morbidity in the United Kingdom.

Co-infection with tuberculosis and HIV Division of Tuberculosis Elimination, National Center for HIV, STD, and TB Prevention.

Through the use of the internet, you may find out more about The American Lung Association has more information about tuberculosis (TB) than any other source.

Fact Sheet on Tuberculosis from the American Lung Association®.

It is available online at through the American Lung Association® Fact Sheet: Tuberculosis Skin Test (2002 January).

The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) is a federally funded research and development organization (1999 December 1, Updated).

Through the use of the internet, you may find out more about Skin test for tuberculosis accessed through the Hendrick Health System’s AccessMed system.

accessed through the Hendrick Health System’s AccessMed system.

Bugs on the Web is a project of the Microbiology Public Health Unit of Northern Alberta.

Bugs on the Web is a project of the Microbiology Public Health Unit of Northern Alberta.

Geoffrey Hall’s “The Art of War” is a classic example of how art may be used to advance a cause and bring about a positive outcome (2001).

57, no.

Infectious Diseases 18(1):28-30, 2001, according to Medscape FTP:through is available.

Pasteur, Inc.

L (Revised Edition), October 28, 1996.

Through the use of the internet, you may find out more about It was published on the 3rd of November in 2006.

CDCMMWR55(43);1176.

(April 2006) – General Information about Tuberculosis It is possible to obtain a fact sheet from the National Center for HIV, STD, and TB Prevention’s Division of Tuberculosis Elimination by visiting their website.

The revised version was published in March 2006.

Through the use of the internet, you may find out more about As of December 10, 2006, this website was accessible.

Tuberculosis.

Fact Sheet from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) There is an FTP server available (2006 April).

TB Fact Sheet from the National Center for HIV/AIDS, STD, and TB Prevention’s Division of Tuberculosis Prevention.

(2007, April).

955-957 in Mosby’s Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference, 8th Edition, Saint Louis, MO: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO A Microscopic-Observation Drug-Susceptibility Assay for the Diagnosis of Tuberculosis.

Moore, DAJ and colleagues. The New England Journal of Medicine published a 355, 1539-1550, article in 2006 titled

  • NOTE: This article is based on research that draws on the sources given above as well as the combined experience of the Lab Tests OnlineEditorial Review Board. This article is reviewed by the Editorial Board on a regular basis, and it may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources that are cited will be included in the list and differentiated from the original sources that were used. Sources consulted for this review A.B. Forbes and D.F. Sahm are co-authors of Scott’s Diagnostic Microbiology, which was published by Mosby Elsevier in St. Louis, Missouri in 2007. Pages 478-508 are included. Cdcp stands for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (July 1, 2010 Reviewed). Tuberculosis is diagnosed through a blood test. Through the use of the internet, you can get this book. accessed in January of this year The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDCP) is a government organization that works to prevent and control disease. Guidelines for the use of nucleic acid amplification tests in the diagnosis of tuberculosis have been updated. January 16, 2009
  • 58(01)
  • 7-10
  • MMWR Through the use of the internet, you can get this book. accessed in January of this year T. Herchline is a writer and editor (December 17, 2010). Tuberculosis, according to an eMedicine article. Through the use of the internet, you can get this book. accessed in January of this year Originally published on January 29, 2009. Mayo Clinic is a medical facility in Rochester, Minnesota. Tuberculosis. Through the use of the internet, you can get this book. accessed in January of this year (12th of November, 2010). Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases of the National Institutes of Health. Tuberculosis is a contagious disease (TB). Through the use of the internet, you can get this book. accessed in January of this year (Aug. 2010) WHO is the World Health Organization. Fact Sheet on Tuberculosis. Through the use of the internet, you can get this book. accessed in January of this year A Rapid Molecular Detection of Tuberculosis and Rifampin Resistance. Boehme C, et al. N Engl J Med2010
  • 363:1005-1015. Available online atthrough. N Engl J Med2010
  • 363:1005-1015. accessed in January of this year Minion, J., Leung, E., Menzies, D., and Pai, M. (in press). A systematic review and meta-analysis of microscopic-observation drug susceptibility and thin layer agar assays for the detection of drug-resistant tuberculosis. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 2010 Oct
  • 10(10):688-98. The article was published on August 31, 2010. Through the use of the internet, you can get this book. accessed in January of this year Sources that have been used in prior reviews Clayton L. Thomas is the editor of this book (1997). Taber’s Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary is a medical dictionary published by Taber and Company. The F.A. Davis Company is located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. . Pagana, Kathleen D.Pagana, Timothy J.Pagana, Timothy J. (2001). Mosby’s Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference, Fifth Edition, Saint Louis, MO: Mosby, Inc. M. Heimerdinger is the author of this paper (2000). TB. ACP-ASIM. Available on the internet atthrough. Kirchner, J., et al (2000 February 1). Do AFB-positive sputum smears indicate treatment failure? American Family Physician is a medical specialty that focuses on family medicine. Through the use of the internet, you can get this book. Jerant, A., and colleagues (2000 May 1). Tuberculosis: Diagnosis and Treatment. American Family Physician is a medical specialty that focuses on family medicine. Through the use of the internet, you can get this book. R. Sadovsky, R. Sadovsky et al (2001 May 15). Making a Tuberculosis Diagnosis in Children American Family Physician is a medical specialty that focuses on family medicine. Through the use of the internet, you can get this book. Cdcp stands for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2002 August 13, Reviewed). Frequently Asked Questions, as well as Questions and Answers, about tuberculosis (TB). Division of Tuberculosis Elimination at the National Center for HIV, STD, and TB Prevention. Through the use of the internet, you can get this book. Tuberculosis. The Merck Manual of Medical Information—Home Edition is a comprehensive resource for medical information. Through the use of the internet, you can get this book. Tan, L.J. et al (2000 June 28, Updated). ATS/CDC Statement on Latent Tuberculosis Infection Revises Treatment and Testing Recommendations The American Medical Association is a professional organization dedicated to the advancement of medical science. Through the use of the internet, you can get this book. Mazurek, G.
  • Villarino, M.
  • Mazurek, G. (2002 December 18 Updated). Using the QuantiFERON®-TB Test to Diagnose Latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection: A Guide for Clinicians. Cdcp stands for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report is a weekly publication that provides information on mortality and morbidity in the United States. Through the use of the internet, you can get this book. Cdcp stands for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2002 March 23, Reviewed). Infection with tuberculosis and HIV. Division of Tuberculosis Elimination of the National Center for HIV, STD, and TB Prevention. Through the use of the internet, you can get this book. TB: An Ancient Enemy and a Present Threat, “I must die”: Tuberculosis in History. Tuberculosis in History. NAIAD. Through the use of the internet, you can get this book. The American Lung Association has information on tuberculosis (TB). Through the use of the internet, you can get this book (2002 January). Tuberculosis Fact Sheet from the American Lung Association® (ALA). Available online at via (2002 January). Fact Sheet on Tuberculosis Skin Testing from the American Lung Association® (ALA). Available online atthrough (2002 January). Fact Sheet on Pediatric Tuberculosis from the American Lung Association® (ALA). Available online atthrough. NIAID is an acronym that stands for the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (1999 December 1, Updated). In this report, we examine the global burden of tuberculosis. National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Through the use of the internet, you can get this book. Skin test for tuberculin. AccessMed is a service provided by Hendrick Health System that is available online atthrough. Tuberculosis. AccessMed is a service provided by Hendrick Health System that is available online atthrough. Introduction to the genus Mycobacteria in Mycobacteriology. Bugs on the Web is a project of the Microbiology Public Health for Northern Alberta. Through the use of the internet, you can get this book. Mycobacteriology, Acid-Fast Staining Procedures for Mycobacteria. Bugs on the Web is a project of the Microbiology Public Health for Northern Alberta. Available on the internet at G. Hall’s et al (2001). Update on Broth Media for the Isolation of Mycobacterium Species, published in Practical Microbiology. Infectious Diseases 18(1):28-30, 2001, according to Medscape. FTP access is available. Tuberculin Purified Protein Derivative (Mantoux) Tubersol is a tuberculin purified protein derivative (Mantoux). Aventis Pasteur Inc. is a pharmaceutical company (Swiftwater, PA). (October 28, 1996, Rev. L.) Test for Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Complex Culture Identification using the AccuProbe. Gen-Probe. Through the use of the internet, you can get this book. (November 3, 2006) Notice to the Public: The term “extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis” has been revised. CDCMMWR55(43)
  • 1176. Through the use of the internet, you can get this book. The date was December 10, 2006. (April 2006) Tuberculosis: A Brief Overview Fact Sheet on Tuberculosis Elimination from the National Center for HIV, STD, and TB Prevention’s Division of Tuberculosis Elimination is available online at via. The date was December 10, 2006. (Revised in March 2006) Tuberculosis is a disease that is controlled by the World Health Organization. Through the use of the internet, you can get this book. The date was December 10, 2006. (March of 2006). Tuberculosis. The date was December 10, 2006. Fact Sheet from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). FTP access is available at: (2006 April). Identification of Tuberculosis Disease. Fact Sheet from the National Center for HIV, STD, and TB Prevention’s Division of Tuberculosis Elimination. Through the use of the internet, you can get this book. The date was December 10, 2006. (2007, 2007). Pagana, Kathleen D.
  • Pagana, Timothy J. 955-957 in Mosby’s Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference, 8th Edition, Saint Louis, MO: Mosby, Inc. Moore, DAJ, and colleagues developed a microscopic observation drug susceptibility assay for the diagnosis of tuberculosis. The New England Journal of Medicine published a 355, 1539-1550, article in 2006.
You might be interested:  Which Element Of Qapi Addresses The Culture Of The Facility

Because the amount of bacilli might fluctuate from day to day, it is recommended to screen several smears from various samples for AFB. If acid-fast bacilli are seen on any of the smears, it is likely that the patient has a mycobacterial infection. Given the fact that Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the most common cause of mycobacterial respiratory infections, a provisional diagnosis of tuberculosis can be made; however, additional testing must be performed in order to positively identify the acid-fast bacilli as either Mycobacterium tuberculosis or another mycobacterial species.

  • AFB is grown in the laboratory using the cultures obtained from the animals.
  • Testing in a short period of time Additional TB testing methods, including those that are based on genetic components of mycobacteria, have been developed to aid in the reduction of the amount of time it takes to identify the disease.
  • These assays have the ability to amplify and copy portions of the bacterial genetic code in less than 24 hours.
  • In addition, if the bacterium is present, several of these tests can offer information on the bacteria’s sensitivity to antibiotics (usually only one or two drugs, not the entire panel), but only if the test is positive.
  • It is possible that further samples for treatment monitoring may be necessary.

How is the sample collected for testing?

Because M. TB and M. avium are the most prevalent pathogens that infect the lungs, sputum is the most often analyzed sample. Sputum is phlegm, which is a viscous mucus that is coughed up from the lungs when someone has a cold. Typically, three to five early morning samples are taken in individual sterile cups (on consecutive days) and then analyzed. If you are unable to cough up phlegm, your doctor may perform a bronchoscopy to get respiratory samples to test for the presence of infection. Using a tube inserted through your throat after being given a local anesthetic, your doctor can examine and collect samples from the inside of your lungs, allowing him or her to diagnose and treat you.

This procedure entails inserting a small amount of salt solution (saline) into the stomach through a tube and drawing the fluid back up through the tube.

For example, if it is believed that tuberculosis (TB) has affected your kidneys, one or more urine samples may be taken and tested.

Your doctor may occasionally need to use a needle to collect a sample of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) or perform a brief surgical operation to acquire a tissue biopsy in order to diagnose your condition.

  • Because M. tuberculosis and M. avium are the two bacteria that most typically infect the lungs, sputum is the sample that is most frequently examined. When someone has phlegm (thick mucus) coughed out from their lungs, they are said to have sputum. Samples are collected in separate sterile cups in the wee hours of the morning, usually three to five each day (on consecutive days). If you are unable to cough up sputum, your doctor may do a bronchoscopy to get respiratory samples to test for pneumonia. Using a tube inserted through your throat after being given a topical anesthetic, your doctor can examine and collect samples from the inside of your lungs, allowing him or her to diagnose and treat you better. Because small children will not be able to cough up a sputum sample, stomach washings/aspirates may be taken instead. This procedure entails inserting a little amount of salt solution (saline) into the stomach and drawing the fluid back up the tube. The bodily fluids and tissues that are most likely to be impacted will be taken and analyzed if your doctor suspects you have tuberculosis outside of the lungs (which is rather frequent in individuals with AIDS). It may be necessary to collect one or more urine samples for testing if it is believed that tuberculosis has invaded your kidneys. The fluid from your joints or from other body cavities, such as the lining around your heart (pericardium) or your abdomen, may be collected using a needle. Your doctor may occasionally need to use a needle to collect a sample of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) or perform a brief surgical operation to acquire a tissue biopsy in order to diagnose you.
  • You have symptoms that are suggestive of pulmonary tuberculosis, such as a persistent cough that produces phlegm or sputum that may contain streaks of blood
  • You have a history of TB in your family
  • You have a positive tuberculosis skin or blood test and distinctive lung involvement (as determined by an X-ray)
  • You are pregnant. Someone you are in intimate touch with, such as a family member or co-worker, has been diagnosed with tuberculosis, and you either have symptoms or have a condition or disease that puts you at a much increased risk of getting the disease, such as HIV/AIDS, as a result of the interaction. For example, patients with AIDS are more likely than other affected patients to have tuberculosis outside of the lungs and to have few or vague symptoms. You are undergoing treatment for tuberculosis. AFB smears and cultures are then often required at regular intervals, both to determine the efficiency of your therapy and to determine whether or not you are still infectious
  • This is done to ensure that you are not spreading disease.
  • Positive AFB smears suggest the presence of a possible mycobacterial infection. In the case of a positive AFB culture, the mycobacterium that is causing your symptoms is identified, and your doctor receives information about how resistant it may be to treatment. A positive AFB smear or culture obtained many weeks after the initiation of medication therapy may indicate that the treatment is ineffective and that it is necessary to modify it. It also indicates that you are still likely to be contagious and can spread the mycobacteria to others by coughing or sneezing, among other methods. In the case of an AFB smear or culture, a negative result indicates that you do not have an AFB infection or that the mycobacteria were not present in the material tested (which is why multiple samples are often collected). If you have tuberculosis, the infection may be in a different place of your body, and a new sort of body sample may be required to diagnose you. It suggests that your tuberculosis is responding to medication therapy and that you are no longer contagious if your culture comes back negative many weeks following treatment. To effectively treat tuberculosis when it is active, a lengthy course of several medicines is required. Even if they are asymptomatic, people with inactive (latent) infections can be treated with a single medicine in order to limit the chance of developing an active infection in the future
  • And Yes. There is a sort of tuberculosis infection that is concealed (latent). A small number of humans have been exposed to the bacterium, but their bodies’ immune systems have limited it to only a few of their cells, and they are no longer active. People who have latent tuberculosis infections are not unwell, and they are not contagious, yet the germs are still present and living in their bodies. If people with latent infections were examined, the vast majority would test positive for tuberculosis. 90% of patients with latent tuberculosis infection will never develop active tuberculosis illness, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). If, on the other hand, the patient’s immune system is impaired, the likelihood of progression to active illness increases significantly. Those who have active tuberculosis may not have any symptoms at first. Early symptoms of tuberculosis may be subtle, and if the infection has spread outside of the lungs to organs such as the kidneys and bones, the disease may already be advanced by the time symptoms become noticeable. Both indicate resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis that can be difficult to treat, but XDR (eXtremely drug resistant) TB is resistant to a greater number of drug therapies. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the United States and the World Health Organization, M. tuberculosis is classified as XDR TB if it is resistant to all three injectable’second-line’ treatments, plus any fluoroquinolone and at least one of three injectable ‘third-line’ medications (amikacin, kanamycin, or capreomycin). International medical experts are closely monitoring the spread of XDR TB, and measures are being implemented in the hope of limiting its spread. Direct observed therapy (DOT) ensures that patients are taking their medications and completing the prescribed treatment regimen for the required amount of time. Instead of being treated with one or two treatments for 7-10 days as is the case with other bacterial illnesses, tuberculosis (TB) must be treated with two or more drugs for several months
  • This is only the marketing term for a quick diagnostic PCR test. Because it is the most often utilized, it is conceivable that your doctor or healthcare provider will refer to it by its proper name rather than using the term “quick test.”
You might be interested:  How Did Merchants Most Likely Influence Medieval Culture

The following tests are available on this site: tuberculosis skin testing, antibiotic susceptibility testing, bacterial wound culture, sputum culture, bacterial body fluid testing, and adenosine deaminase testing. Conditions: Diseases such as tuberculosis, non-tuberculous mycobacteria infections, meningitis and encephalitis, lung diseases such as HIV/AIDS, Septic Arthritis, wound and skin infections are all treated in this clinic. TB-Related Websites Located Elsewhere On The InternetHPA, TB-Related Websites

Test Details

Test Mnemonic:
Specimen Requirements:
Collection: Collect specimens in a sterile, leak-proof container.It is recommended to collect 3 sputum specimens to diagnose tuberculosis, preferable volume5ml. For sputum collection, use the sputum collection kit. Collect complete first morning urine for AFB culture.Specimens for testing: Sputum, respiratory sources, gastric aspirates, feces, autopsy sources, abscesses, skin lesions, urine samples. Swabs are not recommended for optimal recovery of AFB.
Container: Sterile containers
Minimum Volume: Sputum – 1ml; Urine- first morning collection (30ml) for optimum sensitivity
Storage/Transport: Transport to the laboratory as soon as possible after collection. Refrigerate specimens if transport is delayed. Deliver gastric aspirates as soon as possible due to pH changes
Stability: 72 hours
Causes for Rejection: More than three samples per week submitted on the same patient (respiratory sources only), leaking container, insufficient quantity, more than two feces per week. Specimen container unlabeled or labeled incorrectly. No date and time of collection on requisition form.
Reference Range: No Mycobacteria isolated
Turnaround Time: Samples are processed 5 days per week. Smear is reported the day of processing; positive cultures are reported when growth and negative cultures are held 6 weeks. Cultures are incubated for 6 weeks.
Methodology: Acid fast smear, culture for the isolation and identification of Mycobacterium species and antimicrobial susceptibility testing when appropriate
Performed: Clinical Microbiology
Synonyms: AFB Culture; Culture, AFB; Respiratory AFB Culture; AFB Culture, Sputum; TB Culture; AFB CUlture, Urine; AFB Culture, Feces
Clinical Indication: Cultivation of Mycobacterium spp. from non-sterile sources or ifMycobacterium tuberculosisor other Mycobacteria spp. suspected.
Patient Preparation: Productive cough
CPT 4 Code: 87116 – culture, 87206 – smear, 87015 – concentration, additional if indicated
Note: The first positive AFB smear or culture for acid-fast bacilli from respiratory sources is a critical value and the LIP is notified.It is recommended to collect sputum samples 8-24 hours apart and the first morning urine for optimal recovery.The first positive smear from respiratory sources with AFB is considered a critical value.
When ordering tests for which Medicare or Medicaid reimbursement will be sought, physicians should only order tests that are medically necessary for the diagnosis or treatment of the patient. Components of the organ or disease panels may be ordered individually. The diagnostic information must substantiate all tests ordered and must be in the form of an ICD-10 code or its verbal equivalent.

What is the role of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) cultures in the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB)?

Bacterial Wound Culture, Bacterial Sputum Culture, Bacterial Body Fluid Testing, Adenosine Deaminase Testing, and Bacterial Body Fluid Testing are all available on this site. Conditions: Diseases such as tuberculosis, non-tuberculous mycobacteria infections, meningitis and encephalitis, lung diseases such as HIV/AIDS, Septic Arthritis, wound and skin infections are all treated at this facility. Additionally, there are websites that are related to tuberculosis (TB).

Acid Fast Bacilli (AFB), Blood Culture

One AFB blood culture must be obtained every 24 hours for the course of the study. The collect times should be one minute apart when ordering multiple blood culture tests, regardless of the technology being used.

Test Name Alias

Culture Tuberculosis | 8849 | AFB Blood Culture | TB Culture | Mycobactria Culture | MTB | Tuberculosis

Interface Order Alias

The organisms Nocardia and allied species of aerobic actinomycetes grow well on mycobacterial medium, making the use of AFB culture when infection with this group of organisms is suspected.

IconsPhotos

Read InstructionsCarefully BACTEC MycoF Vial Preferred Sodium Heparin Acceptable Lithium Heparin Acceptable

Collection Instructions

Whole blood or bone marrow specimens are acceptable. BACTEC MycoF is included within the following container(s): It is preferable to use a vial rather than a green top (Sodium Heparin) (Lithium Heparin) 5 mLM is the preferred volume to collect. 3 mLC is the maximum volume that may be collected. ollection Instructions:

  • Disinfect the bottles or tubes with a CHG swab stick once they have been cleaned. Discard the plastic seal from the bottle and soak the rubber lid in warm water before allowing it to air dry. Prepare the venipuncture site on the patient by opening the vein.
  • Continue to hold the applicator in a downward position
  • Avoid touching the sponge
  • Pinch the ampule once to break it apart. By gently pushing the sponge against the treatment region, you should hear a popping sound. Saturate the sponge with CHG. Rub the treatment area with a vigorous back and forth motion for 30 seconds.
  • Open the packet and saturate the bottle/tube top with one swab stick to prepare the bottle for use. By thoroughly cleaning the patient’s arm back and forth for 30 seconds with a second swab stick, prepare the arm for the procedure. If a second set of cultures has been requested, the third swab stick can be used to prepare the patient for the second set of cultures.

Betadine applicator for children 2 months of age and younger.

  • Hold the applicator in a downward position
  • Do not contact the tip
  • Pinch the ampule once to break it. You should be able to hear a pop. Start in the middle of the targeted puncture location and work your way outward in concentric rings. Do not return to the beginning place
  • Instead, move forward.

Allow for natural drying. Apply the tourniquet 3 to 4 inches above the puncture site for no more than 1 minute, depending on the severity of the injury. When it comes to painting youngsters, the use of a tourniquet is not always acceptable. Venipuncture should be performed in the sequence of the draw. Take the tourniquet off. Clean gauze should be placed over the puncture site and direct pressure should be applied. Bottles should be gently inverted 8-10 times to prevent clotting. Label the bottles at the bedside (or with the patient) with the following information: patient information, date and time of collection, and the source information that is necessary.

Place the label vertically at the top of the bottle, so that the bar code on the bottle remains visible.

Blood draw frequency and timing: The vast majority of bacteremia cases are discovered by collecting two or three sets of blood from different sites (veins).

As an alternative, a single blood culture may miss the presence of bacteremia and make it difficult to determine the clinical significance of particular organisms.

Pediatrics in general: Unless there is a suspicion of subacute bacterial endocarditis, only one blood culture is taken. Notify Microbiology if you suspect a case of any of the following:

  1. If Brucella, Mycobacterium (AFB), Histoplasma, or any fungal or odd organism is suspected, contact your doctor immediately.

The line should not be used to acquire specimens for regular blood cultures. When it comes to determining a diagnosis, cultures collected by a line draw might be deceptive. If a line-related sepsis is suspected, consulting with an Infectious Disease specialist may be beneficial; line draws should be used only to detect the presence of colonization of a line in the ideal situation. A physician’s order should be sought to collect one set of blood cultures peripherally in order to identify if the infection is real bacteremia or if the line has been contaminated before getting a sample.

Specimen Transport Temperature

For regular blood cultures, do not take specimens from the line. When it comes to determining a diagnosis, cultures collected by a line draw can be deceitful. If a line-related sepsis is suspected, an Infectious Disease consult may be helpful; line draws should be used solely to determine the existence of colonization of a line in the ideal situation. In addition, clearing a line before drawing a sample will not destroy all of the germs within that line; consequently, a physician’s order should be acquired to take one set of blood cultures peripherally to evaluate whether the infection is genuine bacteremia or a result of line contamination.

Test Frequency

The culture was incubated for 42 days.

Reference Range

There was no evidence of Mycobacterium.

Performing Department

MICROBIOLOGY

Performing Department Laboratory Location

Grand Rapids, Michigan-based Spectrum Health Regional Laboratory

Methodology

System for Automated Blood Cultures

Beaker LOINC

System for Automated Blood Culture

Additional Information

PolicyTech Procedure 9953 (PolicyTech Procedure 9953)

Beaker Names

AFB BLOOD CULTURE is the name of the procedure in a beaker. AFB Blood Culture Beaker Display Name: AFB Blood Culture AFB BLOOD CULTURE IS THE NAME OF THE BEAKER TEST. THE NAME OF THE BEAKER TEST REPORT IS:AFB Blood Culture.

Beaker Synonyms

There isn’t a synonym on file.

Beaker Location, Container and Temperature

Microbiology at BW: AFB BLOOD CULTURE BOTTLE (Preferred)-Ambient Microbiology at BW: BW MICROBIOLOGY: AEROBIC/ANEROBIC CULT BOTTLES – BLD CULT BOTTLES (Acceptable) -There is no temperature.

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *