What Is A Co Culture

what is co-cultural communication? why is co-cultural communication important?

Within each civilization, there are a variety of diverse groups, each with its own set of values and customs, and each of these groups interacts in a variety of ways. Co-cultural communication is the term used to describe communication between these two groups. The way in which relationships between different cultures present themselves is intimately tied to the formal and informal institutions of that society, since these institutions influence the capacities of different groups to negotiate power and significance with one another.

Understanding and studying these relationships, as well as the mechanisms that facilitate them, may be performed via the use of the framework provided by co-cultural theory.

Having the tools to comprehend these processes is vital in today’s increasingly varied society, which is filled with people and groups that have values and ideas that are diametrically opposed to those of the majority, or at the very least those who hold the greatest amount of power.

As a result, the vast majority of research is concerned with the viewpoints and experiences of the dominant group, which is frequently not representative of other groups within a culture.

It was in the mid-1990s that co-cultural theory made its debut in the research field, serving as a framework to aid in the creation of a core set of concepts that could be used to categorize families of behavior and provide a voice to non-dominant people.

In this case, standpoint theory served as the foundation since it meant that the study would be based on real lived experiences, which, according to COLLINS (1990), allows for a focus on “privilege and punishment” among and among diverse groups of people.

Muted group theory was incorporated because it provides an explanation for the loss of voice and representation of a non-dominant group within a society.

Building on the previously mentioned theoretical concepts, ORBE (1998) developed co-cultural theory in order to aid in the identification of behavioral patterns that could explain the interactions and subsequent negotiations between “cultural differences” between non-dominant and dominant groups in the workplace.

According to ORBE, there are five fundamental concepts of co-cultural theory that should be considered:

  1. Every culture has a social hierarchy that gives certain groups more privileges than others. In most societies, groups with more privilege have a tendency to create the institutions that allow for communication to take place. The dominant group is responsible for defending and enforcing its position within society. Difficulties in advancement for non-dominant groups are caused by dominating communication mechanisms. Despite the fact that various disadvantaged groups come from a variety of different origins, their positions in society are quite similar
  2. If co-cultural theories are to function within the limitations of the dominant society, they must establish their own set of communication tactics.

There are five key elements that have an impact on the decision to pursue a particular strategy:

  1. For example, family, friends, social groupings, etc., are factors that impact and form an individual’s or group’s life experience and realities. The adaptive decisions made in response to a given event or set of circumstances are referred to as situational context. Capabilities are the physical and psychological aspects that determine a culture’s capacity to communicate
  2. They are often referred to as “ability factors.” Costs and benefits that are perceived: the advantages and drawbacks associated with various acts
  3. Aggressive, non-aggressive, and assertive communication approaches are examples of communication approaches used by individuals or groups while engaging in conversation. The activity that will result in the desired consequence is referred to as the preferred outcome. A person’s assimilation, separation, or accommodation are the three primary types of integration. Assimilation is the process of being integrated and removing any cultural disparities. In the context of culture, accommodation refers to efforts to foster and create collaborative strengths that help to retain both the dominant and non-dominant cultures. Separation refers to situations in which people make deliberate attempts to avoid developing any significant links with the dominant culture, and in many cases, with other co-cultural groups.

It is possible to develop a matrix of multiple co-cultural communication strategies by combining the desired outcomes (assimilation, separation, and accommodation) with the communication methodologies, which results in the following descriptions of the various co-cultural communication strategies: Also, see: What are the most important aspects that influence cross-cultural interaction? How do various co-cultural communication tactics differ from one another? sources:

  • Collins, P. H., et al (1990). Black feminist ideas in the context of patriarchal dominance In Black feminist thinking: Knowledge, awareness, and the politics of empowerment, 138, 221-238
  • Orbe, M., “Black feminist thought,” 138, 221-238. (1998). Culture, power, and communication are discussed in detail in the course of constructing co-cultural theory. Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, California.

Photograph courtesy of the Chattanooga School of Languages

Chapter Outline

  1. Both culture and co-culture are defined as the language, beliefs, traditions, and practices that are shared and taught by a group of people. A person’s perspective and concept of culture are important considerations. In co-culture, the perception of belonging to a group that is a component of a larger culture is expressed.
  1. Groups with which we identify are referred to as in-groups. Out-groups are groups that we consider to be distinct from us. The component of one’s self-concept that is founded on one’s belonging to a group is referred to as social identity.
  1. It is the process that happens when individuals of two or more cultures or co-cultures communicate messages in a way that is impacted by their differing cultural perspectives and symbol systems, both verbal and nonverbal, in order to achieve mutual understanding. S alience is defined as the weight that is linked to a certain person or phenomenon. Figure 2.2 depicts a model that illustrates the relationship between interpersonal relationships and intercultural communication and demonstrates that some interpersonal transactions do not contain any cultural elements while others are almost entirely intercultural and do not include any personal dimensions. Cultural distinctions are diverse, since there are different ways in which communication differs from one culture to the next. It is possible that there are more distinctions within cultures than there are between civilizations.
  • Five subtle but important values and norms that affect the way individuals of a society communicate are captured by five subtle but important values and norms
  1. High-context versus low-context cultures— Low-context cultures rely significantly on subtle, often nonverbal indicators to preserve social harmony, whereas high-context cultures rely heavily on overt, often nonverbal cues to maintain social harmony. When it comes to assisting themselves, members of anindividualistic culture see their major responsibility as helping themselves, as opposed to members of an acollectivistic culture, who see their primary responsibility as helping their in-group
  2. The degree to which individuals of a community tolerate an unequal allocation of power is described by the term “power gap.” Uncertainty avoidance is a word that is used to describe the degree to which individuals of a culture feel threatened by uncertain circumstances and the extent to which they attempt to avoid them. Achievement cultures place a strong priority on monetary achievement and concentrating on the job at hand, whereas nurturing cultures place a high value on the support of relationships and focusing on the task at hand
  1. Race is a category that was formed to describe variations between individuals whose ancestors originated in various parts of the world, such as Africa and Europe. When it comes to describing individual variations, race is a secondary factor
  2. Ethnicity is more typically employed. One’s ethnicity is the degree to which a person feels they belong to a group, generally on the basis of nationality, culture, or some other common point of view.
  1. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) are all types of people that identify as LGBTQ.
  1. Being honest can help people feel more real and that they are part of a supportive co-culture
  2. But, disclosure can be dangerous. People may be taken aback or judge you harshly. The social atmosphere has been more accepting of LGBTQ persons than it had been in the previous years.
  1. Age-related communication reflects both culture and biology in equal measure. We learn how to “do” different ages as we progress through life. Western societies place a high value on youth, and views on aging are overwhelmingly negative rather than positive. People who assume that older persons have communication difficulties are less inclined to contact with them and, when they do connect, are more likely to use condescending language. When various generations come together to work, communication difficulties might result.
  1. People’s communication styles can be significantly influenced by their social status. People in the United States categorize themselves as working class, middle class, or upper class. First-generation college (FGC) students may experience intercultural strain as a result of having to live in two different environments.
  • Due to the fact that various cultures have diverse verbal and nonverbal communication methods, codes are tied to culture.
  1. The verbal codes used by different languages throughout the world are both similar and distinct.
  1. Linguistics and identity — If you live in a community where everyone speaks the same language, then language has minimal influence on your sense of self. In contrast, when some members speak a dominant language and some members speak a minority language, a strong sense of belonging to an out-group is felt. Three cultural distinctions can be identified in verbal communication styles:
  1. It is possible to be direct or indirect
  2. To be elaborate and concise, or to be formalandinformal.
  • Nonverbal communication is something that all humans have in common. There is a vast range of variances in nonverbal behavior between people. Messages are decoded
  1. In attribution, someone else’s action is interpreted in order to make sense of it. Because most behavior is ambiguous and might have numerous meanings, the attribution process can result in incorrect interpretations.
  1. The desire to converse successfully with strangers, as well as with people from various cultures, is described by motivation and attitude, respectively. When dealing with communicators from other cultures, one’s level of tolerance for ambiguity is determined by the level of uncertainty one is comfortable with. To be effective intercultural communicators, one must be willing to embrace and encourage uncertainty. It is necessary to be open-minded in order to be free of ethnocentrism, which is the belief that one’s own culture is superior to others, and prejudice, which is a harsh and intolerant attitude toward people who are members of an out-group. To be effective communicators, communicators must have a thorough understanding of various cultures and be able to identify acceptable communication strategies.
  1. Observing the behaviour of individuals of another culture and putting them into practice effectively is known as passive observation. Learning about intercultural communication through active tactics such as reading, viewing films, and asking experts and people of the other culture how to behave are all effective ways to gain knowledge. It is self-disclosure when you are willing to share personal information with persons from the other culture with whom you wish to communicate.
  1. To make the transition from culture shock to adaption, patience and endurance are required.

Co-cultural communication theory – Wikipedia

The frameworks ofmuted group theory and viewpoint theory served as the foundation for co-cultural communication theory. Muted group theory, first developed by Shirley and Edwin Ardener in the mid-1970s, is the foundation of co-cultural communication theory. During their fieldwork, the Ardeners learned from other cultural anthropologists that most other cultural anthropologists performing ethnography in the field were only talking to the leaders of the communities, who were overwhelmingly adult males.

  • Ardener, 1975).
  • Ardener, 1978).
  • According to communication professors Stanback and Pearce (1981), these non-dominant groupings are referred to as “subordinate social groups.” In their study, they identified four methods in which non-dominant groups tend to communicate with dominant groups.
  • To those in the lower-status group, these activities have a completely different connotation, making them two entirely distinct modes of communication with entirely different ramifications for relations between the two groups “.

According to Kramarae (1981), “those experiences specific to subordinate group members frequently cannot be properly communicated within the confines of the dominant communication system.” She proposed that members of these groups develop other modes of communication in order to express their feelings.

A study conducted by Kramarae (1981) examined three assumptions of muted group theory as they related to communication between men and women, concluding that women have historically been muted by a male-dominated communications system.

Women’s experiences with and opposition to their own subordination were the primary focus of Standpoint Theory’s application as a feministtheoretical framework.

Among the fundamental tenants of point-of-view theory is the idea that it “aims to meaningfully include subordinate groups’ lived experiences into the process of scholarly inquiry.” In other words, representatives of underrepresented groups are invited to participate as co-researchers.


The idea of co-cultural communication was developed in 1996 by Mark Orbe, a professor at Western Michigan University’s School of Communication, when he discovered that previously used terms for the groups under discussion had negative implications. A number of names have been used to refer to earlier research that looked at the communication patterns of different co-cultural groups. He draws on these studies to support his argument. Orbe was the first to refer to this style of study as “co-cultural communication theory,” and he was also the first to use the term.

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Orbe merged the frameworks of muted group theory and viewpoint theory to reach at five key principles that constitute co-cultural theory.

“Co-cultural theory tries to reveal the commonality among co-cultural group members as they function in dominant society while substantiating the great range of experiences across and within groups,” according to Orbe.


Since the publication of “Laying the foundation for co-cultural communication theory: An inductive approach to studying “non-dominant” communication strategies and the factors that influence them” (1996), Orbe has published two books describing the theory and its application, as well as several studies on communication patterns and strategies based on different co-cultural groups. He presents an outline of co-cultural theory in his 1997 paper, “A Co-cultural Communication Approach to Intergroup Relations,” which includes an explanation of the process through which co-cultural group members strategically pick alternative communication styles.

The paper “From the standpoint(s) of traditionally muted groups: Explicating a co-cultural communication theoretical model” by Orbe (1998b) defined nine co-cultural orientations based on the intersections of three communication approaches: non-aggressive, assertive, and aggressive — with three preferred outcomes: separation, accommodation, and assimilation — and nine co-cultural orientations based on the intersections of three communication approaches: non-aggressive, assertive, and aggressive.

During the annual meeting of the Central States Communication Association in Detroit in 2000, Orbe and C.

Greer gave a paper titled “Recognizing the Diversity of Lived Experience: The Utility of Co-Cultural Theory in Communication and Disabilities Research.” A presentation on “Multiracial/ethnic identity: A co-cultural approach” was given by Heuman in 2001 at the annual meeting of the Central States Communication Association, which was held in Cincinnati.

  1. In 2004, Orbe utilized co-cultural theory as a basis to investigate the methods through which public discussion might be promoted across cultural borders.
  2. In this book chapter, Orbe and Spellers (2005) discuss the roots of co-cultural theory from the viewpoints of their respective fields of study, as well as the implications of their findings for future research.
  3. The scales’ construct validity and reliability were examined in two investigations, which were published in the journal Co-Cultural Theory (C-CTS).
  4. Two writers used Orbe’s (1998) co-cultural theory model, which consists of nine communication orientations and twenty-six communication practices, to determine how members of co-cultural groups respond to acts of prejudice in their communities.

The tales of the participants were coded by two authors using qualitative content analysis. The study also provided a framework for future research initiatives. The following are the 26 communication practices:

Practice Brief Description
Averting Controversy Keeping the conversation away from potentially dangerous or controversial subject areas
Extensive Preparation Preparing extensively on matters of controversial topics before interacting with dominant group members
Overcompensating Avoiding discrimination by overt attempts to become a “superstar”
Manipulating Stereotypes Conforming to common stereotypes in order to exploit the dominant group members for personal gain
Bargaining Arranging a deal with dominant group members in which both parties agree to ignore co-cultural differences
Dissociating Avoiding stereotypes within one’s co-cultural group
Mirroring Behaving like a dominant group member to make one’s co-cultural identity hidden
Strategic Distancing Avoiding co-cultural group members to be perceived as an individual
Ridiculing self Participating in communication that is demeaning to other co-cultural group members
Increasing visibility Covertly maintaining co-cultural presence within a dominant structure
Dispelling stereotypes Challenging stereotypes by being one’s self
Communicating self Interacting with dominant group members authentically
Intragroup Networking Working with co-cultural group members who share philosophies, convictions and goals
Utilizing Liaisons Working with dominant group members who can be trusted for support, guidance and assistance
Educating Others Educating dominant group members of co-cultural norms and values
Confronting Using aggressive methods including ones that may violate the rights of others, to assert one’s voice
Gaining Advantage Talking about co-cultural oppression to provoke dominant group members
Avoiding Avoiding dominant group members, especially certain activities or locations where an interaction is likely
Maintaining Barriers Using verbal and nonverbal cues to impose a distance from dominant group members
Exemplifying Strengths Promoting past accomplishments to society of co-cultural group members
Embracing Stereotypes Applying co-cultural stereotypes to dominant group members in a positive way
Attacking Personally attacking dominant group members’ self-concept
Sabotaging others Taking the ability of dominant group members to fully embrace their privilege inherent in dominant structures
Emphasizing Commonalities Finding common ground with dominant group members while downplaying or ignoring differences
Developing Positive Face Being polite, considerate and attentive to dominant group members
Censoring Self Saying nothing when dominant group members say offensive or inappropriate things about co-cultural group members

Jungmi Jun, an assistant professor at the University of South Carolina’s School of Journalism and Mass Communications, released an essay in 2012 based on her research “Why are Asian Americans so deafeningly quiet? Negotiation Strategies of Asian Americans in the Face of Communicative Discrimination “a paper published in the Journal of Intercultural and International Communication. The paradigm of co-cultural theory developed by Orbe was used to investigate two problems by the author. One is what kinds of racially discriminatory messages are targeted towards Asian Americans, and another is what kinds of communication tactics are used by Asian Americans to negotiate such signals with others who are not Asian Americans.

According to the findings of the study, Asian Americans are more likely than other groups to use nonaggressive responses to racially discriminatory messages as a result of internal and external factors such as emotional shock and humiliation, a lack of knowledge about appropriate responses, peer pressure, and strategic intent.


  1. A First Look at Communication Theory (Mark Orbe on Co-Cultural Theory, Part 1), retrieved 2019-02-06
  2. A First Look at Communication Theory (Mark Orbe on Co-Cultural Theory, Part 1) (retrieved 2019-02-06)
  3. A First Look at Communication Theory (Mark Orbe on Co-Cultural Theory) (retrieved 2019


  • Ardener, E., and Ardener, E. (1978). There are a few remaining issues in the analysis of events. Pages 103–121 in G. Schwinner’s (Ed.) The yearbook of symbolic anthropology, edited by G. Schwinner Hurst & Ardener, S. (London: Hurst & Ardener, S.) (1975). Women’s Perceptions. Malaby Press, London
  • Camara, S. K., and Orbe, M. P. Camara, S. K., and Orbe, M. P. (2010). A co-cultural communication inquiry into the analysis of strategic reactions to discriminatory behaviors was conducted. Dixon, L. D., Journal of International and Intercultural Communication, 3(2), 83–113
  • Dixon, L. D., Journal of International and Intercultural Communication, 3(2), 83–113
  • Dixon, L. D., Dixon, L. D., Dixon, L. D., Dixon, L. D., Dixon, L. D., Dixon, L. D., Dixon, L. D., Dixon, L. D., Dixon, L. D., Dixon, L. (2001). Co-cultural theory by Mark Orbe makes significant contributions to the field of intercultural communication study in terms of naming concerns. Heuman, A., gave a paper at the Central States Communication Association’s annual meeting in Cincinnati
  • Heuman, A., et al (2001). A co-cultural method to understanding multiracial/ethnic identity. Presentation at the Central States Communication Association’s annual conference in Cincinnati
  • Jun, J. Paper delivered at the Central States Communication Association’s annual meeting
  • (2012). Why are Asian Americans deafeningly quiet? Negotiation methods employed by Asian Americans in the face of communicative prejudice. Journal of International and Intercultural Communication, doi: 10.1080/17513057.2012.720700
  • Kramarae, C. Journal of International and Intercultural Communication, doi: 10.1080/17513057.2012.720700
  • (1981). Women and Men Have Their Say. Newberry House, Rowley, Massachusetts
  • Lapinski, M. K., and Orbe, M. (2007). It has been demonstrated that the Co-Cultural Theory Scales have construct validity and reliability. Communication Methods and Measure, 1(2), 137–164
  • Orbe, M. Communication Methods and Measure, 1(2), 137–164 (1996). An inductive approach to researching “non-dominant” communication methods and the factors that impact them serves as the foundation for co-cultural communication theory. Communication Studies, 47(3), 157–176
  • Orbe, M. Communication Studies, 47(3), 157–176
  • (1997). Intergroup relations are approached via the lens of co-cultural dialogue. Journal of Intergroup Relations, 24, 36–49
  • Orbe, M. Journal of Intergroup Relations, 24, 36–49
  • (1998a). Culture, power, and communication are discussed in detail in the course of constructing co-cultural theory. Sage Publications
  • Orbe, M. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications (1998b). From the perspective(s) of traditionally marginalized groups: Explanation of a theoretical model of co-cultural dialogue in context. Communication Theory, 8, 1–26
  • Orbe, M., and Greer, C. M. Communication Theory, 8, 1–26
  • (2000). Recognition of the diversity of lived experience: The use of co-cultural theory in communication and disability research M. Orbe gave a paper at the annual conference of the Central States Communication Association in Detroit
  • The paper was written by M. Orbe (2004). A case study of the 2000-2002 community-based civil rights health initiative demonstrates the use of co-cultural theory and the spirit of dialogue. In G. M. Chen and J. Starosta (Eds. ), Dialogue Among Diversities (pp. 191–211), there is a dialogue among diversities. National Communication Association
  • Orbe, M., and Spellers, R. E., eds. Washington, DC: National Communication Association (2005). From the peripheries to the heart: using co-cultural theory in a variety of settings. Intercultural communication theory and research, edited by Wbgaudykunst, pages 173–191, New York: Springer-Verlag. Sage Publications
  • Ramirez-Sanchez, R. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage
  • Ramirez-Sanchez, R. (2008). Embracing Marginalization from Within: Extending Co-Cultural Theory Through the Experience of Afro Punk Howard Journal of Communication, Vol. 19, No. 2, pp. 89–104
  • Smith, D. E., Howard Journal of Communication, Vol. 19, No. 2, pp. 89–104 (1987). “The daily world as problematic: a feminist sociology of knowledge,” a feminist sociology of knowledge. Northeastern University Press
  • Stanback, M. H., and Pearce, W. B. Boston: Northeastern University Press
  • (1981). Members of “subordinate” social groupings employ a variety of communication styles while conversing with “the man.” Quarterly Journal of Speech, vol. 67, no. 21, pp. 21–30

External links

  • Western Michigan University School of Communication
  • s Central States Communication Association

What is co-culture ?

What is Cell Culture and how does it work? Generally speaking, cell culture refers to the process of growing cells under controlled circumstances, usually outside of their native habitat. Cells can thus be kept alive under precisely regulated settings for an extended period of time. What is Cell Co-Culture and how does it work? Cell Co-Culture is described as the co-existence of cellular growths of two or more distinct cell types that share liquid medium and growth factors in its most basic definition.

  1. There are two forms of Co-Cultures: the first involves direct contact between different cell types, and the second involves indirect interaction between different cell types.
  2. Almost every form of “transwell type” vessel used for indirect contact is vertically linked and has a similar construction (with poor design for proper experimentation).
  3. It is generally recognized that cell to cell contact may result in cellular stimulation, the activation or deactivation of gene pathways, and/or the differentiation of cells, among other things.
  4. Hormones, cytokines, exosomes, and other mediators of indirect effects are important actors.
  5. For many years, the cell culture vessel with the insert immersed in the culture well was the standard method of culture.

In contrast to the previous “transwell” style, our product ICCP is a fresh and revolutionary product technology that replaces it. The ICCP is connected horizontally, which provides a number of benefits that are discussed on other pages.

6.1: What is Culture?

Learning Outcomes are the results of your learning.

  1. Give an explanation of the term “culture” as it is used in this work. Recognize a prevailing cultural tradition
  2. Recognize the distinction between a co-culture and a microculture

When individuals hear the term “culture,” a variety of pictures frequently spring to mind in their minds. Attending the ballet, the opera, or an art gallery may be the first thing that comes to mind. Other people think of traditional clothing, such as the one seen in Figure 6.1.1, which is from Kashmir. However, the term “culture” may have a vast variety of various meanings to different individuals in different contexts. Consider the following scenario: you’re traveling to a new nation (or even a state inside your own country), and you anticipate to meet various dress styles and languages as well as distinct meals and traditions, among other things.

  • A.
  • Kroeber and Clyde Kluckhohn created a list of 164 meanings for the word “culture” in 1952, which was published in the journal Culture.
  • 1.
  • 2 Kroeber and Kluckhohn projected that, over time, science will come to a single definition of culture, which would be developed through the scientific process and come to be accepted by everyone.
  • 3Figure (PageIndex): 3Figure (PageIndex): Traditional clothing and current fashion are both considered to be aspects of cultural heritage.
  • First and foremost, when we talk of “culture,” we are referring to a collection of individuals.
  • Culture is something that is developed by the groups in which we grow up and with which we remain associated throughout our whole lives.
  • As a matter of fact, culture becomes such an embedded part of our identity that we are frequently unable to identify our own culture or the ways in which our own culture impacts our everyday lives.
  • What culture we end up with is ultimately determined by the group(s) into which we are born and brought up.
  • Third, everything we learn eventually contributes to the formation of a common understanding of the world.

If you were raised by Jewish or Christian parents or guardians, you will be familiar with the Bible’s account of the creation. It should be noted that this is merely one of many distinct origin myths that have arose over time in many civilizations, including:

  • A variety of ideas frequently spring to mind when individuals hear the term “culture.” Attending the ballet, the opera, or an art gallery may be the first things that come to mind. Traditional attire, such as that seen in Kashmir in Figure 6.1.1, is what other people think of when they hear the word “traditional.” Nonetheless, the term “culture” may have a vast variety of various meanings to a large variety of individuals. Consider the following scenario: you are traveling to a new nation (or even a different state within your own country), and you anticipate to meet various dress styles and languages as well as distinct meals and traditions, among other things. Cultural studies scholars are divided on the definition of the term “culture.” After putting up an extensive list of 164 meanings for the term “culture,” A. L. Kroeber and Clyde Kluckhohn published their findings in 1952. “The way we do things” is a common description of culture. 1. According to the authors, given the fact that the notion has only been given a name for less than 80 years, it is not unexpected that complete agreement and accuracy have not yet been achieved. 2. 2 Eventually, according to Kroeber and Kluckhohn’s predictions, science would arrive at a single definition of culture, which would be developed throughout time through the scientific process. The concept of a singular definition of culture is no closer to being a reality now than it was in 1952, which is unfortunate. The following is an example of a 3Figure (PageIndex): Cultural components include traditional clothing as well as current fashion. Specifically, we will define culture as “a group of people who, through a process of learning, are able to share perceptions of the world, which impacts their beliefs and values, as well as norms, and laws that eventually influence their conduct.” 4 This definition will be broken down. We must first recognize that when we speak of “culture,” we are referring to an entire population. Individuals can have their own unique culture, which is one of the most common misconceptions among those who are new to studying culture. Our culture is established by the organizations in which we grow up and with which we remain associated over the course of our lifetimes. Second, we gain a better understanding of our own cultural traditions and beliefs. Cultural identity becomes so engrained in our being that we are frequently unable to distinguish between our own culture and how our own culture influences us on a daily basis. Cultural learning is encoded into every person, just like learning a new language is. What culture we end up with is ultimately determined by the group(s) into which we are born and brought up in. Just as a newborn born into an English-speaking household is not going to miraculously learn to speak French, neither will a person from one culture accidently learn to speak the language of another. Third, what we learn eventually contributes to the formation of a common understanding of how the world functions. Storytelling is a universal practice that is taught to children in many cultures and has an influence on their worldview. In the Bible, the creation account is taught to children who are reared by Jewish or Christian parents/guardians. There are many other creation myths that have emerged over time in many civilizations, and this is merely one of them:
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In the end, the origin myth we were taught as children was a function of the culture in which we were brought up. These many myths result in vastly diverse perspectives on an individual’s relationship with the universe as well as with their God, gods, or goddesses, depending on the narrative. Fourth, our views, values, standards, and regulations will be taught to us by the society in which we are reared. When it comes to the reality or existence of anything, beliefs are assumptions and convictions held by an individual, community, or society concerning that truth or existence.

  • Following that, we have values, which are essential and long-lasting beliefs or standards that a culture holds regarding desirable and proper courses of action or results.
  • When considering this term, it’s crucial to note that different cultures have varying perspectives on both the path of action and the outcome of a given situation.
  • Therefore, placing one’s self in harm’s path (course of action) or dying as a result of one’s actions would be regarded as both desirable and suitable in such civilizations.
  • In reality, many religious books view martyrdom as a sacred vocation that must be carried out by the faithful.
  • Following that, the notions of norms and regulations are included in the definition of culture.
  • A rule is an explicit set of instructions (usually written down) that governs acceptable or suitable social behavior within a certain culture.
  • The majority of the time, we are unaware of the existence of a cultural standard unless we violate it ourselves or see someone else breaking the norm.


In addition to a dominant culture, most civilizations include a variety of co-cultures, which include geographical, economic, social, religious, ethnic, and other cultural groups that have an impact on the overall culture of the society. People that have certain views, philosophies, or life experiences come together to form co-cultures, which can be rather diverse. Among the many varied cultures that exist in the United States are Amish culture, African American culture, Buddhist culture, and lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, intersex, and asexual (LGBTQIA+) culture, to name just a few examples.

  1. This is especially true when dealing with a large number of cultural groupings.
  2. When it comes to the LGBTQIA culture, the individuals who make up the various letters might have a wide range of cultural experiences that are distinct from one another within the greater coculture.
  3. Co-cultures contribute to a broader culture by bringing their own sense of history and purpose to the table.
  4. For example, Cinco de Mayo is a major co-cultural festival in the United States that is observed on the fifth of May.
  5. This, on the other hand, is not a Mexican holiday.
  6. Numerous individuals of the United States make the mistake of supposing that Cinco de Mayo is Mexico’s Independence Day, when it is not.
  7. Unfortunately, Cinco de Mayohas evolved into more of an American festival than it has been a Mexican holiday.
  8. Just so you know (also referred to as the Battle of Puebla Day).
  9. The meaning linked with the co-culture is frequently distorted or ignored throughout this process.

Think of St. Patrick’s Day, which developed from a religious holiday commemorating the death of St. Patrick on March 17, 461 CE to a day when “everyone’s Irish” and drinks green beer, if you need another illustration.


Finally, we must define what is known as a microculture in order to understand the concept of culture in its broadest sense. A microculture, also known as a local culture, refers to cultural patterns of behavior that are impacted by cultural ideas, values, conventions, and standards that are exclusive to a certain location or inside an organization. A microculture is also known as a local culture. A microculture’s members are likely to share most of what they know with everyone else in the larger society, but they will also have a distinct cultural knowledge that is specific to the subgroup.

  1. Diverse dormitories on campus frequently create their own distinct cultures that distinguish them from the cultures of other dorms in the university.
  2. Perhaps you reside in a dorm that caters only to honors students or that matches U.S.
  3. Perhaps you are a resident of a dorm that is said to be haunted.
  4. All of these instances contribute to the development of distinct cultural identities inside specific dormitories.
  5. There has been a significant amount of research conducted on the issue of schools as microcultures.
  6. Historically, the significance of microcultures may be traced back to Abraham Maslow’s desire for belonging.
  7. This is why we frequently investigate the microcultures that might arise in organizational contexts as a result of this.
  8. Those that work for the Disney corporation (sorry, we mean cast members) soon come to discover that there is more to the job than just wearing a uniform and wearing a name tag.

When a Disney cast member is engaging with the general public, they are considered to be “on stage.” When a Disney cast member is taking a break away from the general public, they are considered to be “backstage.” A Disney cast member is obliged to complete Traditions One and maybe Traditions Two courses at Disney University (which is managed by the Disney Institute) from the moment he or she begins working for the company ().

The following is how Disney discusses the significance of Traditions: “Disney Traditions is your first day of work, and it’s loaded with the HistoryHeritage of The Walt Disney Company, as well as a sprinkle of magic!” 7 As you can see, Disney aims to develop a very distinct microculture that is built on all things Disney from the very beginning of the Disney cast member experience, and this is evident from the very beginning of the Disney cast member experience.

The Most Important Takeaways

  • A variety of meanings for the term culture have emerged over the years. As a result, limiting “culture” to a single meaning is difficult, regardless of how you define the word “culture.” Our definition of culture is a collection of individuals who, through a process of learning, may share views of the world, which in turn impacts their beliefs, values, standards, and regulations, which in turn influence their actions. We describe culture as follows: In the field of cultural studies, we will be discussing three different concepts that are culturally connected. In the first place, we have a dominant culture, which is defined as a certain society’s established language, religion, conduct, values, rituals, and social norms, all of which are based on that society’s established culture. There will be a plethora of co-cultures and microcultures existing within the main culture. A co-culture is a collection of geographical, economic, social, religious, ethnic, or other cultural groups that have a significant impact on the society in which they live. Finally, we have microcultures, which are cultural patterns of behavior that are impacted by cultural ideas, values, conventions, and standards that are particular to a given location or inside an institution.
  • Consider your own dominating culture for a moment. What does it mean to be a part of your country’s culture mean to you? How well-established is your society’s language, religion, social behavior, values, rituals, and social traditions
  • What is the dominant language, religion, social behavior, and values
  • List five co-cultural groups to which you now belong and explain why you are a member of each group. What role does each of these distinct co-cultural groups have in determining your identity as a person? Many organizations are well-known for generating, or striving to create, microcultures that are highly specialized to their mission. Think about your institution or university and how you would describe your microculture to someone who is unfamiliar with your culture.

What You Need to Know About : Co-Cultural Theory

In communication theory, co-cultural theory is a concept that is intended to give insight into the communication habits of persons who have little societal influence. Cocultural theory, which arose largely from the study of Mark Orbe, is concerned with the ways in which culture and power influence communication. There are many elements of society that have historically been classified as belonging to subcultural or minority groups that are the subject of the idea. The term “cocultural group” is preferred by this hypothesis.

  • Recent research has employed this model in the study of a variety of additional populations, including the homeless, first-generation college students, immigrants, and foreign students, among others.
  • The principles of muted group and viewpoint theories informed these fundamental investigations, which employed an inductive phenomenological approach to compile inductive accounts of ordinary communication in the workplace.
  • Co-cultural theory is founded on five assumptions, each of which mirrors a core principle found in muted group or viewpoint theory, and each of which is discussed below.
  • When it comes to men, European Americans, physically fit people, heterosexual couples and those from the middle or upper classes in the United States, dominating group members are numerous and diverse.
  • The third premise of co-cultural theory investigates how the actuality of dominant group power affects members of nondominant groups, particularly those who are marginalized.
  • When it comes to co-cultural groups, the fourth assumption acknowledges the distinctions that exist within and between them; but, it also recognises the parallels which exist both inside and across groups that hold comparable social positions.
  • It is likely that such behaviors will differ both within and across various co-cultural groups in the future.

Stephen W. Littlejohn and Karen A. Floss have collaborated on this project (2009). The Communication Theory Encyclopedia is a resource for those interested in communication theory. USA:SAGE. Penanggungjawab naskah:Gayes MahestuEdwina Ayu KustiawanGayes MahestuGayes Mahestu

Co-Cultural Theory and Communication

It was Mark Orbe’s scholarly study that resulted in the development of co-cultural communication theory, also known as co-cultural theory for short. It is possible to comprehend how historically underrepresented group members interact within social systems dominated by cultural groups that have, through time, gained dominant group status through the use of a co-cultural theoretical approach. By investigating the communicative lived experiences of underrepresented group members in the United States, Orbe and colleagues laid the groundwork for the theory’s development.

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According to the idea, lived experiences of co-cultural group members are centrally located, and occasions in which cultural diversity is considered as prominent are highlighted.

Based on a research approach centered on discovery, six factors were identified as being critical in the selection of specific co-cultural practices: field of experience, abilities, perceived costs and rewards (communication approach), preferred outcome (outcome), and situational context (situational context).

Intellectual and Methodological Background

It was Mark Orbe’s scholarly study in the 1990s that led to the development of co-cultural communication theory, or co-cultural theory in short. When applied to societal systems dominated by cultural groups that have, through time, gained dominant group status, co-cultural theoretical approaches can provide a prism through which historically underrepresented group members can converse with one another. By investigating the communicative lived experiences of underrepresented group members in the United States, Orbe and colleagues laid the groundwork for the theory’s development.

According to the idea, lived experiences of co-cultural group members are centrally located, and moments in which cultural difference is seen as salient are specifically highlighted.

Based on a study design that prioritized discovery, six elements were identified as being critical in the choosing of specific co-cultural practices: area of experience, capacities, perceived costs and benefits (communication style), chosen outcome (outcome), and situational environment.

Since its beginnings, co-cultural theory has been widely regarded as a foundational theory for those who are interested in the interaction of culture, power, and communication in any context.

  • S. Ardener’s article from 1975 is cited as “Ardener, S. 1975.” Women’s perceptions. Malaby Street, London. This book provides a basic exposition of muted-group theory, as well as examples of its application. It discusses how dominant groups construct communication systems that promote their own worldviews and establish the proper language norms for the rest of society, all from an anthropological perspective. S. Ardener’s 1978 book focuses on how subordinate groups are rendered “inarticulate” or “silent” (or both) as a result of this process
  • Ardener, S. 1978. In society, the nature of women is defined by the following criteria: Halsted Publishing Company, New York. Ardener, an anthropological, claims in this book that each civilization has a muted-group dynamic, which may be observed in his research. She contends that organizations that operate at the top of the sociopolitical hierarchy have a significant influence on the prevailing communication system that is used by the whole society. With this in mind, it should be noted that in any culture where uneven power connections are maintained, the language and experiences of some groups are made “inarticulate.”
  • Folb, E. (1994-06-02). Who’s got a spot at the top of the stairs? Dominance and nondominance issues in intracultural communication are discussed. A reader’s guide to intercultural communication L. A. Samovar and R. E. Porter edited this volume, which contains chapters 119–127. Wadsworth Publishing Company, Belmont, California. The author provides insight into the importance of examining the communication methods of “nondominant” group members, or those persons who have not historically had access to influence dominant culture, in the chapter he has written on the subject. This early work was pivotal in the development of the term “co-cultural” (as opposed to minority, subcultural, or other terms) as a method of acknowledging power relations and the agency of individual and group communication practices
  • Harding, S. 1991
  • Harding, S. 1991. Whose science is it, exactly? Whose expertise is it, exactly? Thinking about things from the perspective of women’s life. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York. Positionality theory, a foundational concept in co-cultural theory, is described in this book as a feminist theoretical framework that may be used to investigate the lived experiences of women as they engage in and resist their own subordination. As a result of Harding’s concepts, it was possible to investigate unique communication tactics utilized by subordinate, or co-cultural, group members of a society
  • Hartsock (1983), National Council on Co-Cultural Communication. The feminist point of view: laying the groundwork for a feminist historical materialism that is uniquely feminist. In Discovering Reality: Feminist Perspectives on Epistemology, Metaphysics, Methodology, and the Philosophy of Science is a collection of essays addressing the nature of reality. 283–310 in S. Harding and M. D. Hintikka’s edited volume. D. Reidel & Company, Boston. It is a main source that describes feminist-standpoint theory, which is one of the theoretical building blocks for co-cultural theory, and it is included in this book chapter. This early essay by Hartsock demonstrates how the theory is founded in Marxian study of working-class conditions and how it may be used to investigate the lives of those in lower positions
  • Kramarae, C. 1981.Women and men speaking Newbury House, Rowley, Massachusetts. Muted-group theory, one of the theoretical building blocks of co-cultural theory, is described in detail in this book, which is a valuable resource. Women in a male-dominated society are typically treated as second-class citizens, as argued by Kramarae in this volume, which contains the most comprehensive application of muted-group theory in the field of communication. Lanigan, R. L. 1988. Merleau-thematics Ponty’s in communicology and semiology are examples of phenomenology of communication. Duquesne University Press is located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. This book presents an in-depth examination of the applicability of phenomenological inquiry in the context of communication study. It is the work of Maurice Merleau-Ponty in particular that the author draws upon, and he describes the philosophical underpinnings of phenomenology in relation to discovery-oriented, humanistic research, including, for example, the research that resulted in the development of co-cultural theory
  • Orbe, Michael P. 2005. Conceptualizations of co-cultural theory as a means of carrying on the tradition of theorizing from the edges 28.2: 65–66. Women’s Language 28.2: 65–66. In this brief paper, based on a presentation given at the Muted Group Theory Conference, which was held at George Mason University in 2005, the author describes how muted-group theory serves as the foundation for co-cultural theory. A second point raised by the author is how co-cultural theory builds on a tradition of marginalized thinking and applies it across a wide range of fields
  • Stanback, M, and W B Pearce. 1981. Members of “subordinate” social groupings employ a variety of communication styles while conversing with “the man.” Quarterly Journal of Speech, vol. 67, no. 1, pp. 21–30 DOI:10.1080/00335638109383548 As a result of its approach to the study of marginalized groups, this piece is crucial to co-cultural theory since it recognizes that these individuals must somehow work within the restrictions given by their self-concepts, goals, and knowledge of dominant-group expectations. Individuals from “subordinate” social groups employ certain methods (for example, tomming, passing, shucking, and dissembling), which are identified by the authors.

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