- 1 Elsevier – Patient Education │ Culture and Sensitivity Testing
- 2 What is being tested?
- 3 What kind of sample is taken?
- 4 How do I collect samples at home?
- 5 How do I prepare for this test?
- 6 How are the results reported?
- 7 What do the results mean?
- 8 Questions to ask your health care provider
- 9 Summary
- 10 Sensitivity Analysis
- 11 Antibiotic Sensitivity Test: MedlinePlus Medical Test
- 12 What is it used for?
- 13 Why do I need an antibiotic sensitivity test?
- 14 What happens during an antibiotic sensitivity test?
- 15 Will I need to do anything to prepare for the test?
- 16 Are there any risks to the test?
- 17 What do the results mean?
- 18 Is there anything else I need to know about an antibiotic sensitivity test?
- 19 References
- 20 Culture and Sensitivity Testing
- 21 Urine Culture And Sensitivity Test – About, Preparation, Test Results & More
- 22 what is urine culture test?
- 23 why do i need urine culture test?
- 24 reason to take urine culture and sensitivity test
- 25 what other tests might i have along with urine culture test?
- 26 what do my test results mean?
- 27 how is urine culture test done?
- 28 does urine culture test pose any risk?
- 29 what might affect my test results?
- 30 sample required?
- 31 how do i prepare for urine culture test?
- 32 portea at-home urine culture and sensitivity test in top location include:
- 33 Understanding results of Urine culture and sensitivity
- 34 Conclusion
- 35 Culture and Sensitivity
- 36 Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Isolates
- 37 Interpreting Susceptibility Results
- 38 Culture and Sensitivity
- 39 Introduction
- 40 History and Scientific Foundations
- 41 WORDS TO KNOW
- 42 Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing
- 43 Applications
- 44 Impacts and Issues
- 45 GERMAN PHYSICIAN ROBERT KOCH (1843–1910)
- 46 IN CONTEXT: REAL-WORLD RISKS
- 47 BIBLIOGRAPHY
Elsevier – Patient Education │ Culture and Sensitivity Testing
Your health care professional will employ culture and sensitivity testing to do the following:
- If you are experiencing signs of an infection, you can assist in the diagnosis. Determine a specific therapy so that you can recover more quickly
What is being tested?
A tissue sample or fluid sample will be taken from your body and tested in a lab to see if germs will develop in the sample. This test is performed by a health care practitioner (culture). Any bacteria that develop from the culture will be tested against a number of medications in order to determine which medication is the most effective (sensitivity testing). For example, in the case of a bacterial illness, numerous different types of antibiotic drugs may be examined.
What kind of sample is taken?
An experiment with a culture can be carried out on a number of samples taken from the body, such as:
- Blood. When collecting samples from the body, two samples are normally taken from two separate locations on the body. These samples are taken by putting a needle into a blood artery
- Urine is another type of sample. A urine sample is taken in a germ-free (sterile) container that has been given by the lab for your convenience. You can collect a clean-catch sample at your convenience, either at home or in the lab. A sterile wipe to clean your vagina or penis in preparation for collecting a clean-catch sample may be given to you by your health care practitioner. Lung secretions may also be given to you (sputum). In most cases, this is done by having you cough into a disposable sterile container given to you by the lab
- Wound and soft tissue. A sample is often obtained by swabbing the fluid that is flowing from your wound
- However, this is not always the case.
How do I collect samples at home?
- It is possible that you will be requested to collect a urine sample at your residence. The urine sample must be taken in such a manner that the bacteria that is constantly present on the skin (the natural flora) does not enter the sample and cause contamination. When collecting your sample, make certain that you do the following:
- You should make use of the materials and instructions that you obtained from the lab
- Make sure that you only collect urine in the sterile cup that you got from the lab. You should avoid allowing any toilet paper or stool (feces) to go into the cup. You should keep the sample refrigerated until you can return it to the lab. Return the sample to the lab in accordance with the instructions.
- It is possible that you will be requested to collect a sputum sample at your residence. It is critical to collect sputum from the lungs rather than saliva from the lips. This can be accomplished by taking several calm, deep breaths, followed by a vigorous coughing motion to expel mucus from the lungs. If there are any additional particular instructions for collecting the sputum, your health care practitioner will inform you of them. When you go to collect your sample, you may be requested to do the following:
- Prior to obtaining a sputum sample, refrain from eating or drinking anything. Before taking the sample, rinse your mouth with water to reduce the possibility of contamination.
How do I prepare for this test?
According to the type of fluid or tissue that is being cultured, the procedure for preparing for the test will differ. Follow the instructions given to you by your health-care professional.
How are the results reported?
Your bacteria test results will be presented as either positive or negative depending on the findings of your test.
- The outcome of your test is considered positive if a sufficient number of bacteria grow from your culture. It is possible that your test result will be recorded as contaminated if a large number of distinct bacteria grow from your culture. It is possible that the test will need to be repeated. In the event that no bacteria grow from your culture after 24–48 hours, your test result is deemed negative.
What do the results mean?
It is possible that the findings will be negative, which means:
- In the absence of an infection, it is doubtful that you have one. If you continue to have symptoms, your test may be repeated.
If the results are in favor, it indicates that the following: The results of sensitivity testing inform your health-care practitioner about the medications that should be used to treat your infection. Consult with your health-care practitioner about the significance of your results.
Questions to ask your health care provider
Inquire with your health-care practitioner or the department that will be performing the test about the following:
- When will my test results be available
- What method will I use to obtain my findings
- I’m not sure what my treatment choices are. What more testing will I require
- What will be my next actions
- Once my results are ready, I’ll contact you. The procedure for receiving my findings is as follows: I’m not sure what my treatment alternatives are. In addition, what more tests do I require
- And what are my next actions
This material is not meant to be a substitute for the advice provided to you by your health care professional. Make an appointment with your health-care practitioner to address any concerns you may have.
The process of sensitivity analysis, also known as susceptibility testing, assists your doctor in determining the most effective antibiotic to use in the treatment of an infection caused by a microbe. An infection is caused by organisms such as bacteria or fungus that infiltrate your body and produce an infection. Strict sensitivity analysis is a type of test that is used to measure the “sensitivity” of bacteria to an antibacterial agent. It also influences the drug’s capacity to kill germs in the presence of the bacterium.
In order to select the most appropriate antibiotic therapy for an illness and to monitor changes in bacterial resistance to antibiotics, doctors employ antibiograms (sensitivity testing).
A large number of microorganisms are resistant to commonly used antibiotics.
In order to swiftly evaluate whether or not bacteria are resistant to specific medications, sensitivity analysis is an important tool to have.
- It is known as susceptibility testing. It is used to assist your doctor in determining the most effective antibiotic to use while treating an infection caused by a pathogen. Infecting microorganisms are organisms such as bacteria or fungus that infiltrate your body and cause an infection to develop there. Strict sensitivity analysis is a type of test that is used to measure the “sensitivity” of bacteria to an antimicrobial. It also has an impact on the drug’s capacity to destroy the germs it encounters. As a result of the test, your doctor will be able to assess which medications are likely to be the most effective in treating your infection. SENSITIVITY TESTING is used by doctors to evaluate the appropriate antibiotic therapy for an illness as well as to monitor changes in bacterial resistance to antibiotics. You need both of these to be successful in your medical treatment. In many cases, standard antibiotics are no longer effective against the bacterium. Thus, the medicine is unable to eliminate the bacterium. In order to swiftly evaluate whether or not bacteria are resistant to specific medications, sensitivity analysis is a valuable approach to employ. Infections that are resistant to antibiotics include those that include:
If your infection does not react to therapy, your doctor may perform a sensitivity analysis for you. This can assist your doctor in determining whether or not the bacterium that is causing your infection has acquired a resistance to antibiotics. This allows your doctor to assess which medication would be the most successful in treating the illness.
The first step in sensitivity analysis is to collect a bacterial sample. This sample will be obtained by your doctor by taking a sample from the affected region. Your doctor can take a sample from any spot that seems to be infected. Samples may be obtained from the following sources:
- Blood, urine, and sputum (spit) were found inside the cervix, as well as a pus-filled wound.
It will be sent to a laboratory, where it will be distributed on a particular growth surface, according to your doctor’s instructions. The bacterium that has been produced is referred to as a culture, and the bacteria in the culture will continue to develop and proliferate. The bacteria will form colonies, which are big groupings of bacteria that will be treated to a variety of antibiotics at the same time. The antibiotics can cause these colonies to become sensitive, resistant, or intermediate in their response:
- They are susceptible if the medicine is present and prevents them from growing. As a result, the antibiotic is effective against the microorganisms in question. The term “resistant” refers to the bacteria’s ability to multiply even while the antibiotic is present. This is a symptom of an antibiotic that is ineffective. Intermediatemeans that a greater dose of the antibiotic is required to keep the bacteria from growing
There are very few dangers connected with this test. Blood collection is associated with a modest number of dangers. As an example, you may experience minor discomfort or a little pinching feeling during the blood draw. Following the removal of the needle, you may have throbbing. The following are rare dangers associated with collecting a blood sample:
- Hematoma (a bruise where blood pools under the skin)
- Infection (which is typically avoided by cleaning the area before the needle is put)
- Heavy bleeding (which should be reported to your doctor if it continues for an extended length of time)
- Numbness or tingling after the procedure.
Your doctor will inform you of any possible dangers related with the sample you have provided. The findings of the antibiotic testing and growth of the bacterial cultures can be analyzed by your doctor after they have been tested with antibiotics. These results might assist you in determining the most effective antibiotic to use to treat your infection.
Your doctor would most likely pick a medicine from the report that was classified as “susceptible,” which means that it has the ability to combat the bacteria in question.
If there are no known medications available in the susceptible category, you will be prescribed a drug from the “intermediate” group. If you’re taking a medicine from the intermediate category, you’ll almost certainly have to take it in a greater dose and for a longer length of time. You may potentially encounter adverse effects from your medicine.
It is not recommended to take an antibiotic to treat your infection if germs have developed resistance to it. If many antibiotics have been demonstrated to be efficient in eradicating the bacteria that is causing your infection, your doctor will decide which one is the most effective. If a bacteria is “resistant” to all of the antibiotics that are typically used to treat an illness, you may be prescribed a combination of antibiotics. This combination of medications is intended to operate in concert to combat the bacterium.
Additionally, you will most likely be required to take the combination of medications for a lengthy period of time.
It is not recommended to take an antibiotic to treat your ailment if bacteria has developed resistance to it. If many antibiotics have been demonstrated to be efficient in eradicating the microbe that is causing your infection, your doctor will decide which medicine is the best option for your situation. If a bacteria is “resistant” to all of the antibiotics that are normally used to treat an illness, you may be prescribed a combination of antibiotics. In order to combat the germs, this combination of medications is intended to function together.
In addition to being more expensive, drugs in this category may require to be administered intravenously (through a needle in your vein). In addition, you will almost certainly be required to take the combination of medications for a lengthy period of time as well.
Antibiotic Sensitivity Test: MedlinePlus Medical Test
Antibiotics are medications that are used to treat bacterial infections. Antibiotics are classified into several categories. Each kind is exclusively effective against a certain bacterial species. In order to determine which antibiotic will be most successful in treating your infection, you need undergo an antibiotic sensitivity test. The test can also be useful in the discovery of antibiotic-resistant illnesses and the development of new treatments. Antibiotic resistance occurs when regular antibiotics become less efficient or completely useless against particular germs in the body.
Antibiotic susceptibility testing, sensitivity testing, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing are all terms used to refer to the same thing.
What is it used for?
antibiotics are drugs that are used to treat bacterial infections Antibiotics are classified into several categories. Each kind is only effective against a certain type of bacteria. In order to determine which antibiotic will be most successful in treating your infection, you need undergo an antibiotic sensitivity test. The test can also be useful in the discovery of antibiotic-resistant illnesses and the development of new treatments for these conditions. Drug resistance occurs when regular antibiotics become less or no longer work against a particular strain of bacteria.
Antibiotic susceptibility testing, sensitivity testing, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing are all terms that are used to refer to the test.
Why do I need an antibiotic sensitivity test?
If you have an infection that has been demonstrated to be resistant to antibiotics or that is generally difficult to treat, you may require this test to determine antibiotic resistance. There are several of them, including TB, MRSA, and C. diff. If you have a bacterial or fungal illness that is not responding to normal therapies, you may also require this test.
What happens during an antibiotic sensitivity test?
Infections that have been found to be resistant to antibiotics or are otherwise difficult to treat may need the use of this test. Tuberculosis, MRSA, and C are examples of such diseases. diff. A bacterial or fungal illness that is not responding to normal therapies may also necessitate the use of this procedure.
- In order to get a blood sample from you, a health care practitioner will insert a tiny needle into a vein in your arm. Following the insertion of the needle, a tiny quantity of blood will be taken and placed in a test tube or vial.
- A tiny needle will be used to obtain a blood sample from a vein in your arm by a health-care provider to evaluate your condition. In a test tube or vial will be inserted a needle and a little amount of blood will be drawn
- This will be collected and stored for later use.
- A tiny needle will be used to draw blood from a vein in your arm by a medical practitioner. Following the insertion of the needle, a little volume of blood will be collected and placed in a test tube or vial
- A tiny needle will be used to draw blood from a vein in your arm by a health-care provider. Following the insertion of the needle, a little quantity of blood will be collected in a test tube or vial.
- It is necessary for your health-care professional to put an instrument into your mouth to collect samples from the back of your throat and tonsils
- This is called a swab biopsy.
Will I need to do anything to prepare for the test?
For an antibiotic sensitivity test, there are no additional preparations that must be made.
Are there any risks to the test?
Having a blood culture test is quite safe and poses very little risk. You may have some little discomfort or bruising at the site where the needle was inserted, but the majority of these side effects will go rapidly. A throat culture carries little danger, however it may cause some pain or gagging in some people. Having a urine, sputum, or wound culture performed poses no danger.
What do the results mean?
The following are the most common ways in which results are described:
- Susceptible. The treatment that was tested either prevented the development of the bacteria or fungus that was causing your infection or killed it. It is possible that the medication will be an excellent choice for therapy. Intermediate. The medication may be effective at a larger dose
- Nevertheless, it is resistant. The medication did not prevent the growth of the bacteria or fungus that was causing the infection, nor did it destroy it. A bad choice for therapy is this
- It is not recommended.
If you have any questions about your results, you should speak with your health-care provider about them.
Is there anything else I need to know about an antibiotic sensitivity test?
Increased antibiotic resistance has been attributed in large part to erroneous antibiotic administration. Make certain that you are using antibiotics correctly by doing the following:
- Taking all of your medications exactly as advised by your healthcare practitioner
- Antibiotics are only prescribed for bacterial illnesses. They are ineffective against viruses such as colds and flu.
Understand laboratory testing, reference ranges, and how to interpret data in more detail.
- ML Bayot and BN Bragg. StatPearls. Treasure Island (Florida) is a tropical paradise. In January 2020, StatPearls Publishing will publish Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has further information. Available from: FDA: United States Food and Drug Administration
- Atlanta: United States Department of Health and Human Services
- About Antibiotic Resistance
- Combating Antibiotic Resistance
- . Available from: Khan ZA, Siddiqui MF, Park S. Silver Spring (MD): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
- . Methods of Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing: Current and Emerging Technologies Diagnostics are performed (Basel). 3rd of May, 2019
- 9(2):49 . Lab Tests Online is a source for this information. The American Association for Clinical Chemistry (AACC) publishes this journal from 2001 until 2020. Laboratory Testing for Antibiotic Susceptibility
- Is available from: Lab Tests Online. The American Association for Clinical Chemistry (AACC) publishes this journal from 2001 until 2020. Bacterial Wound Culture is available from the following sources: Lab Tests Online. The American Association for Clinical Chemistry (AACC) publishes this journal from 2001 until 2020. It is possible to order bacteria-specific sputum cultures online from Lab Tests Online. The American Association for Clinical Chemistry (AACC) publishes this journal from 2001 until 2020. This test is available from the following sources: Lab Tests Online. The American Association for Clinical Chemistry (AACC) publishes this journal from 2001 until 2020. Urine Culture
- Can be obtained at the Mayo Clinic. The Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research was established in 1998 and will continue to operate until 2020. Consumer Health & Safety: The Merck Manual Consumer Version is available from the following sources: Merck Manual Consumer Version. Antibiotics: Are you abusing them? Overview of Antibiotics
- . Available from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Kenilworth (NJ): MerckCo., Inc., 2020. Overview of Antibiotics
- . Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD. Blood Tests are available through UF Health, the University of Florida’s health care system (UF Health). The University of Florida Health, Gainesville, FL, has published a summary of sensitivity analyses that can be found at:
- UW Health. Madison, WI, has published a summary of antibiotic sensitivity tests that can be found at:
- UW Health. The University of Wisconsin Hospitals
Culture and Sensitivity Testing
Dana Krempels, Ph.D., of the University of Miami’s Biology Department contributed to this article. The House Rabbit Society of Miami is a non-profit organization dedicated to the welfare of house rabbits. Identifying which medicines will be successful against the specific pathogen (i.e., disease-causing agent) causing the problem is crucial if your bunny is suffering from an infection of any type, from an upper respiratory illness to a jaw abscess to a urinary tract infection. As a result, (1) the bacteria (or other pathogen) must be identified, and (2) the medications that are most efficient at preventing the development of the bacteria (or pathogen) must be discovered.
Bacteria are often recognized in contemporary laboratories using genome characterization, which involves determining the properties of the DNA and RNA of a sample species’ DNA and RNA.
It may, however, be essential to grow the bacteria in order to do a “old-fashioned” culture and susceptibility test if more than identification is required, and if an antibiotic that is generally successful against a particular bacterium strain is ineffective.
An infected tissue sample or discharge from the infected area will be collected by your rabbit-experienced veterinarian, who will send it in a special culture tube to a licensed laboratory for testing (the capsule of an abscess is the best location from which to collect a sample because the internal pus often contains only dead bacteria that will not grow in culture).
As soon as a significant population of bacteria has been established on the plate in the shape of a “lawn,” the technicians will proceed to undertake two major procedures:
- There are a variety of procedures used to do this, including analysis of lawn features (color, texture, growth pattern, etc.), gram-staining, microscopic inspection, metabolic needs “footprints,” and even DNA sequencing. Bacterial species often isolated from rabbit illnesses include Pasteurella multocida, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Staphylococcus aureus, and numerous others
- But, depending on the location and source of the infection, just about anything might crop up.
There are a variety of procedures used to do this, including analysis of grass features (color, texture, growth pattern, etc.), gram-staining, microscopic inspection, metabolic requirement”footprints,” and even DNA sequencing. Bacterial species often isolated from rabbit illnesses include Pasteurella multocida, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Staphylococcus aureus, and numerous others; but, depending on the location and source of the infection, just about anything might be discovered.
- Alternatively, tiny disks of filter paper or agar loaded with various kinds of antibiotics can be placed on top of the bacterial lawn. A few days or so after the bacteria are added to the plate, the plate is checked to see whether or not bacterial growth is hindered (or not) by the antibiotics on each disk.
- When bacteria are not present, a clear, circular “halo” (officially known as a “plaque,” or zone of inhibition) will emerge around the antibiotic disk, showing that the disk is not infected with the antibiotic. Because the antibiotic has hindered their growth and/or killed them, this specific antibiotic should be effective against the infection that your rabbit is suffering from. The presence of a hazy plaque shows that not all of the germs in the region surrounding the disk have been eliminated. INTERMEDIATE: In other words, certain individuals of the bacterial population are susceptible to a specific antibiotic, but others are genetically resistant to its effects on the population. Because sensitive individuals of the bacterial population are likely to be killed when an antibiotic with “intermediate” sensitivity is employed, it is expected that only the resistant members will survive, and this will result in the selection of a population resistant to that specific antibiotic. A RESISTANT BACTERIA:In this situation, the filter paper will have no discernible plaque surrounding it, indicating that the bacteria is continuing to grow normally despite the presence of the antibiotic. It is quite likely that an antibiotic that does not produce plaque will be ineffective against the bacteria that is causing your bunny’s sickness.
The bacteria on the Petri dish in the image above (which was shamelessly lifted from the University of Wisconsin at Madison online Textbook of Bacteriology, which provides a more detailed explanation of the appearance of the halos used in bacterial identification) are strongly and moderately inhibited by most antibiotics (which have been impregnated on circles of filter paper), but are unaffected by the antibiotics on the disks located at 5 o’clock and 9 o’clock on the dish.
Your veterinarian will receive the results from the lab within three to seven days of receiving the sample, which will include the bacterium’s species and the spectrum of medications to which the bacteria is susceptible (S), resistant (R), and intermediate (I) in response (I).
Making a decision on which antibiotic to use and how to use it It is important to remember that not all medicines are safe for rabbits!
Make certain that your bunny is examined by a veterinarian who is experienced with the unique medical requirements of rabbits.
The fluoroquinolones (e.g., Baytril and ciprofloxacin), sulfa antibiotics of various types, chloramphenicol, aminoglycoside antibiotics (e.g., gentamycin, tobramycin, amikacin-though these are not recommended as first-line therapy because they can be toxic to the kidneys), and injectible Penicillin-G Procaine are all examples of antibiotics that are generally considered safe for rabbit It is vital that the right rabbit-safe antibiotic for the specific infection be given and provided for a period of time sufficient to allow the bunny’s immune system to overcome the infection (with a little bit of help from the antibiotics).
In certain cases, it may take many weeks on antibiotics (and possibly a combination of two different antibiotics!) to get the disease under control completely.
If left to its own ways, almost any infection has the potential to evolve into a far more serious issue.
- Never skip a dosage
- Never give less than the recommended dose
- And to continue the treatment for the whole time period prescribed by your veterinarian, even if the symptoms disappear
- It is possible to breed resistant strains of bacteria by stopping treatment too soon or giving too low a dose. This is done by killing only the bacteria that are most sensitive to the drug(s) you are using and leaving only the more resistant individuals behind to serve as the progenitors of the next generation and to pass on their genetic resistance tothe sensitive members of the bacterial population. It is not difficult to understand how the abuse of antibiotics might result in serious consequences. What’s the point of a Culture and Sensitivity Test, anyway? There is one word of warning. If a rabbit is found to have “snuffles” or another illness, some veterinarians who are not familiar with rabbits but are familiar with cats and dogs will declare that the condition is caused byPasteruellamultocida after only one examination. It is important not to be misled into believing that a bacterial species such as Pasteurella is the source of a rabies infection unless and until the diagnosis has been verified with a bacterial culture and sensitivity test. It is not only that some strains of Pasteurella are resistant to commonly prescribed antibiotics such as Trimethoprim sulfa, Baytril (enrofloxacin), and even ciprofloxacin, but infections in rabbits can also be caused by even more resistant strains of bacteria, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bordetellabronchiseptica, Staphylococcus aureus, and others. A culture and sensitivity test to positively identify the pathogen would not only delay your rabbit’s return to good health, but you will also be wasting your money by treating him with an antibiotic that is ineffective against the specific strain of bacteria that he is infected with. If no bacteria grow at all, it’s conceivable that the rabbit has a fungal infection, which is a fungus that grows on the skin. If this is the case, antibiotics are likely to make the situation worse rather than better. Consequently, if the culture and sensitivity test results for bacteria are negative, it is critical to search for fungal species as a backup measure. The treatment of illnesses caused by fungus necessitates the use of completely different drugs. Follow-up: Getting to the Root of the Problem It’s a good idea to undertake some detective work and look for probable reasons once an illness has been brought under control, especially if the condition is chronic. For example, dental disorders such as molar spurs or molar roots extending into the sinuses can result in runny eyes and nose, as well as jaw abscesses and tooth decay. This is more frequent in older rabbits, but all rabbits should have their molars examined on a regular basis for spurs, which are not only uncomfortable, but also potentially deadly. A tear duct flush can occasionally temporarily alleviate runny eye problems, but it is always advisable to have a comprehensive check for molar problems done, including visual inspection for spurs and even radiography to detect molar root infections, before treating the condition. Your bunny’s greatest chances for a long, healthy, infection-free life include good care, a nutritious diet, a pleasant, tranquil habitat, and your ongoing awareness for issues. In the event that none of these measures prove effective, it’s comforting to know that drugs are available that may be administered safely, appropriately, and always under the guidance of a knowledgeable veterinarian who is familiar with rabbits. Rabbit Health
- HouseRabbit Society of Miami, FL
- Return to the main page.
Urine Culture And Sensitivity Test – About, Preparation, Test Results & More
In order to cultivate and identify organisms that may cause a urinary tract infection, a urine culture test is conducted. The organisms that are grown and identified are primarily bacteria and fungi (UTI). In most cases, urine is sterile and devoid of any organisms while it is stored in the bladder. Compared to adult males, ladies and children are more likely than adults to have urinary tract infections. It is possible to pick an appropriate antibiotic by performing an antibiotic sensitivity or susceptibility test against certain types of bacteria or fungus that are the source of any ailment.
This test is necessary because some types of bacteria or fungi are resistant to specific antibiotics and infections, and they will not be cured by therapy with those drugs or infections.
what is urine culture test?
A Urine Culture test is a simple test that is performed to determine whether or not there are any sorts of bacteria present in the urine that might cause infection. However, although urine does not include any germs, microbes, or bacteria in itself, it is the bacterium that enters the Urethra from the Urinary Tract that causes the illness that is known as UTI, or Urinary Tract Infection. The purpose of a urine culture test is to determine whether or not there are any fungus or bacteria in the urinary system and to offer suggestions for drugs that may be used to inhibit the growth of these organisms on an urgent basis.
why do i need urine culture test?
A urine Culture test is often recommended by a doctor if you’ve been experiencing pain when peeing, producing less urine, or experiencing frequent urination symptoms. If this continues for an extended period of time (maybe 3-4 days) and the symptoms do not improve, the doctor may recommend a Urine Culture and Sensitivity Test to identify whether or not there is an infection and the severity of the illness. High fever and abrupt shivers in the body are common symptoms experienced by people who have higher levels of urine infection in their bodies.
The use of urine culture and sensitivity is used to detect and test for illnesses or medical disorders that are associated with urinary tract infection in individuals who are suffering symptoms such as frequent and painful urination.
reason to take urine culture and sensitivity test
You are required to get this examination due to the symptoms listed below. The following are the general signs and symptoms of a Urinary Tract Infection:-
- Urination that is painful or difficult, with a burning feeling
- Increased frequency of urination
- Urine that smells foul, seems hazy, or is reddish in appearance
- Lower abdominal (belly) pain and pressure, as well as lower back pain I’m getting the chills
- Fever, malaise, and exhaustion without warning
what other tests might i have along with urine culture test?
In the first instance, a doctor would not request a report on a Urine Culture straight from the laboratory. In the event that a patient presents to a doctor complaining of urinary sensitivity issues, the doctor will likely order a Urine Routine test to rule out any underlying causes. A urine routine test is a collection of tests that are performed on a urine sample to determine whether or not a medical problem or disease is present. That is the first stage, and it will inform you that there is a problem; however, the Urine Culture report will show you exactly what the problem is, and it will also get you closer to finding a solution.
what do my test results mean?
A “Positive” result on the Urine Culture test indicates that a certain amount of bacteria or organisms have been discovered in the Urine Sample and that the infection is almost probably caused by these germs. The Culture report not only identifies the many types of bacteria that are present, but it also indicates their sensitivity to different antibiotics. As a result, you can tell just by looking at this data which antibiotics would be the most beneficial.
The usual range for urine culture colonies per milliliter is between 10,000 to 1,00,000 colonies per milliliter, but if it rises over 1,00,000 colonies per milliliter, it indicates that Urine Infection is widespread and that remedial measures must be implemented.
how is urine culture test done?
In order to perform the Urine Culture and Sensitivity test, the Urine Sample must be collected in a clean sterilized hygienic bottle, ideally with an empty stomach in the early hours of the morning. First and foremost, the results of the Urine Routine test are announced 14-16 hours after the test was performed. After receiving the Urine Culture report, one must wait between 48 and 72 hours for the results to be released. An employee of the laboratory will maintain a careful eye on the Urine Sample while it is held in the laboratory for 2-3 days.
In the event that no germs are detected in the urine sample, the test is regarded as negative.
The bacteria E-Coli are the most frequent bacteria that cause urinary tract infections.
does urine culture test pose any risk?
No, the Urine Culture and Sensitivity Test does not pose any danger to the patient. It just serves to assist us in getting to the base of the problem and solving it.
what might affect my test results?
When collecting the Urine Sample, extreme caution must be exercised to ensure that the urine does not come into touch with the human skin, hands, or any other source that might dilute the test totally, since this could result in a false positive. Even if the container in which the sample is taken is not sterilised or clean, it has the potential to utterly derail the report’s outcome.
Specimens of the following types: urine, Procedure for collecting specimens: Urine should be collected in the middle of the stream (not at the beginning or at the finish). Before collecting the genitals, take special care to clean them thoroughly. To obtain a sample, follow the steps outlined below:
- The first few drops of pee, or the initial few drops of urine, should be flushed down the toilet. To collect a mid-stream urine sample, place it in the sterile container supplied. It is not recommended to collect the last section of the urine or the finish of the urine stream. Cover the container with a lid. During the collecting time, store it in the refrigerator or another cold location.
There is no need for any prior preparation. For at least one hour before the test, refrain from urinating, and drink a glass of water 15-20 minutes before sample collection.
how do i prepare for urine culture test?
For the Urine test, there is no need to do any particular preparation. All you have to do is make sure that you have an empty stomach and that you are well hydrated. Ensure that you drink at least 3-4 glasses of water 10 minutes before the exam. It is critical to ensure that the urine sample obtained is from mid-stream and not at the beginning or finish of the treatment in order to obtain accurate findings.
portea at-home urine culture and sensitivity test in top location include:
Bangalore, Delhi-NCR, Chennai, Hyderabad, Kolkata, Pune, Lucknow, and Indore are some of the cities in India.
Understanding results of Urine culture and sensitivity
Inference: Urine is typically free of pathogens. However, it is possible that some contamination from skin germs will occur during the collection of the urine. So up to 10,000 colonies of bacteria per milliliter of liquid are deemed typical. A positive urinary tract infection is defined as having more than 100,000 colonies per milliliter of urine. The culture is uncertain for numbers ranging between 10,000 and 100,000 individuals. ‘* A reference range is a collection of numbers that assists a healthcare worker in interpreting the results of a medical test.
It may differ depending on the individual’s age, gender, and other characteristics. Reference ranges may also differ between laboratories in terms of valueunits, depending on the equipment used and the methodology employed to determine the reference ranges.
When there is an observation of painful pee output, a urine culture and sensitivity test is performed. This test is performed in order to discover any micro-organisms present in the body and to remove them if present.
Culture and Sensitivity
Whenever there is a suspicion of painful urine discharge, a urine culture and sensitivity test is performed. This test is performed in order to discover and destroy any microorganisms present in the body.
Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Isolates
The antimicrobial susceptibility testing is carried out on isolates that, after taking into account the body location and illness status, are suspected of playing a role in the disease process. In contrast, testing isolates that are frequent pollutants or members of the natural flora would not give helpful information and might lead to incorrect antibiotic treatment. In the event of a specific case, you are always welcome to contact the lab and request extra tests. It is possible that extra testing will incur an additional fee.
Interpreting Susceptibility Results
FIGURE 1: Plates with antibacterial dilutions in the proper concentrations. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacterial isolates is performed by the Bacteriology Section using a wide range of antimicrobial drugs. We employ antimicrobial susceptibility testing panels (see Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing Resources) that are routinely tested for antibiotic resistance depending on the bacterial species, the animal source of the isolate, and, in certain circumstances, the body region that is being tested for.
- In addition to our standard panels, we can test for sensitivity to a variety of additional medications upon request, as well as for microorganisms that are very resistant to antibiotics.
- In order to test an organism’s sensitivity to different antibiotics, there are two basic approaches that are employed.
- 1) is our favorite and most often used method of assessing antimicrobial susceptibility since it offers quantifiable data in the form of a Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) (MIC).
- As a consequence, the MIC and a qualitative result of Sensitive, Intermediate, or Resistant are supplied for results obtained using this approach.
- Zones of bacterial growth inhibition surrounding antimicrobial disks are depicted in Fig.
- (Agar containing blood MH).
- In this procedure, the bacteria of interest are grown on a solid agar plate, after which antibiotic-impregnated disks are dropped onto the surface of the plate.
2). It is then determined if the zone is sensitive, intermediate, or resistant based on the zone size. As a result, results obtained through this approach are only offered as a qualitative result of S, I, or R.
Culture and Sensitivity
Introduction History and Scientific Foundations of the Concept An example of a use for antimicrobial susceptibility testing is Issues and Consequences BIBLIOGRAPHY
In microbiology, the terms culture and sensitivity refer to laboratory techniques that allow a disease-causing microorganism to be identified and that determine which antibiotics are sensitive to (effective against) the identified microorganism. Culture and sensitivity are two terms that are used to refer to two different types of laboratory techniques. Doctors must take into consideration a plethora of critical criteria while determining the most appropriate treatment for an infectious disease.
If antibiotic treatment of the disease is appropriate, as is the case in the case of bacterial, certain fungal, and some other microbial diseases, the type of antibiotics used may be determined by factors such as ease of absorption, metabolism, ability to reach the infection site, and other factors, among other things.
It is possible that the availability of such information from laboratory testing will save lives in the future.
History and Scientific Foundations
Robert Koch, Paul Erlich, and Hans Christian Gram were among the scientists who pioneered the development of microbe culture techniques in the mid- to late 1800s. Louis Pasteur (1822–1895), a French physician and scientist, used some of these techniques to lay the groundwork for the contemporary science of infectious illness at the time. Robert Koch, a German physician who lived from 1843 to 1910, devised a technique for distinguishing distinct types of bacteria and growing pure cultures of specific bacterial types, so laying the groundwork for the science of bacteriology to be known today.
- Every case of an infectious disease must have the presence of the disease’s agent
- Otherwise, the disease cannot be treated. It is necessary to separate the agent from the host and cultivate it in vitro (pure culture) for several generations before using it. In order for the illness to be replicated, the agent must be injected into a healthy susceptible host with a pure culture of it. After the experimentally infected host has been recovered, the same agent must be retrieved again.
Gelatin was used by Koch to create a solid medium for bacterial growth, which was later modified by other scientists to incorporate a seaweed known as agar in order to maintain the media’s solid state at room temperature. The German bacteriologist Richard Julius Petri (1852–1921) devised a glass dish that is still in use today and which aids in the promotion of optimal bacterial development. Additionally, in 1877, Koch invented a procedure for dryfixing thin films of bacterial culture on glass slides, dyeing them with aniline dyes, and capturing the microscopic pictures on film, which he published in the journal Science.
The optimum medium for different kinds of bacteria vary, and the identification of a specific infection might still be a question of clinical expertise and judgment.
It was necessary for these staining procedures to rely on two characteristics of the stain: its chromogenicity (the presence of groups of atoms that produce color) and its capacity to dissolve into positively charged ions (cations) and negatively charged ions (anion) (anions).
Anionic dyes, such as eosin, interact with the cationic sections of the bacterial protein being identified, whereas cationic dyes interact with the anionic regions of the bacterial protein being identified.
WORDS TO KNOW
Gelatin was used by Koch to create a solid medium for bacterial growth, which was later modified by other scientists to incorporate a seaweed known as agar, which helped to maintain the media solid at room temperature during the experiment. The German bacteriologist Richard Julius Petri (1852–1921) devised a glass dish that is still in use today and which aids in the promotion of optimal bacterial growth in bacteria cultures. Also in 1877, Koch invented a procedure for dryfixing thin films of bacterial culture on glass slides, dyeing them with aniline dyes, and capturing the microscopic pictures on film, which he published in his journal Microscopy.
In addition to different types of media being optimum for certain types of bacteria, identification of a specific pathogen might still be a question of clinical expertise and judgment.
It was necessary for these staining procedures to rely on two characteristics of the stain: its chromogenicity (the presence of groups of atoms that produce color) and its capacity to dissolve into positively charged ions (cations) and negatively charged ions (anions) (anions).
Eosin and other anionic dyes interact with the cationic regions of the bacterial protein being identified, whereas cationic dyes have the opposite effect on cationic sections of the protein being identified.
Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing
The Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion susceptibility test, the macrotube dilution susceptibility test, and the microtube dilution test are all susceptibility tests that are used in clinical labs. Kirby-Bauer tests are performed by placing antibiotic disks over an agar plate that has been infected with the organism under investigation. At the concentrations employed in clinical trials, the extent of the zone of inhibition reveals whether or not an organism is susceptible or resistant to an antibiotic (doses).
- The least inhibitory concentration (MIC) is the lowest concentration of an antibiotic (in micrograms per milliliter of solution) that will inhibit bacterial growth in vitro, and it is inversely proportional to the concentration of the antibiotic that can be achieved in blood.
- This is a time-consuming operation.
- It is added to the card by the laboratory, and the organism is automatically spread across all of the wells.
- The antibiotics are divided into two categories: those for Gram-positive organisms and those for Gram-negative organisms.
The antibiotics for Gram-negative organisms are further divided into two categories: those that can be used in an inpatient setting and those that can be used in an outpatient setting, depending on whether the patient is in the process of being admitted to or discharged from the hospital.
The findings of MIC testing may lead to a modification in the dosage of an antibiotic to be used in therapy or the selection of a different antibiotic to treat the illness. For example, a blood-borneEscherichia coliinfection tested with ampicillin may have a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 2 mcg/ml (sensitive), which when multiplied by 2–4 times results in a potential peak level of the antibiotic in the blood of 4–8 mcg/l, which is significantly less than an intravenous representative dose from the patient of 47 mcg/mg.
With regard to the leg wound example, a higher MIC of 16 micrograms per milliliter would be associated with a peak blood concentration of 32–64 micrograms per milliliter, which might be above the range of a typical intravenous dosage of bacteria from the patient of 47 micrograms per milliliter.
In this situation, the doctor might consider increasing the ampicillin dose or using a different antibiotic to treat the patient.
Impacts and Issues
Culturing and MIC testing are both possible for the majority of bacteria-caused disorders, although not all of them are. Ear infections, sinusitis, bronchitis, and other respiratory infections, as well as viral infections, are among the illnesses for which cultures are typically not acquired. There is a significant danger of over-prescribing antibiotic therapies for such illnesses, which are likely to be inappropriate and ineffective, and there is growing need for the distribution of procedures and the development of new recommendations to address this issue.
GERMAN PHYSICIAN ROBERT KOCH (1843–1910)
Robert Koch was a pioneer in the study of bacteria, developing concepts and procedures that were later used to the discovery of the particular agents that cause TB, cholera, and anthrax. As a pioneer in microbiology and public health, Koch contributed to the passage of laws and the transformation of prevalent attitudes about cleanliness in order to avoid the spread of infectious illnesses. Koch was given the Nobel Prize in medicine in 1905 for his research on TB. Koch outlined his career purpose in the first article he authored on tuberculosis: “I have begun my research in the interests of public health, and I hope that the greatest possible advantages will accrue as a result of my efforts.” When it comes to treating older persons, the timing and selection of antibiotics might be critical.
This is because deaths and prolonged hospitalizations are reduced if the initial antibiotic treatment attacks and reduces the infecting agent.
The use of antibiotics in long-term care, on the other hand, may be inappropriate in up to 75% of cases; thus, strong minimum criteria for commencing antibiotic therapy should be established.
Overuse of fluoroquinolones has resulted in an increase in fluoroquinolone resistance in specific geographical areas as a result of this.
Newer fluoroquinolones that are active against S. pneumoniae should be kept in reserve, while other antibiotics, such as an advanced generation cephalosporin (e.g., cefotaxime), should be used as the first line of treatment.
IN CONTEXT: REAL-WORLD RISKS
As a result of the medical concerns and rising health-care expenditures connected with antibiotic resistance, a special interagency task group was established, which was entrusted with formulating effective methods to tackle the problem. The Interagency Task Force on Antimicrobial Resistance was established in 1999 and is co-chaired by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and the National Institutes of Health (NIH). It also includes the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), the Centers forMedicare and Medicaid Services (CMS, formerly the Health Care Financing Administration), the Department of Agriculture (USDA), the Department of Defense (DoD), the Department of Agriculture ( (HRSA).
A good example of a vicious circle is the overreliance on specialized antibiotics that have demonstrated in vitro (in the body) potency against specific infections when treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics would provide faster treatment while not increasing resistance to the specialized antibiotics is shown in this example.
Antibacterial Drugs; Bacterial Disease; Resistant Organisms; Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci are some of the other terms you could come across.
Books Kenneth J. Ryan and C. George Ray are co-authors of this work. Sherris Medical Microbiology: An Introduction to Infectious Disease is a textbook written by Dr. Sherris. McGraw-Hill Medical Publishers, New York, 2003. Sites on the Internet The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) is a federally funded research and development organization. In Medical Microbiology, 4th ed., Samuel Baron, ed. (April 2, 2007), the chapter “Microbiologic Examination” is included. Health Systems at the University of Virginia.