What Factors Make Up Culture

Cultural Factors

Chinese and Japanese Paintings; Chinese and Japanese Paintings and Sculptures; Chinese and Japanese Paintings and Sculptures; IslamicArabic ArtArchitecture; Pre-Columbian Art Research Institute; Rings of Passion; White Lotus Gallery; World Wide Art Resources; World Wide Art Resources

Bibliography

R. A. Hahn is the editor of this volume (1994). Anthropology in the field of public health. Oxford University Press is based in New York. Helman, C. (2001). (1990). Culture, Health, and Illness are all intertwined. Butterworth-Heineman, Oxford, United Kingdom. McElroy, A., and Townsend, P. (2007). McElroy and Townsend (2007). (1996). The third edition of Medical Anthropology in Ecological Perspective is now available. Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado. B. D. Paul is the editor of this book (1955).

The Russell Sage Foundation is based in New York.

Culture: Definition, Influence and Factors Affecting Culture

Learn about the concept of culture, its effect, and the variables that shape it by reading this article.

Definition of Culture:

There is no single definition of culture, nor is there agreement among various thinkers on what it is. Mr. A.L. Korelaber and Mr. T. Parsons published a paper on the Concepts of Culture and of Social Systems in which they were co-authors. “Culture” has been described by the American Sociological Review as “a set of values, ideas, attitudes, and other significant symbols generated by a man to influence human conduct and the anti realities of that behavior as they are handed from one generation to the next.” According to another source, “culture refers to a set of values, beliefs, anti-facts, and other important symbols that assist individuals in communicating, interpreting, and evaluating their roles as members of a social group.” As stated by another writer, “culture is a collection of socially learned values that society accepts as a whole and imparts to its members through language and symbols.” As another definition, “culture” can be defined as “the largest simple grouping of people who are all members of the same distinctly unique social heritage.” Many philosophers believe that culture is an abstract and material element that is difficult to define, and that it is therefore difficult to define.

Cultural theory, according to some experts, is a difficult topic to grasp since “its major focus is on the largest component of social behavior in the entire community.” Psychologists, sociologists, and anthropologists investigate just one component of society, however in the field of culture, we analyze the complete fabric of society as a whole.

In some ways, culture may be thought of as the personality of a civilization.

Countries like India, with a lengthy history, people of diverse faiths, dialects, and cultures who have settled through centuries from different parts of the world and different portions of the nation, make the problem of defining all the more difficult to solve.

Many other countries, as well, have a diverse range of cultural traditions.

At the very least, as a consumer, the following behaviors are influenced by culture; however, they are not exhaustive of other cultures, particularly cultures from other countries, which is referred to as cross culture, nor are they indicative of greater influence from subcultures.

Attitude and Behaviours Influenced by Ones Culture:

1. Personality, which includes one’s sense of self and one’s place in society. 2. The use of language, or communication. 3. Appearance4. Dietary habits Religion and religious faiths, which are beliefs, are number five. 6. Marriage rituals and religious practices, as well as particular social customs 7. Relationship with others (system of marriage, family structure and relations, social and religious organisations, government) 8. Education system (including the function of churches, temples, mosques, and other religious institutions in the education system), i.e.

  1. 9.
  2. They varies significantly from one country to the next and from one region to the next.
  3. Values and social standards are number eleven (discussed later).
  4. Festivals are number thirteen.
  5. Products and services are number sixteen.
  6. 18.

Culture and its effects on society may include a variety of other factors, but because our goal is to understand the influence of culture on consumer behavior, we define culture as “the sum total of learned beliefs, values and customs that serve to direct the consumer behavior of members of a specific society.” Consequently, we broadly explore the following aspects in culture, all of which are dynamic and vary with the passage of time: the development and progress of knowledge, the effect of other cultural discoveries, globalization, and so on, but all of which are present in every civilization.

  • For example, in India, despite the effect of cross-cultural communication, education media, knowledge, and technological progress, we have not strayed from the traditions, practices, and beliefs that have been passed down to us from our ancestors.
  • Aside from the culture of a civilization, or a nation, there are significant cultural distinctions inside a nation.
  • To provide an example, in India, there are 29 states and six union territories that were created on the basis of distinctions in culture, which includes differences in customs, beliefs, and values.
  • India is home to a diverse range of religious traditions, the most prominent of which are Hinduism, Muslimism, Jainism, Sikhism, Christianity, and Buddhism.
  • Sub-cultures can also be classified according to factors such as gender, degree of education, age group, income, and career, among others.

It is possible to split society into any number of different subcultures, depending on the aim. However, as previously said, there are three stages of culture, which are depicted in the diagram below:

Factors Affecting Culture:

Sense of self and of society (personality), for example. 2nd: communication through the use of language 3. Appearances and 4. Eating customs 5) Religion and religious faiths, which is to say, religious convictions 6. Marriage traditions and religious practices, as well as other particular social practices 7. Relationships with other people (system of marriage, family structure and relations, social and religious organisations, government) 8. Education system (including the function of churches, temples, mosques, and other religious institutions in the education system), i.e.

  • 9.
  • In addition to timeliness, lateness to work and relaxation hours are also important considerations.
  • Values and societal standards, number eleven (discussed later).
  • Beliefs and faiths (religion, vegetarianism against meat eating, nonviolence versus reincarnation, fate and luck, and so on).
  • Art, music, pictures, television, radio, movies, theaters, and other forms of entertainment are examples of this.
  • Products and services are the sixteenth point.
  • 18 – Governmental statutes, societal customs, and religiously enacted legislation Though there are many other factors that can be included in culture and its effects on society, our goal is to understand the influence of culture on consumer behavior.

Consequently, we broadly explore the following aspects in culture, all of which are dynamic and vary with the passage of time: the growth and progress of knowledge, the effect of other cultural discoveries, globalization, and so on, but all of which are unique to each community.

The fact that untouchability exists in many places in India, particularly in rural areas, despite the fact that the Indian Constitution prohibits it is one of the reasons for its persistence there.

We split a nation into such cultures in order to isolate them as a result.

Like in the case of English, there are 18 official languages, as well as a large number of dialects and sub-regional languages that are segregated on a micro level in order to be separated from one another in such cultures.

However, there are disparities in ideas and religion among Hindus, Jains, and Christians, resulting in the formation of distinct sub-cultures within each group.

A large variety of sub-cultures exist as a result of differing values, work concepts, and beliefs.

Depending on the purpose, the civilization can be subdivided into any number of sub cultures. The phases of culture are depicted in the diagram below. As previously stated, there are three distinct stages of culture:

1. Values:

A value system, according to virtually every scholar, is the most essential component of culture that influences our behavior as consumers. In a civilization that is separate from our own, values are beliefs and standards that are accepted by the people who live there. To give an example, almost all cultures believe in the freedom of one’s thoughts, beliefs, and experiences, which has resulted in democracy, freedom of the press, free communication, an independent judiciary, the freedom to choose products according to one’s preferences, and the freedom of enterprise to develop products and new technologies while not exploiting consumers who have been given the right to file a complaint in the event of a deficiency in a product or service.

  • Hinduism and Jainism both believe in sacrificing one’s worldly pleasures and sense of belonging in order to benefit others.
  • While on the one hand, education and medical institutions were being created, on the other hand, their development was being regulated on a commercial basis.
  • Many individuals feel that anything they are lucky enough to get will come to them.
  • Many individuals have become lazy as a result of this, as opposed to Americans, Japanese, or Europeans who feel that everything is achievable with hard work and perseverance.
  • In India, spiritualism predominates over materialism, as opposed to the latter in the west.
  • As a result, Indians are perceived to be more trustworthy, a perception that has been challenged by recent political events as well as the exposure of several frauds.
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2. Norms:

Another major component of culture that has to do with public appearance is the social standards that govern how people should behave in public. For example, in the western hemisphere, there is complete freedom of attire, particularly at beaches, swimming pools, and hotels. In the west, excessive exposure of the body through clothing is considered obscene, and nudity in public or even in private is not permitted. This establishes the fashion, attire, and clothing. In India, it is considered bad manners to treat old people with disrespect.

  • The consumption pattern differs as a result of this social norm of public behavior.
  • Even the government provides older persons with discounts on train fares, income taxes, and pensions once they reach the age of retirement.
  • No Puja is complete without the presence of a wife, yet in the west, women are regarded as objects of sex and pleasure, while at the same time enjoying greater freedom of employment and travel than they do in India.
  • Lady shoppers and families with both husband and wife working have risen in spending power in recent years, which has created new sales opportunities for marketers.
  • The desire to seem younger than one’s actual age is another common feature shared by everyone, particularly women.
  • This desire has also caused individuals to become more health concerned, resulting in increased demand for preventative medications, tonics, and other health-promoting foods, as well as for foods that provide energy, such as milk, juices, and proteins.

This has resulted in increased demand for refrigerators, water coolers, air conditioners, heaters, microwave ovens, labor saving devices of countless varieties, and automobiles, as well as for faster travel and movement, better houses, hotels, and places of employment, where air conditioning is becoming increasingly common, even in India.

  • Efforts, optimism, and entrepreneurship appear to be another universally accepted rule of conduct.
  • Entrepreneurship is yet another typical behavior that has resulted in the creation of successful businesspeople all around the world.
  • Man is attempting to dominate nature and become his own master in many forms all throughout the world, to varying degrees.
  • Discovery, the construction of dams for irrigation and power generation, and other manifestations of this conviction and ambition, which are occasionally challenged by small groups, as in the case of the Narmada dam in Gujarat and the Tehri dam in Uttaranchal, respectively.
  • People all around the world are becoming more materialistic, want more luxuries and leisure, working to live rather than working to live, and seeking self satisfaction rather than self denial (sacrifice), which had been a basic pillar of Indian culture.
  • Women are now participating in all activities rather than remaining at home, since the traditional gender roles have shifted.
  • In emerging countries, the number of law-abiding citizens is decreasing, as is nationalistic sentiment.

Instead of relying on industry, there is now a large deal of reliance on information growth, such as IT.

Everywhere in the globe, it is thought that all members of society should have equal opportunity for education, employment, and personal success, regardless of their background.

There are many different sorts of discrimination in the entrance process.

Competitive examinations are held at Indian educational institutions and government services in order to give equal chances for all students, however there are certain exceptions for students from specific socioeconomic classes.

Increasingly, religious effects on society are waning, particularly among the younger population.

Consequently, its influence on culture is waning, which should be thoroughly investigated, and researchers should conduct surveys to determine the impact of this transition on consumer behavior.

The micro characteristics that have an impact on a certain group within a society are referred to as ethnic patterns, and they are dependent on race, geography, and other factors.

His or her behavior differs significantly from that of an Aryan or a person of Arabic descent.

Such groups are formed on the basis of nationality (for example, non-resident Indians in the United States), religion (for example, Hindus, Muslims, Sikhs, Christians, Jains, Budhs, and others in India), physical characteristics (for example, race), geographical locations (which are numerous throughout the world and in India), or other factors.

  1. There have been tensions between whites and blacks for a long time.
  2. As a result, these micro-cultural distinctions have a significant influence on consumers and are thus critical for marketers.
  3. The great industrialists, high-ranking executives, and professionals such as physicians, attorneys, and architects, among others, have developed their own micro-cultural environment.
  4. Scientists, technocrats, and researchers each have their own class.

The cultures of Bengali, Assamese, Tamalian, Hindi, and other language speakers differ from one another, but the cultures of people who speak a language like Hindi, which is spoken in a large number of Northern Indian states, differ from one state to another; thus, even for a single language, there can be more than one culture.

In addition, the advertising plan should take into consideration cultural variances.

It will be necessary to adapt the items to meet the demands of people from a variety of cultural backgrounds. In the case of fashion goods, such as garments, dresses, and cosmetics, it is necessary to take cultural differences into account in an appropriate manner.

What Is Culture?

The image is courtesy of Getty Images/Saha Entertainment. Culture is defined as the features and knowledge of a certain group of people, and it includes language, religion, food, social behaviors, music, and the arts, among other things. Cultural patterns, interactions, cognitive constructs, and comprehension are defined by theCenter for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition as common patterns of behavior and interaction that are learnt via socialization, according to the Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition As a result, culture may be defined as the development of a group identity that is influenced by social patterns that are exclusive to the group.

In her interview with Live Science, Cristina De Rossi, an anthropologist at Barnet and Southgate College in London explained that “culture encompasses everything from religion to food to clothing to language to marriage to music to beliefs about what is right and wrong.” “Culture encompasses everything from religion to food to clothing to language to marriage to music to beliefs about what is right and wrong,” she added.

Many nations, such as France, Italy, Germany, the United States, India, Russia, and China, are known for their diverse cultures, with their customs, traditions, music, art, and cuisine serving as a constant pull for tourists to these countries and others.

As De Rossi explained, “it shares its origin with a number of other terms that are associated with actively supporting development.”

Western culture

The fall of the Roman Empire had a significant impact on Western civilization. The image is courtesy of Chase Dekker Wild-Life Images/Getty Images. ) In recent years, according to Khan University, the phrase “Western culture” has come to refer to the cultures of European nations as well as those countries that have been extensively impacted by European immigration, such as the United States. Western culture may be traced back to the Classical Period of the Greco-Roman era (the fourth and fifth centuries B.C.) and the development of Christianity in the fourteenth century as its origins.

  1. Throughout the past 2,500 years, a slew of historical events have contributed to the development of Western culture.
  2. 476, paved the way for the development of a succession of often-warring nations in Europe, each with its own culture, after which the Middle Ages began.
  3. According to Ohio State University historian John L.
  4. As a result of elites being forced to pay more for scarce labor, survivors in the working class have gained more power.

Today, Western culture can be found in practically every country on the planet, and its influences may be traced back to its origins.

Eastern culture

Buddhism has a significant role in the civilizations of various Eastern countries. Nachi Falls, Japan, is home to the Buddhist temple Seigantoji, which can be seen here. The image is courtesy of Getty Images/Saha Entertainment. Far East Asian culture (which includes China, Japan, Vietnam, North Korea, and South Korea) and the Indian subcontinent are commonly referred to as Eastern culture in general. When compared to Western culture, Eastern culture was heavily influenced by religion during its early development, but the growth and harvesting of rice had a significant impact on its development as well, according to a research article published in the journal Rice in 2012.

  1. This umbrella term, on the other hand, encompasses a vast array of traditions and histories.
  2. Thus, Hinduism rose to prominence as a significant force in Indian culture, while Buddhism continued to have an impact on the cultures of both China and Japan.
  3. In the case of Chinese Buddhism, for example, according to Jiahe Liu and Dongfang Shao, the philosophy of Taoism, which stresses compassion, frugality, and humility, was taken.
  4. During the period 1876 to 1945, for example, Japan ruled or occupied Korea in various forms.
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Latin culture

For certain Eastern civilizations, Buddhism is a significant component of their identity. Nachi Falls, Japan, is home to the Buddhist temple Seigantoji. Photograph via Getty Images/Saha Entertainment. Far East Asian culture (which includes China, Japan, Vietnam, North Korea, and South Korea) and the Indian subcontinent are typically referred to as Eastern culture in broad terms. According to a research article published in the journal Rice in 2012, Eastern culture, like its Western counterpart, was heavily influenced by religion during its early development.

Overall, Eastern culture makes fewer distinctions between secular society and religious philosophy than Western culture, which is a good thing for everyone.

To give an example, according to the Encyclopedia Britannica, Buddhism started in India, but it was mostly replaced by Hinduism by the 12th century.

Religious beliefs were shaped by pre-existing cultural notions in these locations.

During the period 1876 to 1945, for example, Japan controlled or occupied Korea in some capacity. According to History.com, many Koreans were persuaded or compelled to change their surnames to match Japanese surnames during this period.

Middle Eastern culture

Buddhism has an important role in the civilizations of various Eastern countries. Nachi Falls in Japan is home to the Buddhist temple Seigantoji, which may be seen here. (Photo courtesy of Getty/Saha Entertainment.) Far East Asian culture (which includes China, Japan, Vietnam, North Korea, and South Korea) and the Indian subcontinent are commonly referred to as Eastern culture. According to a study report published in the journal Rice in 2012, Eastern culture was significantly impacted by religion throughout its early history, but it was also heavily influenced by the planting and harvesting of rice.

  1. However, this umbrella term encompasses a vast array of traditions and histories.
  2. As a result, Hinduism rose to prominence as a significant cultural force in India, while Buddhism retained its hold on China and Japan.
  3. For example, according to Jiahe Liu and Dongfang Shao, Chinese Buddhism drew inspiration from the philosophy of Taoism, which stresses compassion, frugality, and humility.
  4. Between 1876 and 1945, Japan, for example, governed or invaded Korea in various forms.

African culture

In Kenya, Africa, an African woman from the Maasai tribe sits with her infant near to her home, where she lives. (Photo courtesy of hadynyah/Getty Images.) ) Africa has the longest history of human habitation of any continent: it has been inhabited since the beginning of time. According to the Natural History Museum in London, humans started there approximately 400,000 years ago and began to spread to other parts of the world around the same time period. Tom White, the museum’s senior curator of non-insect invertebrates, and his colleagues were able to find this by examining Africa’s ancient lakes and the species that lived in them.

  1. As of the publication of this article, this research provides the earliest evidence for the existence of hominin species on the Arabian peninsula.
  2. One of the most distinguishing characteristics of this culture is the enormous number of ethnic groups spread over the continent’s 54 countries.
  3. Africa has been importing and exporting its culture for millennia; according to The Field Museum, East African commercial ports served as a vital link between the East and the West as early as the seventh century.
  4. With a single description, it would be hard to capture the entirety of African cultural diversity.
  5. Traditions from traditional Sub-Saharan African civilizations include those of the Maasai people of Tanzania and Kenya, the Zulu people of South Africa, and the Batwa people of Central Africa, to name a few.

The Batwa, for example, are a tribe of indigenous people that typically live a forager’s lifestyle in the jungle, and they are one such group. Maasai herders, on the other hand, herd their sheep and goats on broad pastures and rangelands.

What is cultural appropriation?

Cultural appropriation, according to the Oxford Reference dictionary, is defined as “the taking over of creative or artistic forms, motifs, or practices by one cultural group from another.” A non-Native American wearing a Native American headdress as a fashion item would be one example of this practice. The fashion house Victoria’s Secret was highly condemned in 2012 after a model was dressed in a headdress that looked like a Lakota war bonnet, according to the newspaper USA Today. According to the Khan Academy, these headdresses are filled with important significance, and wearing one was a luxury gained by chieftains or warriors by deeds of courage and valor.

Recent history shows that Gucci encountered a similar reaction in 2019 after selling a product known as “the indy complete turban,” which sparked widespread outrage among the Sikh community, according to Esquire magazine.

Turbans have been worn as ‘hats’ by your models, although practicing Sikhs knot their turbans properly fold-by-fold.

Constant change

It is defined as follows by Oxford Reference: “A phrase used to indicate the adoption of creative or artistic forms, motifs, and practices by one cultural group from another” (cultural appropriation). A non-Native American wearing a Native American headdress as a fashion item would be one example of this phenomenon. For example, according to USA Today, Victoria’s Secret was roundly attacked in 2012 after dressing a model in a headdress that looked like a Lakota battle bonnet. According to the Khan Academy, these headdresses are filled with important significance, and wearing one was a luxury obtained by chieftains or warriors via acts of courage in battle.

Gucci also suffered a similar reaction for selling an item known as “the indy complete turban,” which sparked widespread outrage within the Sikh community, according to Esquire, which was then discontinued.

He stated: “In the eyes of practicing Sikhs, the Sikh Turban is not just a trendy new accessory for white models, but rather a religious article of faith.

However, practicing Sikhs tie their Turbans carefully fold-by-fold, as opposed to your models who wore them as “hats” In the same way that selling counterfeit Gucci merchandise is bad, using phony Sikh turbans is far worse.”

The 8 Forces that Shape Group Culture

Recognizing How Our Beliefs Shape Our Behaviorex pec ta tions |,ekspek’tSHns| noun: A collection of strong beliefs about future events and anticipated results.ex pec ta tions |,ekspek’tSHns| verb: To expect something to happen. With respect to our teaching, expectations function as “belief systems” or “action theories” that impact our own efforts in connection to the accomplishment of desired goals and outcomes. Consequently, expectations not only direct our trajectory, but also serve as an internal compass that keeps us going in the direction of our objective.

  1. LANGUAGE: Recognizing and Appreciating Its Subtle Yet Profound Influence A language is a system of communication used by a community to negotiate shared meaning and to build group coherence and understanding around ideas, behaviors, and actions.
  2. Language, as a culture maker, assists us in directing our attention and taking action.
  3. This is the power of words that is concealed from view: Its capacity to gently send signals that influence our way of thinking, our feeling of self, and our sense of belonging to a community.
  4. Every one of these notions of time is in play in my role as a culture maker.
  5. It is possible to scaffold and weave a connecting thread between learning opportunities when we sequence events, construct moments, and reflect on activities in order to generate a sense of unity.
  6. See ourselves through the eyes of our students mod el ing (Brit.
  7. modelling) noun: Modeling, given its role as a culture shaper, functions on both an explicit and an implicit level.
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Our activities are continually on show for our pupils, whether explicitly or implicitly.

Adult role models surround pupils and help to bring a world to life that they can choose to enter or reject if they so choose.

noun:A set of conditions or circumstances that make it possible to do or achieve something op por tu ni ties |├Ąpr’t(y)oonits |

It is easy for chances to be overlooked, to go untapped, or to languish in weak cultures; yet, in strong cultures, there are numerous opportunities for development, advancement, and inventiveness.

Learning and thinking are supported and scaffolded through routines.

noun: A sequence of acts aimed to attain a given objective in the most efficient and productive way possible.

They serve as the foundation of the classroom, guiding the majority of the activities that take place there.

After a while, routines become habitual patterns of behavior for both individuals and the entire community.

When two or more items interact with one another, a dynamic phenomena called interaction occurs.

noun: The dynamic phenomenon that occurs when two or more objects interact with one another.

Interactions help to weave the social fabric that links individuals together in a sense of belonging and belonging.

A teacher’s interactions with students in a culture of thinking demonstrate a respect for and an interest in students’ thinking, while also supporting their growth as respected, competent persons who are capable of making valuable contributions to the community.

noun: The physical space occupied by a group or individual, including its design, aesthetic, setup, displays, artifacts and furnishings) noun: The physical space occupied by a group or individual, including its design, aesthetic, setup, displays, artifacts and furnishings As a culture shaper, the physical environment serves as an organization’s “body language,” communicating its values and essential signals even while the organization’s residents are absent from the premises.

It is the physical environment of a school or a classroom that will determine how individuals interact, behave, and perform in such environments.

Despite the fact that most educators inherit a physical environment that was designed for a different paradigm of learning, there is still much that can be done to enable and encourage a culture of thinking in that place.

7 cultural factors you need to consider when choosing your next export market

It is important for businesses to take into consideration the lifestyles and cultures of the nations to which they are considering expanding their operations. In a target nation, this information may be utilized to establish if a product or service would be deemed to be vital, beneficial, luxurious, or even undesirable based on its perceived value in the target country. Some items and services may even be deemed culturally inacceptable by some consumers. Research into culture and lifestyle may also help to detect possible issues with translation, marketing, and advertisement.

Those who export consumer items will be more influenced by a country’s culture than those who export industrial goods or components, because consumer products must be developed to fulfill the demands of the customer as well as the values and beliefs of that consumer.

1. Material culture

In this category are technological goods that are used by the majority of the population, personal transportation (including car ownership), and the availability of resources such as electricity, natural gas, telephone service, the Internet, and wireless communication.

2. Cultural preferences

It is inevitable that each worldwide market would have distinct tastes for items, foods, product/food quality standards, and even brand names. Shapes, colors, and distinctive characteristics may all have varied cultural connotations depending on how they are used. These cultural variations must be taken into consideration when determining if a product is fit for a certain market or whether it may be modified to achieve greater commercial success. For example, Fanta soda is orange-flavored in order to appeal to the North American audience.

Depending on where you live, Fanta may be flavoured with peach or passion fruit in Botswana or passion fruit or flowers in France or Japan.

3. Languages

It has an influence on marketing, brand names, the collecting of information through surveys and interviews, advertising, and the management of commercial interactions when different languages are spoken and utilized in different countries. Certain nations have more than one official language, and some sections of a country may speak a different language than other regions. Taking Canada as an example, the country has two official languages, with a third or fourth language spoken in a number of different regions.

The number of languages spoken in a country is typically a fairly good indicator of the amount of cultural and societal variety present within that country. Although just one language is spoken in a country, it is possible to have areas with a great deal of cultural variety.

4. Education

If a region’s typical level of finished education is high, it can provide insight into the quality of its future labor force as well as the status of its customers.

5. Religion

Religion is a significant cultural influencer that may have an impact on a wide range of elements of life, including the status of women in society, restrictions for food and beverage intake, dress preferences, and holiday traditions, among others.

6. Ethics and values

It is possible that they will have an influence on international commerce, particularly when undertaken from a foreign country. However, it is critical for researchers to note that not everyone in a target market adheres to the same set of ethical and moral principles and standards. They are always influenced by factors such as social standing, geographical location, ethnicity, and religion. Researchers should also take into account the way a potential market conducts itself in terms of human rights.

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7. Social organization

When a nation is being researched as a possible export market, factors such as the makeup of family groupings, the predominance of special-interest organizations and attitudes toward them, racial diversity, and leisure lifestyles are all vital to take into account, among others. Case study: Changes in South Korea’s way of life have created a market for exports. Until 2004, South Koreans were required to work a six-day week. The South Korean government began reducing the length of the workweek from six to five days in 2004, beginning in 2004.

Since 2011, all businesses in South Korea have adhered to a five-day workweek schedule.

So much so that it has influenced eating habits: between 2005 and 2007, two hundred new restaurants debuted in the capital city of Seoul, serving Western-style brunch delicacies such as blueberry pancakes, bagels, steaks, and bacon and eggs, among other things.

Product or service potential

It is possible for a corporation to determine whether or not a market is promising based on the information acquired via cultural research. When one or more international markets appear to be suitable for a company to export to, international trade researchers must gather additional information in order to rule out any opportunities where the risk level is too high or the returns will be too low to justify the financial expense of exporting to those markets. Also important is that they concentrate on the real potential of the company’s product or service in the markets that look to have promise.

Also useful in identifying possible difficulties in the areas of marketing, brand names and advertising is market research.

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