- 1 Culture: Definition, Influence and Factors Affecting Culture
- 2 Cultural Factors
- 3 Bibliography
- 4 How Culture Influences Health
- 5 What is culture?
- 6 Case examples
- 7 Culture: The hidden and the obvious
- 8 The cultural continuum
- 9 Impact of culture on health
- 10 What health professionals can do
- 11 Providing health care to different cultural groups
- 12 Resources
- 13 References
- 14 How Does Your Culture Influence the People You Trust?
- 15 When will a dictator give?
- 16 Scanning for answers
- 17 Enhancing sharing across cultures
- 18 Cultural Differences in Self and the Impact of Personal and Social Influences
- 19 Citation
- 20 What influences the development of culture?
- 21 Culture and Society:
- 22 Answer and Explanation:
Culture: Definition, Influence and Factors Affecting Culture
Learn about the concept of culture, its effect, and the variables that shape it by reading this article.
Definition of Culture:
There is no one definition of culture, nor is there agreement among many ideas on what it is. Mr. A.L. Korelaber and Mr. T. Parsons published a paper on the Concepts of Culture and of Social Systems in which they were co-authors. “Culture” has been described by the American Sociological Review as “a set of values, ideas, attitudes, and other significant symbols generated by a man to influence human conduct and the anti realities of that behavior as they are handed from one generation to the next.” According to another source, “culture refers to a set of values, beliefs, anti-facts, and other important symbols that assist individuals in communicating, interpreting, and evaluating their roles as members of a social group.” As stated by another writer, “culture is a collection of socially learned values that society accepts as a whole and imparts to its members through language and symbols.” As another definition, “culture” might be described as “the biggest simple collection of individuals who are all members of the same distinctly unique social legacy.” Many philosophers believe that culture is an abstract and material aspect that is impossible to describe, and that it is thus difficult to define.
Cultural theory, according to some experts, is a difficult topic to grasp since “its major focus is on the largest component of social behavior in the entire community.” Psychologists, sociologists, and anthropologists investigate just one component of society, however in the field of culture, we analyze the complete fabric of society as a whole.
In some ways, culture may be thought of as the personality of a civilization.
Countries like India, with a lengthy history, people of diverse faiths, dialects, and cultures who have settled through centuries from different parts of the world and different portions of the nation, make the problem of defining all the more difficult to solve.
Many other countries, as well, have a diverse range of cultural traditions.
At the very least, as a consumer, the following behaviors are influenced by culture; however, they are not exhaustive of other cultures, particularly cultures from other countries, which is referred to as cross culture, nor are they indicative of greater influence from subcultures.
Attitude and Behaviours Influenced by Ones Culture:
1. Personality, which includes one’s sense of self and one’s place in society. 2. The use of language, or communication. 3. Appearance4. Dietary habits Religion and religious faiths, which are beliefs, are number five. 6. Marriage rituals and religious practices, as well as particular social customs 7. Relationship with others (system of marriage, family structure and relations, social and religious organisations, government) 8. Education system (including the function of churches, temples, mosques, and other religious institutions in the education system), i.e.
- They varies significantly from one country to the next and from one region to the next.
- Values and social standards are number eleven (discussed later).
- Festivals are number thirteen.
- Products and services are number sixteen.
Culture and its effects on society may include a variety of other factors, but because our goal is to understand the influence of culture on consumer behavior, we define culture as “the sum total of learned beliefs, values and customs that serve to direct the consumer behavior of members of a specific society.” Consequently, we broadly explore the following aspects in culture, all of which are dynamic and vary with the passage of time: the development and progress of knowledge, the effect of other cultural discoveries, globalization, and so on, but all of which are present in every civilization.
- For example, in India, despite the effect of cross-cultural communication, education media, knowledge, and technological progress, we have not strayed from the traditions, practices, and beliefs that have been passed down to us from our ancestors.
- Aside from the culture of a civilization, or a nation, there are significant cultural distinctions inside a nation.
- To provide an example, in India, there are 29 states and six union territories that were created on the basis of distinctions in culture, which includes differences in customs, beliefs, and values.
- India is home to a diverse range of religious traditions, the most prominent of which are Hinduism, Muslimism, Jainism, Sikhism, Christianity, and Buddhism.
- Sub-cultures can also be classified according to factors such as gender, degree of education, age group, income, and career, among others.
It is possible to split society into any number of different subcultures, depending on the aim. However, as previously said, there are three stages of culture, which are depicted in the diagram below:
Factors Affecting Culture:
There are a plethora of elements that influence culture, the most significant of which are outlined below:
A value system, according to virtually every scholar, is the most essential component of culture that influences our behavior as consumers. In a civilization that is separate from our own, values are beliefs and standards that are accepted by the people who live there. To give an example, almost all cultures believe in the freedom of one’s thoughts, beliefs, and experiences, which has resulted in democracy, freedom of the press, free communication, an independent judiciary, the freedom to choose products according to one’s preferences, and the freedom of enterprise to develop products and new technologies while not exploiting consumers who have been given the right to file a complaint in the event of a deficiency in a product or service.
- Hinduism and Jainism both believe in sacrificing one’s worldly pleasures and sense of belonging in order to benefit others.
- While on the one hand, education and medical institutions were being created, on the other hand, their development was being regulated on a commercial basis.
- Many individuals feel that anything they are lucky enough to get will come to them.
- Many individuals have become lazy as a result of this, as opposed to Americans, Japanese, or Europeans who feel that everything is achievable with hard work and perseverance.
- In India, spiritualism predominates over materialism, as opposed to the latter in the west.
- As a result, Indians are perceived to be more trustworthy, a perception that has been challenged by recent political events as well as the exposure of several frauds.
Another major component of culture that has to do with public appearance is the social standards that govern how people should behave in public. For example, in the western hemisphere, there is complete freedom of attire, particularly at beaches, swimming pools, and hotels. In the west, excessive exposure of the body via clothing is considered obscene, and nudity in public or even in private is not permitted. This establishes the fashion, attire, and clothing. In India, it is considered bad manners to treat old people with disrespect.
- The consumption pattern differs as a result of this social norm of public behavior.
- Even the government provides older persons with discounts on train fares, income taxes, and pensions once they reach the age of retirement.
- No Puja is complete without the presence of a wife, yet in the west, women are regarded as objects of sex and pleasure, while at the same time enjoying greater freedom of employment and travel than they do in India.
- Lady shoppers and families with both husband and wife working have risen in spending power in recent years, which has created new sales opportunities for marketers.
- The desire to seem younger than one’s actual age is another common feature shared by everyone, particularly women.
- This desire has also caused individuals to become more health concerned, resulting in increased demand for preventative medications, tonics, and other health-promoting foods, as well as for foods that provide energy, such as milk, juices, and proteins.
This has resulted in increased demand for refrigerators, water coolers, air conditioners, heaters, microwave ovens, labor saving devices of countless varieties, and automobiles, as well as for faster travel and movement, better houses, hotels, and places of employment, where air conditioning is becoming increasingly common, even in India.
- Efforts, optimism, and entrepreneurship appear to be another universally accepted rule of conduct.
- Entrepreneurship is yet another typical behavior that has resulted in the creation of successful businesspeople all around the world.
- Man is attempting to dominate nature and become his own master in many forms all throughout the world, to varying degrees.
- Discovery, the construction of dams for irrigation and power generation, and other manifestations of this conviction and ambition, which are occasionally challenged by small groups, as in the case of the Narmada dam in Gujarat and the Tehri dam in Uttaranchal, respectively.
- People all around the world are becoming more materialistic, want more luxuries and leisure, working to live rather than working to live, and seeking self satisfaction rather than self denial (sacrifice), which had been a basic pillar of Indian culture.
- Women are now participating in all activities rather than remaining at home, since the traditional gender roles have shifted.
- In emerging countries, the number of law-abiding citizens is decreasing, as is nationalistic sentiment.
Instead of relying on industry, there is now a large deal of reliance on information growth, such as IT.
Everywhere in the globe, it is thought that all members of society should have equal opportunity for education, employment, and personal success, regardless of their background.
There are many different sorts of discrimination in the entrance process.
Competitive examinations are held at Indian educational institutions and government services in order to give equal chances for all students, however there are certain exceptions for students from specific socioeconomic classes.
Increasingly, religious effects on society are waning, particularly among the younger population.
Consequently, its influence on culture is waning, which should be thoroughly investigated, and researchers should conduct surveys to determine the impact of this transition on consumer behavior.
The micro characteristics that have an impact on a certain group within a society are referred to as ethnic patterns, and they are dependent on race, geography, and other factors.
His or her behavior differs significantly from that of an Aryan or a person of Arabic descent.
Such groups are formed on the basis of nationality (for example, non-resident Indians in the United States), religion (for example, Hindus, Muslims, Sikhs, Christians, Jains, Budhs, and others in India), physical characteristics (for example, race), geographical locations (which are numerous throughout the world and in India), or other factors.
- There have been tensions between whites and blacks for a long time.
- As a result, these micro-cultural distinctions have a significant influence on consumers and are thus critical for marketers.
- The great industrialists, high-ranking executives, and professionals such as physicians, attorneys, and architects, among others, have developed their own micro-cultural environment.
- Scientists, technocrats, and researchers each have their own class.
The cultures of Bengali, Assamese, Tamalian, Hindi, and other language speakers differ from one another, but the cultures of people who speak a language like Hindi, which is spoken in a large number of Northern Indian states, differ from one state to another; thus, even for a single language, there can be more than one culture.
In addition, the advertising plan should take into consideration cultural variances.
It will be necessary to adapt the items to meet the demands of people from a variety of cultural backgrounds. In the case of fashion items, such as clothing, dresses, and cosmetics, it is necessary to take cultural differences into account in an appropriate manner.
Culture is described as the collection of ideas, moral values, customs, language, and laws (or standards of behavior) that are shared by a nation, a community, or other specified group of people and that are passed down from generation to generation. The language spoken at home, religious observances, customs (including marriage customs that often accompany religious and other beliefs), acceptable gender roles and occupations, dietary practices, intellectual, artistic, and leisure-time pursuits, and other aspects of behavior are all examples of culturally determined characteristics.
- This reflects the dispersed origins of the people who live in these countries.
- Researchers in the fields of anthropology and epidemiology have discovered several connections between culture, practices, and health concerns.
- This is true even when comparing people from similar social, economic, and residential backgrounds.
- Despite the fact that these disparities are commonly referred to as “lifestyle variables,” in many cases they are culturally influenced since the relevant behaviors are tied with religious beliefs and practices.
- There are several correlations between cultural features and health states, as well as between education, employment, money, and social standing.
White-collar workers with higher levels of education may be more aware of the health benefits of exercise than those with lower levels of education; they are more likely to participate in sports rather than simply watch them, and they are more likely to have higher-paying jobs that allow them to afford sporting equipment.
- An important cultural dimension to the collision of competing ideals between environmental sustainability and economic development is the presence of religious and philosophical beliefs.
- Sometimes, however, short-term considerations such as job stability or financial gain might take precedence over such principles.
- In studies conducted in California and Hawaii, it was shown that Japanese migrants had greater incidences of coronary artery disease than their counterparts in their homeland of Japan.
- It appears, however, that the loss of a stable, coherent social environment has also played a role in the increase in the frequency of coronary artery disease among migratory populations.
- The longer they had been exposed to city life, the higher their blood pressure was.
- Cultural groups that have a strong sense of group identity and cohesion appear to be more shielded against this sort of stress than other groups.
- Aside from that, they frequently depict ways in which profound cultural messages are delivered through the medium of the human body.
Anthropologists have connected the disease among Latino immigrants in the United States to a sense of social and political disempowerment that these people feel as a result of their immigration status.
Sociologists and anthropologists investigate the symbolic significance of symptoms in the setting of particular cultural contexts in order to better comprehend the cultural signals that diseases convey.
Unforgivable examples include the development of HIV/AIDS (human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), which has been particularly devastating in Africa, where economic need has forced people to make decisions that are frequently harmful to their health.
Females frequently lack the social authority to negotiate the use of condoms, and the necessity for economic and social survival often exceeds the danger that they are aware they are incurring by engaging in unprotected sexual relations.
The health of girls and women is especially vulnerable to cultural factors, as is the health of males.
The subjugation of women when political totalitarianism and religious zealotry prevail is disproportionately greater than that of males, and this can have a negative impact on their health and lifespan.
This type of value has a widespread impact in a wide range of contexts, mostly in traditional agrarian cultures, but it is also prevalent in certain urbanized economies as well.
This deficiency can lead to rickets or osteomalacia in the women who are exposed to the sun for an extended period of time.
FGM is prohibited in the United States.
It robs women of their sexual pleasure and makes delivery a potentially dangerous experience for both the mother and the child.
In their research, anthropologists have detailed the rich cultural notions of ceremonial purity linked with female genital mutilation that help to maintain this practice despite the fact that it has major negative consequences for one’s health.
International and national attempts are under way to put an end to or reform this practice, with some of the most promising initiatives originating from inside the cultures that are being targeted for change.
When it comes to Western civilizations, the female body is frequently modified for cultural reasons.
In today’s society, many women wear high heels and tight shoes, which distort their feet and have terrible implications in later life.
A extremely low body weight is a modern, culturally formed image of beauty that has overtaken the older “ideal”—the plump female figure shown in the paintings of Rubens and Renoir—as the “ideal” for certain girls and women.
Men in Western society began pursuing a “enhanced” body image in the late twentieth century, whether through the use of muscle-enhancing drugs or the use of muscle grafts to increase the pectoral and calf muscles, respectively.
This culture frequently encourages rebelliousness and disrespect of adult authority figures, which can lead to some young people smoking, using drugs, and engaging in other potentially hazardous and harmful behaviors.
As a result of the pervasive influence of the media, particularly television, in almost all contemporary societies, cultural values and behavior that are derived from the American entertainment industry are projected onto the public.
Public health professionals must be aware of these and other cultural trends, and they must make an effort to mobilize favorable cultural influences while opposing harmful cultural influences, as well.
Karen Trollope-Kumar is a novelist and poet.
See also African Americans, Anthropology in Public Health, Asian Americans, Assimilation, Cultural Anthropology, Ethnicity and Health, Folk Medicine, Hispanic Cultures, Race and Ethnicity, Theories of Health and Illness, Traditional Health Beliefs and Practices, Women’s Health, and Women’s Health.
R. A. Hahn is the editor of this volume (1994). Anthropology in the field of public health. Oxford University Press is based in New York. Helman, C. (2001). (1990). Culture, Health, and Illness are all intertwined. Butterworth-Heineman, Oxford, United Kingdom. McElroy, A., and Townsend, P. (2007). McElroy and Townsend (2007). (1996). The third edition of Medical Anthropology in Ecological Perspective is now available. Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado. B. D. Paul is the editor of this book (1955).
The Russell Sage Foundation is based in New York.
How Culture Influences Health
- A culture is a set of beliefs, practices, and behaviors that are shared by a group of people or a civilization as a whole. It is continually changing
- The rate at which cultural evolution takes place varies. It rises when a group migrates to a new culture and adopts elements of that culture into their own culture of origin, as in Children frequently experience difficulties when they are ‘between cultures,’ trying to strike a balance between the ‘old’ and the ‘new.’ They are fundamentally a part of both cultures, but their parents are frequently associated with the ‘old’ culture. One method of thinking about cultures is to consider whether they are predominantly ‘collectivist’ or ‘individualist’ in orientation. The ability to distinguish between the two can assist health professionals in making diagnoses and designing treatment plans that cover a bigger or smaller number of patients. Cultural factors have a significant impact on health. Patients’ perspectives of health, sickness, and mortality are influenced by their beliefs about disease origins, methods to health promotion, the way in which illness and suffering are experienced and communicated, where they seek care, and the forms of therapy they choose. Health professionals and patients both have cultural influences that impact their decisions and actions. It is possible that cultural bias will result in vastly divergent health-related choices and perceptions in Canada’s health system since popular ideas of historically dominant cultures have formed the system. Understanding and negotiating cultural differences are abilities that are referred to as ‘cultural competency.’ From this perspective, it is possible for caregivers to expressly inquire about particular beliefs or sources of care, and to include in new awareness into diagnostic and treatment plans
- The demonstration of understanding of a patient’s culture can help to build trust, provide better health care, increase acceptance of diagnoses, and enhance treatment adherence, among other things.
What is culture?
Culture refers to the patterns of beliefs, practices, and behaviors that are shared by a group of individuals or a community as a whole. These patterns let individuals identify themselves as members of a group and distinguish themselves from members of other groups. Culture may encompass all or a subset of the following qualities, which may be present in any combination: 1Given the large number of elements that may influence any culture, there is certain to be a tremendous deal of variation within any one cultural group.
- Ethnicity, language, religion, and spiritual beliefs, gender, socioeconomic status, age, sexual orientation, geographic origin, group history, education, upbringing, and life experience are all important factors to consider while making decisions.
Culture consists of the following elements:
- Dynamic and developing
- Taught and handed down through generations
- Shared among individuals who agree on the way they define and comprehend reality
- Frequently identified’symbolically,’ via language, dress, music, and behaviors
- And interwoven into all elements of an individual’s existence. 2
Take a look at the following two tales and think about how each child may react differently to a similar scenario such as a problem at school or a criticism, or even their mother falling unwell.
A great escape?
A 10-year-old Sudanese girl was raised by her aunt, who also had four other children, for three years as the less-cared-for child. Following the publication of politically sensitive stories in a major daily, her mother, a journalist in Sudan, was hounded and imprisoned for her actions. During the night, her mother appeared out of nowhere to whisk the youngster away under the cover of darkness. They walked all night and snuck across the border in the middle of the night. After crossing the border, they spent the next two years in a refugee camp, where they encountered a variety of hardships due to the fact that they had no male family members to guard them.
In the aftermath of the incident, the mother was diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and although she is receiving treatment, she continues to have problems functioning in her daily life and adapting to life in Canada.
She looked to be well-adjusted; she performed well in school; she was eager to assist her mother; she smiled and chatted readily; and she appeared to be really interested in learning English.
Turning the page
A 10-year-old Sudanese girl was raised by her aunt, who also had four other children, for three years as the less-cared-for child in the household. Following the publication of politically sensitive stories in a major daily, her mother, a journalist in Sudan, was hounded and incarcerated. During the night, her mother appeared out of nowhere to whisk the child away from the house in the shadows. They walked all night and snuck across the border in the middle of the day. After crossing the border, they spent the next two years in a refugee camp, where they encountered a variety of hardships due to the fact that they had no male family member to guard them.
The mother has subsequently been diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder, and while she is receiving treatment, she continues to have problems functioning in her daily life and adjusting to life in Canada, which she describes as “tough.” Daughter took over as interpreter and carer for her mother very fast.
They thought she had a strong desire to assist her mother. They said she smiled and talked well and that she was extremely serious about learning English. The question of how she had dealt with her personal narrative was never raised.
- A 10-year-old Sudanese girl lived with her aunt, who had four other children, for three years as the less-cared-for child. Following the publication of politically sensitive stories in a major daily, her mother, a journalist from Sudan, was harassed and imprisoned. One night, her mother appeared out of nowhere to take the child away from her. They walked all night and snuck across the border without being seen. After crossing the border, they spent the next two years in a refugee camp, where they faced a variety of hardships due to the fact that they had no male family members to defend them. They eventually made their way to Canada as Government Assisted Refugees, thanks to aid from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees and the Canadian government. As a result of the incident, the mother was diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder, and while she is receiving treatment, she is having difficulties functioning on a day-to-day basis and adjusting to life in Canada. The daughter soon assumed the role of interpreter and carer for her mother. She looked to be well-adjusted
- She performed well in school
- She was eager to assist her mother
- She smiled and talked readily
- And she appeared to be extremely serious about learning English. No one had bothered to inquire as to how she had dealt with her personal ordeal.
As seen in Figure 1, culture has been compared as an iceberg, with its most potent qualities submerged under the surface of the water. Explicit cultural factors are frequently visible, but they may be less significant than the unacknowledged or subconscious elements that act as ballast below the surface.
|Figure 1: Elements of culture|
|Source: Slide 6, Introduction to clinical cultural competence. Clinical Cultural Competency Series. Courtesy of the Centre for InnovationExcellence in ChildFamily Centred Care at SickKids Hospital.|
The cultural continuum
Collectivism and individualism are two main aspects of culture that are often seen to be at opposing ends of a continuum: collectiveistic and individualistic. Most civilizations fall somewhere in the middle between the two poles, exhibiting features of both at the same time. Furthermore, within any one culture, individual variances can be found at all points on the spectrum. To be sure, understanding the features of collectivistic and individualistic cultures is beneficial (see Table 1) because it allows practitioners to “find” where a family fits within their cultural continuum and to tailor patient care.
According on where a patient “fits” on the cultural continuum, incorporating extended family members in discussions regarding disease etiology, diagnosis, and therapy may be beneficial.
|Focus on “we”||Focus on “I”|
|Promote relatedness and interdependence||Value autonomy|
|Connection to the family||View ability to make personal individual choices as a right|
|Value respect and obedience||Emphasize individual initiative and achievement|
|Emphasize group goals, cooperation and harmony||Lesser influence of group views and values, and in fewer aspects of life|
|Greater, broader influence of group views and values|
|Source: Adapted from slide 11, Cross-cultural communication.Clinical Cultural Competency Series. Courtesy of the Centre for InnovationExcellence in ChildFamily Centred Care at SickKids Hospital, Toronto.|
Indecision or decision-making?
Collectivism and individualism are two main aspects of culture that are often seen to be on opposing ends of a continuum: collectiveistic and individualistic. Most civilizations lay somewhere in the middle between the two poles, exhibiting elements of both at different times throughout history. Within each civilization, individual variances can be found at all points along a spectrum. To be sure, understanding the features of collectivistic and individualistic cultures is beneficial (see Table 1) since it allows practitioners to “find” where a family sits on their cultural continuum and to tailor patient care.
According on where a patient “fits” along the cultural continuum, incorporating extended family members in discussions regarding disease etiology, diagnosis, and treatment may be beneficial.
- The individualistic culture of the health care professional contrasts with the collectivistic culture of the mother. She wanted to confer with someone before she could deliver a response because everyone’s communication methods varied. The mother was concerned about putting the provider on the defensive by questioning his advise, but she also didn’t want to accept that she would have to bring the options home to make a decision. The fact that someone has a high school diploma is irrelevant: it is a red herring.
Impact of culture on health
Because culture defines and molds our perceptions of the world and our experiences, health is a cultural term to understand. Culture, in conjunction with other variables of health and disease, contributes to the definition of:
- The perspectives of patients and health-care professionals on health and sickness
- Insights into what people and health-care professionals think about the origins of disease Examples include patients who are uninformed of germ theory and who instead believe in fate, adjinn (an evil spirit believed to be responsible for tetanus-like sickness in rural Afghanistan), the “evil eye,” or a demonic entity. They may refuse to accept a diagnosis and even assume that they are unable to alter the path of events. Instead, people can only accept events as they develop
- Which diseases or conditions are stigmatized and why
- And which diseases or conditions are stigmatized and why. Depression is a prevalent social stigma in many cultures, and consulting a psychiatrist is considered “crazy.” What sorts of health promotion activities are done, encouraged, or insured varies from culture to culture. It is common in certain cultures to be “strong” or overweight (what Canadians would call “obese”) as a method of storing energy in case of famine, and “strong” women are considered desirable and healthy. The way in which disease and pain are perceived and conveyed. To be stoic is the norm in certain societies, even in the face of excruciating discomfort. In other cultures, individuals are not afraid to express mildly painful emotions out loud. Depending on where individuals seek assistance, how they request assistance, and, perhaps most importantly, when they first approach a health care provider, the extent to which pain should be explored or treated may vary significantly. When a situation gets serious, certain cultures choose to seek allied health care practitioners first, rather than going to the doctor
- Patient engagement with health care providers. For example, in many cultures, avoiding making direct eye contact is considered a show of respect
- Nonetheless, a care provider may worry if the same behavior indicates that her patient is sad. When it comes to treatment alternatives given by health care specialists who do not share their cultural views, the degree of knowledge and compliance is measured. Occasionally, patients assume that a physician who does not administer an injection is not paying enough attention to their problems. The perceptions of chronic illness and treatment choices held by patients and healthcare practitioners
Health and disease are viewed differently by individuals and health care professionals. Insights on what people and health-care professionals believe about the origins of disease Examples include patients who are uninformed of germ theory and who instead believe in fate, adjinn (in rural Afghanistan, an evil spirit who seizes babies and is responsible for tetanus-like sickness), the ‘evil eye,’ or a demonic presence. The diagnosis may be difficult for them to accept, and they may even assume that they are unable to influence the course of events.
- Depression is a social stigma in many cultures, and consulting a psychiatrist is considered “crazy.” What sorts of health promotion activities are done, encouraged, or insured varies from culture to culture.
- The way in which disease and suffering are perceived and expressed is discussed here.
- The expression of relatively unpleasant sentiments is common in numerous cultures.
- When a physician does not administer an injection, some patients assume that the physician is not treating their symptoms seriously.
- The perspectives of patients and health-care providers on health and sickness
- What people and health-care professionals believe about the causes of disease. Examples include patients who are uninformed of germ theory and who instead believe in fate, adjinn (an evil spirit believed to be responsible for tetanus-like sickness in rural Afghanistan), the “evil eye,” or a demon. They may reject a diagnosis and even assume that they are unable to alter the course of events. Instead, they can only accept the unfolding of events
- Which diseases or conditions are stigmatized and why
- And which diseases or conditions are stigmatized and why. Depression is a prevalent social stigma in many cultures, and consulting a psychiatrist is regarded as “crazy.” What sorts of health promotion activities are done, encouraged, or insured varies from culture to culture. In certain cultures, being “strong” (or what we would call “overweight” in Canada) indicates having a reserve of energy in case of famine, and “strong” women are regarded as attractive and healthy. The way in which disease and pain are experienced and communicated. Stoicism is the norm in certain civilizations, even in the face of extreme hardship. People in different cultures are not afraid to express relatively difficult emotions. The extent to which pain should be explored or treated may varies depending on the situation
- Where people seek help, how they ask for aid, and maybe when they make their first approach are all factors to consider. Some cultures have a tendency to seek allied health care professionals first, postponing a trip to the doctor for when a condition gets serious
- Patient involvement with health care providers. For example, in many cultures, avoiding making direct eye contact is a show of respect
- Nonetheless, a care provider may worry if the same behavior indicates that her patient is sad. The level of knowledge and cooperation with treatment alternatives given by health care experts who do not share their cultural views. Some patients assume that a physician who does not provide an injection is not paying attention to their problems. Patient and provider perceptions of chronic illness and the various treatment options are examined.
What health professionals can do
Health care professionals are more likely to have favorable contacts with patients and to deliver better treatment if they are aware of the differences between their patients’ cultural values, beliefs, and practices and those held by the providers themselves. Following are some tips to assist you in providing care to and communicating with patients who are new to Canada: 3,4
- Consider how your own cultural views, attitudes, and behaviors may influence your relationships with patients. Consider the following: If you believe that a patient-provider relationship has been negatively impacted by cultural prejudice – whether your own or your patient’s – consider getting assistance. Respect, comprehend, and collaborate with people who have different cultural perspectives on what constitutes successful or suitable therapy. Make inquiries about and keep track of how your patients prefer to get health-care and treatment information. Make arrangements for a suitable interpreter if one is required. Pay close attention to what your patients are saying and make sure you understand what they are saying
- Inquire about and learn about the patient’s perceptions of their own health or sickness. It is important to acknowledge that families may benefit from complementary and alternative therapy. When suitable and particular conditions are present, inform them that the use of complementary and alternative medicine can cause a delay in biological testing or treatment, as well as the possibility of injury. Determine where the patient is in the process of adjusting to Canadian culture by “locating” him or her. Examine their network of support. What is the level of their linguistic proficiency? Negotiate a treatment plan that is founded on a common understanding and acceptance
- In Canada, the majority of health information is provided in print form. Examine the possibility that a patient or family might benefit from spoken or visual communications due to cultural differences or inadequate literacy.
Learn more about cultural competency, including specific ways for providing culturally competent care, by reading this article. Other sources provide useful tools and information that may be used to assist you. An e-learning program developed by SickKids Hospital in Toronto has been made available online. Two modules in particular may be of interest to you. They are: Cross-Cultural Communication and Parenting in a Multicultural Environment.
Providing health care to different cultural groups
Creating a handbook to assist health professionals in better understanding cultural preferences and features throughout the world would be a monumental endeavor of monumental proportions. Furthermore, any work of this nature would be skewed by the authors’ own cultural viewpoints. Health professionals in Canada are becoming increasingly varied in terms of their cultural backgrounds, and they perceive the world and the people they encounter through a variety of lenses. Health care practitioners, on the other hand, should gain skills in the areas of cultural competency and patient-centered care.
Above all, keep in mind the following:
- The creation of a handbook to assist health professionals in understanding cultural preferences and features throughout the world would be a monumental endeavor of monumental proportions. Furthermore, any work of this nature would be skewed by the authors’ own cultural viewpoints. Health professionals in Canada are becoming more varied in terms of their cultural backgrounds, and they perceive the world and the people they encounter through a variety of lenses. Health care practitioners, on the other hand, should gain skills in the areas of cultural competency and patient-centered care, as well as other areas. A compass for discovering, appreciating, and utilizing cultural similarities and differences to improve the quality of treatment and the results of patients can be provided by such abilities. The most important thing to keep in mind is that
- Additionally, there are other tools and resources for cultural competence. Culture matters workbook: Thirteen cultural categories
- American and host nation perspectives are examined in Coverdell, Paul D. World wise schools:Culture matters workbook: Thirteen cultural categories Gregory Juckett, Peace Corps Volunteer. Medicine that is cross-cultural in nature. Am Fam Physician. 2005
- Am Fam Physician. 2005
- A child and family-centered care center at SickKids Hospital (in Toronto, Ontario), the Centre for Innovation and Excellence in Child and Family-Centered Care. E-Learning Modules for Clinical Cultural Competence
- Clinical Cultural Competence
Webinar: Pay Attention to the Gap! Develop skills to navigate cultural issues with newcomer children, youth, and families on September 24, 2014 at the University of California, Los Angeles.
The most recent update was made in March of 2018.
How Does Your Culture Influence the People You Trust?
Jeanne Tsai, an associate professor of psychology at Stanford University, has conducted previous research on the link between culture and emotion, with a particular focus on European Americans and East Asians in particular. While European Americans are more likely to desire experiences of excitement (high-arousal positive states), according to this research, Asians would rather experience serenity (medium-arousal positive states) (low-arousal positive states). As a result, people were more likely to appreciate persons who displayed emotional states that they themselves aspired to experience—an “ideal affect match.” After considering the possibility that ideal affect match may influence not just liking but also willingness to allocate actual money to a stranger, Tsai, along with co-authorsBoKyung Park, Elizabeth Blevins, and Brian Knutson, hypothesized that it might.
When will a dictator give?
Jeanne Tsai, an associate professor of psychology at Stanford University, has conducted previous research on the link between culture and emotion, with a particular emphasis on European Americans and East Asians in the United States. While European Americans are more likely to desire experiences of excitement (high-arousal positive states), according to this research, Asians would rather experience serenity (low-arousal positive states) (low-arousal positive states). Individuals were more likely to like persons who exhibited emotional states that they themselves aspired to experience—an “ideal affect match,” as the researchers put it.
After considering the possibility that ideal affect match may impact not just liking but also willingness to allocate actual money to a stranger, Tsai, along with co-authorsBoKyung Park,Elizabeth Blevins, andBrian Knutson, wondered if it could.
Scanning for answers
So, what aspects of a perfect affect match may encourage people to share their experiences with others? Were they attracted to each other because of the way a matched stranger made them feel, or because they believed they shared values? Researchers conducted a second study in which European Americans and Koreans participated in repeated Dictator Games, but this time while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to find out (fMRI). Following that, participants were asked to estimate the trustworthiness of possible receivers as well as their other traits, such as friendliness and intellect.
One explanation for the decline in participation is that participants expected the receivers shared their ideals, however they were incorrect.
It has generally been difficult for academics to determine which emotional responses are associated with trust, according to Tsai.
These findings contribute to the understanding of why people from various cultures may trust persons who display a variety of emotional responses.
Enhancing sharing across cultures
How does an ideal affect match drive people to share their experiences with others? The way a matched stranger made them feel, or the sense that they shared values, were the factors that brought them together. Researchers conducted a second study in which European Americans and Koreans participated in repeated Dictator Games—this time while receiving functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)—to find out (fMRI). Following that, participants were asked to estimate the trustworthiness of potential receivers as well as other traits such as friendliness and intellect once again.
It is possible that participants thought that the receivers shared their values, which would explain the reduction in engagement levels.
It has generally been difficult for studies to determine which emotional responses are associated with trust, according to Tsai Because they differ from culture to culture, this might explain why.
In addition, Tsai’s research suggests that ideal affect match has a powerful effect on giving because it offers an unconscious signal that someone else shares our ideas and values. “This, in turn, makes them more trustworthy and encourages giving,” Tsai added.
Cultural Differences in Self and the Impact of Personal and Social Influences
People’s views of their own behavior have a long and illustrious history in Western-dominated social psychology, and studies of the implications of these observations on later attitudes and actions have been conducted extensively. Various contextual elements (e.g., volition and publicness) are examined and found to have moderating effects on individuals’ inclinations to align their attitudes/actions with their observed behaviors in studies conducted in this tradition. The study of the impacts of social factors and group pressure on human cognition and conduct, on the other hand, has a long historical heritage in academia.
The observations of their own actions have a greater effect on individuals from cultures that emphasize independence, but the observations of the behaviors of their peers have a greater influence on those from cultures that emphasize interdependence.
Individuals who are influenced by their own personal knowledge are those who have been influenced by their own observations of what they have said and done in the past.
It is the purpose of this chapter to examine how the impact of these two types of influence differs among cultures.
Sheena Iyengar and Joel Brockner’s study, “Cultural Differences in Self and the Impact of Personal and Social Influences,” was published in the journal Psychological Science. In The Practice of Social Influence in Multiple Cultures, the author discusses how to influence others. Wilhelmina Wosinska, Robert B. Cialdini, and Daniel W. Barrett are the editors of this volume. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, New Jersey, 2001. Each author’s name associated with a Columbia Business School faculty member is connected to a faculty research page, which has a list of other publications by that individual.
What influences the development of culture?
What factors have an impact on the evolution of culture?
Culture and Society:
Every society on the planet has its own distinct culture that distinguishes it from the others. America’s culture has grown popular around the world, and includes (but is not limited to) hamburgers, football, fast automobiles, movies, shopping, and fireworks, among other things.
Answer and Explanation:
Culture is impacted by a plethora of varied societal developments and trends that it is impossible to mention them all.
On the other hand, some of the most significant impacts include shifts. See the complete response below for more information.
Learn more about this topic:
From Chapter 4/Lesson 1, the types, elements, and subsets of culture are described. Discover what culture is all about. Explore the meaning of culture, gain an understanding of the numerous sorts of cultural groupings, and witness various categories and instances of culture in action.