What Elements Of Culture Thrived During The Tokugawa Shogunate

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Edo culture

Date range: 1603 – 1867 Location:Japan Edo culture is a period of Japanese history that corresponds to the Tokugawa era of rule (1603–1867) and is defined as follows: Tokugawa Ieyasu, Japan’s first Tokugawawashogun, chose Edo (present-day Tokyo) as the country’s new capital, and the city grew to be one of the country’s largest cities and the center of a thriving urban culture during his reign. When it came to literature, Basho devised poetry forms that would later become known as haiku, and Ihara Saikaku wrote virtuoso comedic linked-verse and funny novels.

Following the introduction of polychrome woodblock printing methods, it became feasible for average Japanese citizens to get reproductions of well-known kabuki performers or fashion-forward courtesans (seeukiyo-e).

Japan’s most ancient poetry and written history were highlighted by Kokugaku (“National Learning”), a scholarly journal dedicated to Japan’s national learning.

Neo-Confucianism was very prevalent during this time period.

Kenneth Pletcher has changed and updated this article in the most recent version.

Tokugawa period

Frequently Asked Questions

What happened during the Tokugawa period?

Known also as the Edo era, the Tokugawa period (1603–1867) was the penultimate period of traditionalJapan and was characterized by internal peace, political stability, and economic progress under the rule of the Shogunate (military dictatorship) created byTokugawa Ieyasu. The power of potentially hostile domains (tozama) was balanced by strategically placed allies (fudai) and collateral houses under the leadership of Ieyasu, who achieved hegemony over the entire country as shogun (shimpan). Beginning in 1635, Tokugawa Iemitsure compelled the domanial lords, ordaimyo, to establish houses in Edo (modern Tokyo), the Tokugawa administrative headquarters, and to stay there for six months every other year as part of a broader plan of control over the domanial realm.

  • Iemitsu Tokugawa was the founder of the Tokugawa shogunate.
  • As part of a systematic plan to maintain stability, the social order was officially frozen, and mobility between the four classes (warriors, farmers, artisans, and merchants) was prohibited.
  • Cole Collection (M.84.31.332) at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, the social order was officially frozen as part of the systematic plan to maintain stability.
  • Those in positions of power were prohibited from engaging in nonagricultural activities since they constituted 80 percent of the population.
  • Fear of foreign ideas and military interference were two other aspects of the Tokugawa’s preoccupation with political stability, according to historians.
  • The implementation of measures to eject them from the land culminated in the passage of three exclusion decrees in the 1630s, which effectively prohibited the practice of Christianity entirely.
  • The prohibition on Japanese nationals traveling abroad or returning from abroad began in 1633, and foreign contact was confined to a handful of Chinese and Dutch merchants who were still permitted to trade through the southern port of Nagasaki during this time period.

The Tokugawa shogunate placed a strong focus on agricultural production, which resulted in a significant increase in the size of that economic sector.

Sake brewing, the manufacturing of exquisite silk and cotton textiles, the manufacture of paper and porcelain, as well as the marketing of these goods, were all thriving in the cities and towns of the time.

This prosperous merchant class carried with it a thriving urban culture that found expression in new literary and artistic genres as a result of their rise to prominence (seeGenroku period).

Mrs.

In contrast, while merchants and traders continued to flourish far into the 18th century, daimyo and samurai began to suffer from financial troubles at this time.

They had no other options.

Tokugawa shogunate had to deal with peasant uprisings and samurai dissatisfaction, as well as financial difficulties, during its final 30 years of rule in Japan’s history.

By the 1860s, many people demanded the restoration of direct imperial rule as a means of unifying the country and alleviating the prevailing problems.

Less than a year later, the Meijiemperor was reinstated as the absolute ruler of Japan (seeMeiji Restoration). Those in charge of editing the Encyclopaedia Britannica Michael Ray has made several revisions and updates to this article in the most recent version.

How did the social structure of Japan compare with that of medieval Europe? – SidmartinBio

Japan’s Tokugawa era (1603-26), also known as the Edo era (1603-26), was the country’s penultimate period of conventional rule, a period of internal peace, political stability, and economic progress under the shogunate (military dictatorship) established byTokugawa Ieyasu. The strength of potentially hostile domains (tozama) was balanced by carefully positioned friends (fudai) and collateral households, allowing Ieyasu to attain dominion over the whole country as shogun (shimpan). Tokugawa Iemitsureordered the domanial lords, ordaimyo, to establish homes in Edo (modern Tokyo), the Tokugawa administrative headquarters, and to stay there for six months every other year as part of a further policy of control, commencing in 1635.

  1. Iemitsu Tokugawa was the founder of the Tokugawa clan.
  2. The social order was officially frozen, and mobility between the four classes (warriors, farmers, artisans, and merchants) was prohibited as part of a systematic plan to maintain stability, according to the Herbert R.
  3. The capital and other castle towns became the home of a large number of members of the warrior class, known as samurai, who rose through the ranks to become important officials.
  4. This was done in order to secure a steady and consistent source of income for those in charge.
  5. Having become aware that the colonial expansion of Spain and Portugal in Asia had been made possible by the activities of Roman Catholic missionaries, the Tokugawa shoguns grew to regard the missionaries as a potential danger to their authority.
  6. The Tokugawa shogunate also formally established a policy of national isolation when it issued these directives, which was a first in Japanese history.
  7. From the 1680s until the early 1700s, the national economy grew at a brisk pace.

Moreover, the expansion of trade and manufacturing was aided by the establishment of big metropolitan centers such as Edo, Sasakawa, and Kyoto, which were encouraged by the government’s efforts to centralize power and its success in keeping peace in the aftermath of World War II.

Wholesalers and exchange brokers arose as a result of this surge in commercial activity, and the ever-increasing usage of cash and credit resulted in the emergence of strong financiers as well.

The Hanshozuku Bijin Soroi (Hanshozuku Bijin Soroi) is a novel by Masanobu Okumura published in Japan.

Mrs.

In contrast, although merchants and traders continued to flourish well into the 18th century, daimyo and samurai began to suffer from financial troubles about the same time period.

This was the principal source of their income.

During its final 30 years in power, the Tokugawa shogunate was confronted with peasant uprisings and samurai unrest, as well as financial difficulties.

By the 1860s, many people demanded the restoration of direct imperial rule as a means of uniting the country and alleviating the problems that were prevalent.

Meiji Emperor was restored to absolute power less than a year after the event (seeMeiji Restoration). In the Encyclopaedia Britannica, the editors write about: Michael Ray has changed and updated this essay several times in the last year.

What was the Tokugawa culture?

Japan’s Tokugawa era (1603-26), also known as the Edo era (1603-26), was the country’s penultimate period of conventional rule, a period of internal peace, political stability, and economic progress under theshogunate (military dictatorship) established byTokugawa Ieyasu. The strength of potentially hostile domains (tozama) was balanced by strategically positioned allies (fudai) and collateral households under the leadership of Ieyasu, who secured sovereignty over the whole country as Shogun (shimpan).

  1. It took more than 250 years for the Tokugawa shogunate to establish a system of semi-autonomous domains under the direction of a central authority.
  2. As part of a systematic plan to maintain stability, the social order was officially frozen, and mobility between the four classes (warriors, farmers, artisans, and merchants) was prohibited.
  3. Cole Collection (M.84.31.332).
  4. Peasants, who constituted 80 percent of the population, were prohibited from engaging in non-agricultural activities in order to provide a stable and consistent source of income for those in positions of authority and to protect the environment.
  5. Recognizing that the colonial expansion of Spain and Portugal in Asia had been made possible by the work of Roman Catholic missionaries, the Tokugawa shoguns came to regard the missionaries as a threat to their authority.
  6. Furthermore, by issuing these orders, the Tokugawa shogunate declared that it would pursue a policy of national seclusion.
  7. From the 1680s to the early 1700s, the national economy experienced rapid growth.
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Moreover, the expansion of commerce and manufacturing was aided by the development of large urban centers such as Edo, Sasakawa, and Kyoto, which were encouraged by the government’s efforts to centralize power and its success in maintaining peace.

Wholesalers and exchange brokers arose as a result of the increase in mercantile activity, and the ever-increasing use of currency and credit resulted in the rise of powerful financiers.

Okumura Masanobu:Hanshozuku Bijin Soroi (Hanshozuku Bijin Soroi) On display at the Philadelphia Museum of Art is Okumura Masanobu’s ukiyo-e colour woodcut Hanshozuku Bijin Soroi, a Tokugawa period ukiyo-e colour woodcut by Okumura Masanobu, from the Tokugawa period.

Anne Archbold generously donated this painting to the Philadelphia Museum of Art as a courtesy.

There was a fixed stipend tied to agricultural production, which had not kept pace with the rest of the national economy.

In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, the government attempted a number of reforms to reduce the fiscal burden on the warrior class, but the financial strain on the warrior class grew worse as time went on.

Many people believed that the regime’s continued existence was jeopardized by these factors, which were compounded by the growing threat of Western incursion.

Chish and Satsuma, two powerful southwesterntozamadomains, exerted the most pressure on the Tokugawa government, ultimately leading to the overthrow of the last shogun, Hitosubashi Keiki (or Yoshinobu), in 1867.

The Meijiemperor was restored to supreme power less than a year later (seeMeiji Restoration). The Encyclopaedia Britannica’s Editors Michael Ray has most recently revised and updated this article.

What elements of culture thrived during the Tokugawa shogunate?

What aspects of culture flourished under the reign of the Tokugawa Shogunate? Traditional, tragic roh play, realistic fiction, haiku, and kabuki theater are all examples of genres.

What are three things European and Japanese feudalism have in common?

  • Land ownership serves as the foundation of all feudal systems. Peasants and lords were both born into fixed caste systems, meaning that they were always descended from peasants and descended from lords. Fealty (loyalty) was an oath taken by knights and samurai in the presence of their rulers.

How did the Portuguese influence Japanese society and culture?

The entrance of the Portuguese in Japan with guns, weapons, and firearms capabilities affected Japan’s decision to end the civil war by the use of these guns and firearms. Japan then began manufacturing their own weaponry and increased the overall quality of the weapons. The improved skills in the manufacture of firearms contributed significantly to the unification of Japanese society.

Why was Tokugawa Ieyasu so important?

Tokugawa Ieyasu (1542-1616) was the creator and first shogun of the Tokugawa shogunate, or military government, which ruled Japan from 1600 until 1867 and was the most powerful military administration in the world at the time. An important factor in Nobunaga’s early success was his alliance with Tokugawa Ieyasu, the youthful daimyo of a nearby domain. This partnership was one of the most important factors in Nobunaga’s early success.

How did Portuguese influence Japanese society and culture?

During the Japanese resistance against the attack on the Kyusu harbor, which eventually became a center for commerce and economic operations, the Portuguese provided assistance to the Japanese. The entrance of the Portuguese in Japan with guns, weapons, and firearms capabilities affected Japan’s decision to end the civil war by the use of these guns and firearms.

What was the Tokugawa shogunate known for?

During the reign of Tokugawa Ieyasu’s dynasty of shoguns, Japan saw 250 years of peace and prosperity, which included the creation of a new merchant class and the expansion of urbanization. Additionally, they attempted to isolate Japanese society from Westernizing forces, notably Christianity, in order to protect themselves from external influence.

How are Tokugawa Japan and medieval Europe similar?

“Despite the fact that they grew in isolation from one another, there were many striking similarities between the social and military/warrior elements of Tokugawa Japan and those of Medieval Europe,” writes the author. Which of the following statements do you agree with, somewhat agree with, or disagree with?

How did the shogunate compare to medieval Europe?

It was possible to move up or down the Japanese social pyramid, though it was difficult. In medieval Europe, your position defined your power and influence, however in shogunate Japan, the shogun was more influential than the emperor, despite the fact that he was a lower-ranking official than the latter. In Japan, the peasant sections were divided into numerous strata, depending on what you did and how difficult the task was.

What was the religion of the Tokugawa shogunate?

The beliefs of the Tokugawa Shogunate were as follows: In Japan during the beginning of the Tokugawa Period, it is believed that there were 300,000 Christians; nevertheless, the Shogunate was not pleased with this and was not just dissatisfied with it. Christianity was driven underground in the United States, while it was outlawed completely in Japan.

Who was the head of government in the Tokugawa period?

It was the shogun who served as the head of state, and they were all descended from the Tokugawa family.

In Japan, the Tokugawa shogunate reigned from Edo Castle, and this time is referred to as the Edo period since it lasted for more than a hundred years. This period is often referred to as the Tokugawa period or the pre-modern period (Kinsei ()).

how did tokugawa shogunate influence japanese society

During the Tokugawa era, the Japanese government implemented a severe social stratification system, which organized the bulk of the country’s social structure into a hierarchical hierarchy of social classes. According to their profession, Japanese individuals were allocated to a hereditary class that was directly inherited by their offspring, and these classes were themselves inherited by their children. In conjunction with the ascent of Zen Buddhism and the interest of many important monks in Chinese culture, the shgunate acquired the arts of Chinese literature, Confucian studies, ritualized drinking of tea, ink monochrome paintings, garden design, and calligraphy, among other disciplines.

How did the Tokugawa shogunate gain power in Japan?

Tokugawa Shogunate (Japanese:, Tokugawa Shogunate) (n.) Following the collapse of the Ashikaga Shogunate in 1573, competing daimyo battled it out for control of the Japanese empire. Tokugawa Ieyasu beat his opponents and was subsequently awarded the title of shogun by the emperor of Japan. A shogunate was established under him, which lasted for more than 250 years.

How did Sakoku affect Japan’s economy?

Sakoku was a long era of calm and peace in Japan, which benefited the country’s economy by reducing disturbances and eliminating the need to spend money on wars. Farmers were able to concentrate on growing commercial crops such as cotton and silk, as well as handcraft items, because of the peace.

How did the Tokugawa shogunate take control of Japan?

The Alternative Attendance System (AAS) is a political order. A system of “centralized feudalism” was used to maintain political order under the Tokugawa shogunate. … Due to its hereditary military control, the Tokugawa shoguns dominated the country from 1600 or 1603 to 1868, when the country was united. Robert Oxnam is the author of this work. Tokugawa Ieyasu was able to seize control of the entire country throughout his reign.

What did the shogunate do?

What was the shogunate all about? Japan’s shogunate was a hereditary military dictatorship that ruled from 11192 until 1867. In legal terms, the shogun was subordinate to the emperor, but as Japan developed into a feudal system, control of the military became synonymous with control over the whole country.

Why was the shogunate established in Japan?

The Tokugawa shogunate reigned from 1600 until 1868. Following Hideyoshi’s death in the aftermath of the unsuccessful invasion of Korea, Tokugawa Ieyasu gained control of the country with victory at the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600 and founded a shogunate administration in Edo (now known as Tokyo) the following year.

What compelled the Tokugawa shogunate to eliminate foreign influence?

Due to apprehensions of being captured, the Tokugawa shogunate sought to isolate Japan from outside influence. Additionally, they were concerned about alien ideologies impacting culture.

What did the Tokugawa shogunate trade?

Cotton, sugar, raw silk, and tea were among the goods that Japan purchased from China and brought into the country. A large portion of Japan’s silver exports went to China in order to balance the country’s trade balance. Japan exported silver to China through the ports of Nagasaki, Tsushima, and Ryukyu, with the majority of the silver coming straight from the city of Nagasaki itself.

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How did the Tokugawa shogunate legitimize and consolidate power?

In order to justify their reign and ensure stability, theshoguns preached a Neo-Confucian philosophy that strengthened the social hierarchy by placing warriors first, followed by peasants, artisans, and merchants.

The early economy was built on agriculture, with rice serving as a unit of measure for economic prosperity.

Why did the Tokugawa shogunate fall?

When money economy grew, the merchant class rose to prominence, but because their social and political standing remained low, they sought to overthrow the government. The government was weakened as a result of this. The union of Satsuma and Choshu was instrumental in bringing about the eventual fall of the Shogunate. During the reign of Tokugawa Ieyasu’s dynasty of shoguns, Japan saw 250 years of peace and prosperity, which included the creation of a new merchant class and the expansion of urbanization.

What was the structure of society in Tokugawa Japan?

What was the social structure like in Tokugawa Japan at the time? The emperor, the shogun, who served as the ultimate military commander, the daimyo, the powerful landholding samurai, Samurai Warriors, peasants, and craftsmen were all part of the Japanese society at the time.

What elements of culture thrived during the Tokugawa shogunate?

What aspects of culture flourished under the reign of the Tokugawa Shogunate? Traditional, tragic roh play, realistic fiction, haiku, and kabuki theater are all examples of genres. What impact did the introduction of Portuguese weapons into Japan have on the traditional Japanese warrior’s way of life?

Why did the Tokugawa shoguns concentrate government power?

What was the motivation behind the Tokugawa Shoguns’ concentration of government power? Minorities, such as ethnic Japanese, constituted a minority of the population. Japanese political power was decentralized, as was the Japanese economic structure. Western nations sought to divide Japan into areas of influence during the Second World War.

What were Tokugawa Ieyasu’s beliefs and values?

Ieyasu, the first shogun of Tokugawa Japan, was influenced by Toneo-Confucianism. Tokugawa Japan’s established orthodox social/political worldview eventually evolved from this. It was Zhu Xi, a Chinese scholar who lived in the twelfth century, who best expressed the neo-Confucianism espoused by Ieyasu and successive Tokugawa shoguns (1130-1200).

What was the Tokugawa shogunate point of view concerning people outside of Japan?

What was the Tokugawa Shogunate’s point of view on individuals living outside of Japan in 1634, according to the Tokugawa Laws of Japan, was revealed? He didn’t want to be associated with foreigners or with things that were not native to Japan. He also did not want his Japanese people to have any outside contacts because if they did, they would be subjected to the death sentence.

What was the Tokugawa Shogunate quizlet?

In Japan, the Tokugawa shogunate ruled from 1853 and 1867, a time during which the country reversed its isolationist foreign policy known as sakoku and modernized, transitioning from a feudal shogunate to a Meiji administration. It occurs at the conclusion of the Edo period and just preceding the Meiji era.

How did the Tokugawa deal with outsiders?

Japanese rulers, the Tokugawa Shogunate, governed from 1603 to 1867. The Tokugawa shogunate prohibited practically all foreigners from entering the country out of fear that additional interaction would erode their grip on the government and the people.

Once a year, one Dutch ship was allowed to dock in Nagasaki for the purpose of trading. The prohibition did not apply just to citizens of European countries.

How did Rangaku influence Japan?

Some people in Japan gained knowledge of many aspects of the scientific and technological revolution that was taking place in Europe at the time through the use of Rangaku, which assisted the country in developing the beginnings of a theoretical and technological scientific base, which helps to explain Japan’s success in its radical and rapid modernization.

What was the impact of Sakoku?

The ramifications of the decrees When the Sakoku Edict was implemented, however, it resulted in Japan closing its doors to all European powers (with the exception of the Dutch) and restricting the influence of other countries. And the edicts didn’t come to an end until 1635. This was not the first or last such decree, nor was it the most recent.

What were the economics of Tokugawa Japan?

The Economy of the Tokugawa Shogunate They grew rice as their principal crop, but they also grew sesame seed oil, indigo, sugar cane, mulberry, tobacco, and cotton. Japan was also a major producer of sesame seed oil. Because of this, the Japanese commerce and manufacturing industries were expanding, resulting in an increase in urban culture.

How did the Tokugawa unify Japan?

After Tokugawa Ieyasu seized control of Japan, the Tokugawa succeeded in unifying the country by retaining a strong feudal presence.

How did the Portuguese influence Japanese society?

After Tokugawa Ieyasu gained control of Japan, the Tokugawa succeeded in unifying the country by retaining a strong feudal presence.

How did the Tokugawa control the Daimyos?

One of the most significant ways in which the Daimyo fell under the centralizing influence of the Tokugawa shogunate was through the introduction of centralized administration. The daimyo were compelled to rotate their residence between their domains and the shogun’s court in Edo (now Tokyo) under a system known as sankin ktai, which was a complex type of hostage-taking utilized by the shogunate to maintain control over the country.

What is a shogunate in Japan?

As the title suggests, Shoguns were hereditary military chiefs who were formally selected by the Emperor. Finally, shoguns collaborated with samurai, a warrior class that was often employed by the daimyo (ruler of the land). From 1192 until 1868, Japan was ruled by a succession of three great shogunates (Kamakura, Ashikaga, and Tokugawa), who ruled for the majority of the country’s history.

How did the Tokugawa shogunate begin?

Following his victory at the Battle of Sekigahara, Tokugawa Ieyasu established the Tokugawa shogunate, bringing an end to the civil wars that had erupted during the Sengoku period following the collapse of the Ashikaga shogunate.

What was the primary role of the emperor in Tokugawa Japan?

Founded by Tokugawa Ieyasu following his victory at the Battle of Sekigahara, the Tokugawa shogunate was instrumental in bringing about the cessation of the Sengoku period’s civil wars that had erupted after the fall of the Ashikaga shogunate.

When was the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan established?

Finally, the Tokugawa family was able to secure the support of the majority of the han, resulting in the establishment of the Tokugawa shogunate in 1603.

Life in Edo Japan (1603-1868)

What was the reason behind the Tokugawa shogunate’s decision to isolate Japan from outside influence? What role did the Portuguese have in the development of Japanese society and culture?

What is the most accurate way to characterize the governance of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan? The socioeconomic structure of the Tokugawa shogunate Summary of the Tokugawa shogunate’s relevance to Japanese history See more entries in the FAQ category.

What elements of culture thrived during the tokugawa shogunate

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A “hands off” approach to the states and less power in the central government, according to Jefferson, would be beneficial to the nation.

What aspects of culture flourished under the reign of the Tokugawa shogunate.

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Edo Period (1603 – 1868)

Following the death of Hideyoshi in 1598, Tokugawa Ieyasu became the most powerful man in Japan. He did not respect Hideyoshi’s successor, Hideyori, despite his promises to do so, because he desired to become the absolute ruler of all of Japan. In the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600, Ieyasu defeated the Hideyori loyalists and other Western adversaries, securing a victory for the Japanese empire. His power and fortune were virtually limitless as a result of his actions. Ieyasu was appointed Shogun by the Emperor in 1603, and he established his government in Edo the following year (Tokyo).

  • Ieyasu was able to maintain tight control over the entire country.
  • The daimyo were also obligated to spend every second year in Edo, as was the rest of the court.
  • Ieyasu’s efforts to expand international trade persisted.
  • He, on the other hand, was responsible for the repression and persecution of Christians beginning in 1614.
  • Consequently, the warriors (samurai) educated themselves not only in the martial arts but also in literature, philosophy, and the arts, such as the tea ceremony, among other subjects.
  • In addition, all foreign publications were prohibited.
  • Despite the isolation, both internal trade and agricultural output continued to grow and prosper.
  • New art forms, including as kabuki and ukiyo-e, quickly gained popularity, particularly among the townsfolk.
  • Those who fell into one of the four social categories were not permitted to change their social standing.
  • As a result of the lifting of the prohibition on Western literature in 1720, various new teachings from China and Europe were introduced into Japan (Dutch Learning).
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In spite of the fact that the Tokugawa administration had been relatively stable for several centuries, its status was progressively deteriorating for a variety of reasons: Higher taxes and rioting among the agricultural population were the result of the government’s financial condition getting worse on a consistent basis over time.

With rising influence of the merchant class and certain samurai becoming financially dependent on them, the social structure began to disintegrate and eventually collapsed completely.

When the Russians attempted unsuccessfully to develop economic relations with Japan towards the end of the 18th century, foreign pressure began to become an increasingly critical concern.

The Tokugawa administration was finally pushed to open a restricted number of ports for foreign commerce by Commodore Perry in 1853 and again in 1854, both times under the leadership of Commodore Perry.

Together, the anti-government sentiments were growing, leading to other movements such as the demand for the restoration of imperial power and anti-Western sentiments, particularly among ultra-conservative samurai in increasingly autonomous domains such as Choshu and Satsuma, which fueled the anti-government sentiments.

Finally, after being confronted with Western warships in a number of occasions, conservatives came to grasp this truth as well.

The Tokugawa regime was forced to fall in 1867-1868 as a result of intense political pressure, and the power of Emperor Meiji was restored. Questions? Please post your question on our forum.

Free Flashcards about china&japan

Question Answer
what were the years of the ming dynasty? 1368-1644
who commanded a rebel army and drove the mongols out of china in 1368 hongwu
why did irrigation become more improved and rice production increase? hongwu agricultural reforms
what was one of the greatest achievements in the field of engineering and of the ming dynasty? the great wall
why did the ming dynasty last the longest? bc the great wall held invaders off
which city in beijing was constructed during the ming dynasty the forbidden city
why was the economy so isolated in china the economy was growing but isolated bc the only the government traded with the outside world to minimize outside influence
what were the years of the qing dynasty? who founded this dynasty? 1644-1911; Manchus (from Manchuria)
who did the Chinese resist that resulted in rebellions flaring up periodically for decades the manchus
how did the machus earn the Chinese people respect during the qing dynasty? upheld china’s traditional confucian beliefs and made frontiers saferestored prosperity; reduced gov expenses and lowered taxes; gained support of intellectuals by offering them gov. positions;
what was kanghxi (1661-1722)known for during the qing dynasty? reduced gov expenses and lowered taxes; gained support of intellectuals by offering them gov. positions; jesuits told him of european achievements as a result from the age of exploration
what was trading like with china for countries who wised to do so bc of china’s isolation countries had to trade at special ports, pay tribute, and do a kowtow ritual
what was the kowtow ritual ritual in which one must kneeling before the emperor and touching head to ground 9 times
during the qing dynasty what was culture based on? they valued _ over creativity. what did they make? why were dramas so popular? traditional forms; technique; pottery (high quality ceramics made from porcelain); literacy rates were low
what did qing dynasty dramas focus on? chinese history and cultural heroes
name 4 causes for the population increase in qing dynasty. agric. imporved irrigation and fertilizer use increased; farmers produced more food; nutrition improved leading to new crops (corn and sweet potatoes from europe); people lived longer, allowing families to expand
what was social structure like for the qing dynasty? sons were favored, only they could preform religious rituals.lived under parents roof helping aging parents on farm; females not valued.many infant girls killed
what was the role of women like in the qing dynasty? worked in fields, supervised children’s education, managed family finances; some found jobs working as midwives or textile workers
what did the ruler oda nobunga want to do as a ruler (1568-1582) eliminate enemies
who did nobunga’s 3000 soilders crush the force of? samurai cavalry
what ritual was strongly upheld under oda nobunga? seppuku (suicide of samurai)
where did tokugawa shogunate defeat his rivals? whose loyalty throughout japan did he earn from this victory at the battle of sekigahara; daimyo
sole ruler shogan
where did tokugawa move the capitol to? he enacted policies that resulted in the rule of law overcoming the rule of the _? edo (later tokyo); sword
policy under tokugawa in which daimyo spent every other year in the capitol and the others return to their land but their family had to stay in the capitol as hostages alternate attendance policy
how did shogans safely exclude both missionaries and merchants? created the closed country policy in which sealed japan’s borders (except nagasaki)
for over 200 years what happened to japan and its people under this policy? created isolation for japan bc japan remained closed and citizens could not leave; countined to develope self-sufficiency
what was culture developement like in japan under tokugawa traditional culture thrived.fiction began.haiku.kabuki theater
type of poetry that presented images rather than ideals haiku
place where skits were about modern life kabuki theater
during tokugawa in japan who was the top rank? who was the actual ruler? landholding samurai? who comes after landholding samurai in descending order? emperor (figurehead only); shogan (military commander); daimyo; samurai warriors, peasants and artisans, merchants
what was the role of women under tokugawa japan with the ruse of comercial centers? peasant wives? women found jobs in entertainment, textile, manufaturing, and publishing; most led sheltered lives as peasant wives
situation brought about by improved food production during the qing dynasty population explosion
first missionairy to have an impact on china matteo ricci
people who invaded china in 1644 and brought about the collapse of the ming dynasty manchus
country known as chins’s little brother during the qing dynasty korea
ruled china from 1368-1644 ming dynasty
chinese leader of the rebel army that drove the mongols out of china in 1368 hongwu
dynasty established by the manchus qing dynasty
china’s offical trade policy in the 1500s isolationism
ritaul kneeling to chinese emperor kowtow
first manchu emperor who ruled for 60 years kangxi
chinese leader who moved the royal court to beijing yonglo
chinese muslim admiral who led seven voyages of exploration zheng he
what brought about the end of japan’s feudal system? civil war
what happened during the “warring states” period in Japanese history? samurai seized control of old feudal states and became daimyos, the new lords of the feudal system
how did the new Japanese feudalism under the daimyo resemble the european feudalism? daimyos were lords who had castles (functioned like the manors in europe); small armies of samurais on horses (like the knights); rival daimyo fought each other for land
how was society under the tokugawa shogunate organized? emperor (figurehead), shogans (real leader), daimyo (lord), samurai (knight), merchants and artisans, peasants
why did many farmers abandon their fields and move into towns and cities? they had the heaviest tax burden and lowest on society’sranks
what elements of culture thrived during the tokugawa shogunate? traditional culture began to thrive (bc of isolation)
how did the introduction of Portuguese firearms into japan change the tradition of the Japanese warrior? took awat their traditional value of the sword and they moved to muskets
how did Tokugawa Ieyasu react to christian missionaries coming to japan? at first welcomed them (bc of opportunity to trade the goods the missionaries brought from europe) but then ruled christianity as root of rebellion seeing it as disrespect to traditions. followers persecuted, missionaries killed and driven out of japan

Handbook to Life in Medieval and Early Modern Japan

Andbook to Life in Medieval and Early Modern Japan covers the era from the beginning of the Kamakura period in 1185 to the conclusion of the Edo (Tokugawa) period in 1868. It is divided into two parts: the first part covers the Kamakura period and the second part covers the Edo (Tokugawa) period. The emergence of the warrior class in Japan during the medieval and early modern periods had a significant impact on the country’s history. Although Japanese society altered considerably with the establishment of the Tokugawa shogunate in 1603, as cities flourished and merchants prospered, the warrior class rose in importance and became less prominent.

The contributions of military rulers, renowned warriors, and cultural innovators to the development of Japanese culture during the medieval and early modern periods are widely recorded.

This thorough book gives informative information about well-known persons as well as peasants, craftsmen, shopkeepers, and others who live on the perimeter of power.

Throughout the book, the reader will learn about the important individuals and events that occurred during this time period, including cultural, social, political and historical events, as well as the everyday experiences and components of material culture that were common throughout this time period.

government; society and economy; warriors and warfare.

philosophy.

science.

performing arts.

travel.

Each chapter contains a comprehensive reference, as well as images and maps to enhance the reading experience.

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