What Does The Passage Reveal About The Ancient Greek Culture

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what does this passage reveal about the beliefs of the ancient greeks?

Is there anything in this paragraph that reveals anything about the beliefs of the ancient Greeks? They were under the impression that the gods were capable of rescuing them. They were under the impression that the gods loathed them. They were under the impression that the gods were capable of rescuing them.

What does this passage suggest about the beliefs and values of ancient Greeks?

Was there anything in this section that suggested ancient Greek ideas and ideals were different than they are today? … They placed a high priority on democracy.

What does this passage reveal about how the ancient Greeks felt about their relationship to the gods and which personality traits were valued by their culture?

What does this text say about the ancient Greeks’ feelings about their relationship with the gods, as well as about the personality attributes that were seen as valuable by their society? … The ancient Greeks believed that the gods would punish anyone who acted boastfully and proudly, and as a result, the ancient Greeks placed a high importance on humility in their society as a result of this belief. What does this paragraph tell about ancient Greek attitudes regarding the value of community as seen by their participation in it?

Such a manner of life was an indicator of a technologically sophisticated culture.

Which character is dynamic character in Antigone by Sophocles?

Creon is a fascinating character who soon shifts from being the usual harsh ruler to feeling greater compassion for Antigone as the story progresses. Antigone is denied a funeral for her brother, Polynices, since Creon thinks him to be a traitor. Because it is Antigone vs Creon, it is a male.

How is this aspect of ancient Greek culture symbolized in passage 1?

As a dynamic character, Creon goes from being the archetypal harsh ruler to feeling greater sympathy for Antigone in a short period of time. The burial of Antigone’s brother, Polynices, is denied her by Creon, who believes him to be a traitor. Due to the fact that it is Antigone vs. Creon, man

Which excerpt from The Odyssey best shows that the ancient Greeks greatly valued the idea of home?

Which passage from The Odyssey best demonstrates how the ancient Greeks placed a high emphasis on the concept of home? ‘Either you find the Lotus or you lose all chance of returning home.’

Which word describes the mood this passage creates for the audience?

The word “suspenseful” best characterizes the atmosphere created by this text for the audience.

Who was the ugliest god?

Facts about HephaestusHephaestus was the only deity who was physically unattractive among a group of flawlessly gorgeous immortals. Hephaestus was born malformed and was expelled from heaven by one or both of his parents when they saw he was different from the rest of the world. He was the immortals’ craftsman, and he was responsible for the construction of their homes, furniture, and weaponry.

How does Greek mythology reflect Greek culture?

Despite the fact that Greek myths were more rational than other myths, they also demonstrated the Greeks’ yearning to understand the divine as well as their groping through often amoral gods and goddesses toward a higher concept of godhead: The Greeks, from the time of the earliest mythologists on, had a perception of the divine as well as the excellent.

What ancient Greek values and beliefs are suggested by Elpenor’s requests?

Elpenor’s request suggests that the Greek concept of respect has a monetary value.

What can you infer about Greek attitudes toward participating in public life?

What conclusions can you take regarding the attitudes of Greeks toward participation in public affairs?

… It has the potential to persuade the general people that they would be an excellent leader for their country and that they would bring about positive changes in our country.

What do lines 472 493 suggest about ancient Greek beliefs about the gods involvement in the mortal world?

What does the language of lines 472-493 reveal about ancient Greek views concerning the god’s activity in the mortal realm? These verses imply that the Greeks thought that the Gods would quickly act against mankind if they were petitioned to do so by the people.

Why is Creon the antagonist?

Creon. Creon had to be the enemy in Antigone’s story, because Antigone is the main character. .He is the opposing power that Antigone must contend with. Having said that, there are others who believe he may be a potential protagonist (check out the Character Role of Protagonist for more deets).

What does Teiresias character reveal about the beliefs of the ancient Greeks Kings are wiser than prophets?

Teiresias’ persona reveals a lot about the ideas of the ancient Greeks, but what exactly does it reveal? Kings are more knowledgeable than prophets. Birds are nefarious. Gods punish those who do wrong.

Which tragic element do the chorus leader’s lines reveal?

So, what do the ideas of ancient Greece, as embodied by Teiresias’ figure, tell us about themselves? Prophecy is for fools; kings are for smart men. In this world, birds are bad. Injustice is met with justice by Gods.

What does the Peplos Kore represent?

When it comes to the sixth and fifth centuries BCE, the statue of a young lady known as a kore (plural: korai) was used to identify graves or, more commonly, as a votive offering to the gods.

What does the context of the spear bearer relate to?

A naked masculine figure with the canon of proportions was initially depicted wielding a spear in the painting. At first, it was crafted from bronze by the Greeks, after which Romans crafted replicas of the original statue. Context: -Itwas developed to represent the canon of proportions and the perfect figure.

Why was Doryphoros or spear bearer famous throughout the ancient world?

The Doryphoros, also known as the Spear Bearer, was well-known throughout the ancient world for demonstrating Polyclitus’s treatise on proportion in a dramatic manner. Sparta is credited with the development of democracy. The underlying theme of most Greek tragedies is the tension that exists between a person and his or her family or society.

Which event from The Odyssey best highlights the idea that the ancient Greeks greatly dislikes greediness?

Is there a scene from The Odyssey that best illustrates the concept that the ancient Greeks were strongly opposed to greediness? As a thank you for overcoming her numerous temptations, Calypso kidnaps and entertains Odysseus in her palace.

What conclusion about Odysseus the speaker is best supported by the excerpt?

Odysseus, or the speaker, comes to the best conclusion about himself or herself based on the passage provided. He or she believes Circe’s advise.

Which excerpt from The Odyssey best shows Odysseus demonstrating the epic hero traits of strength and leader ship?

Is there a passage from The Odyssey that best illustrates Odysseus exhibiting the epic hero characteristics of power and leadership? ‘Either you find the Lotus or you lose all chance of returning home.’

Which theme do the tragic deaths of Haemon and Eurydice reveal?

What is the underlying theme shown by the sad deaths of Haemon and Eurydice? The gods have the ultimate authority in all things.

What is revealed about Creon through haemon’s dialogue?

What is disclosed about Creon as a result of Haemon’s conversation? … Creon prefers to rely on his own knowledge and experience. Creon prefers to rely on his own knowledge and experience.

Which situation is an example of dramatic irony from the play Antigone quizlet?

Which of the following scenarios exemplifies dramatic irony? Polyneices engages in combat with Thebes.

Who killed Zeus?

Subscription is now available for God of War 3 RemasteredKratosKills Zeus his Father

Who is the god of death?

According to the Greeks, Hades, sometimes known as Pluto, is the God of Death.

He was the oldest son of Cronus and Rhea, and the second son of Cronus and Rhea. In the division of the cosmos between him and his brothers, he was given the underworld.

Does Hera ever cheat on Zeus?

To answer your query, the answer is no. Hera never cheated on Zeus, despite the fact that he had several affairs with other women. Given that Hera was the goddess of marriage, it’s likely that she took her responsibilities extremely seriously, which is why she was so furious against the girls that Zeus had sought.

What religion did the Greek practice?

Ancient Greeks Belonged to a Polytheistic Religion Ancient Greek religion was described as polytheistic, which indicates that the people of the time believed in a number of different deities. As a matter of fact, many religious scholars consider the gods and goddesses known as the Olympian Gods to be at the heart of their respective religions’ belief systems.

What beliefs values and morals dictate Greek life?

The ancient Greeks brought their ideals of loyalty, glory, intellect, and hospitality into everyday life by instilling them in their citizens. While these principles may appear straightforward, they were important in transforming a whole civilisation into a culture that is now considered to be one of the most influential in history.

How did ancient Greek religious beliefs affect everyday life?

What role did religious beliefs have in everyday life in ancient Greece? Temples were being built while people worked on them. People had a regular bathing regimen that they followed. The Olympics were established to commemorate Ares.

What does Elpenor’s request tell us about what the Greeks thought was important to do for the dead?

It appears from his wish that his spirit will be able to find peace when his corpse has been handled in accordance with ancient Greek tradition. What is it that Elpenor’s spirit wishes to ask of Odysseus? … The ancient Greeks thought that the sun and the planets were under the dominion of the gods.

What does Elpenor’s request for a proper burial and memorial show about Greek culture?

When it comes to Greek culture, what does Elpenor’s wish for a decent burial and commemoration demonstrate? They want to be recognized and remembered for their achievements.

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What does Odysseus do to assuage the dead What does this reveal about the Greek view of the afterlife?

Distinguish the aspects of the Greek belief of the afterlife that are revealed by Odysseus’ efforts to appease the dead. The underworld was viewed by the Greeks as a place where spirits congregated and drifted into a half-life existence. He begs Odysseus to hold him a burial, revealing the Greeks think funerals must be done out of respect for the deceased.

Ancient Greece 101 | National Geographic

According to the causal linkages between tragic plot events, which ancient Greek idea is being presented here? Which of the following occurs at the conclusion of the play? Which of the following comparisons does the allusion to Niobe draw? What is the underlying topic revealed by Teiresias’ prophecy? which character types alter in accordance with the storyline In the Greek language, “anagnorisis” relates to the question of what the goal of the paean is. What is the playwright’s ultimate purpose in writing the sad play?

What does the passage reveal about the ancient Greek culture?

  1. Is there anything new that this paragraph reveals about ancient Greek culture? What the parados are not intended to do
  2. In a single word, explain the atmosphere that this chapter generates for the listener that is perched above our dwellings
  3. Who is the one who divulges the specifics of the Battle of the audience
  4. What is the event that leads Eteocles and Polyneices to appear? What factors influence Creon’s decision not to bury Polyneices? Who is it that Creon holds responsible for Haemon’s death? What treatment Creon has prescribed for Polyneices’s body is currently unknown. Who is it that Creon holds responsible for the murders of his wife and son? What is Creon’s greatest apprehension? Who does Antigone hold responsible for her misfortune? What was the reign of Creon
  5. What caused Creon’s death
  6. Why did Creon alter his mind
  7. What is the name of the king of Athens
  8. Who was the first king of Athens, and when did he reign?

What does the passage reveal about the ancient Greek culture?

Is there anything in this text that reveals anything about the ancient Greeks’ beliefs? They were under the impression that the gods were capable of rescuing them. They were under the impression that the gods detested them.

What is not the purpose of the parados?

In order to give clarification. to provide an explanation for an activity to draw attention to a conflict

Which word describes the mood this passage creates for the audience standing above our homes?

Standing above our dwellings, he wandered around our seven entrances, threatening to devour us whole and wielding spears that were thirsty for blood.

The word “suspenseful” best characterizes the atmosphere created by this text for the audience.

Who reveals the details of the Battle of the audience?

In the drama “Antigone,” the action begins with a prologue in which we witness sisters Antigone and Ismene conversing with one another. The specifics of the conflict between the armies of two brothers, Eteocles and Polyneices, are revealed in Parodos Chorus and Choragos (the commander of the Chorus) in the play.

Which event causes Eteocles and Polyneices?

What is the event that causes Eteocles and Polyneices to engage in combat with one another? The Theban army launches a counter-offensive.

Why does Creon decide not to bury Polyneices?

Creon banished Oedipus from Thebes when Oedipus murdered his father and married his mother, leading to the death of Creon. Because of his betrayal against his own city, Creon also ordered that Polyneices would not be given a suitable burial.

Who does Creon blame for haemon’s death?

What motivates Haemonuse to commit suicide? Who is it that the chorus holds responsible for Creon’s sorrow? Who is the source of Eurydice’s death? Eurydice holds Antigone/Creon responsible for Haemon’s death, and she holds Antigone/Creon responsible for Megareus’ death.

How has Creon ordered Polyneices body to be treated?

Apparently, Creon has decreed that their brother, Polynices, would not be given a suitable funeral. a decent burial. She will be put to death as a result of her refusal to follow Creon’s orders.

Who does Creon blame for the deaths of his wife and son?

In the aftermath of the sad deaths of his family members, Creon began to blame himself. The deaths of his wife, son, and niece were caused by his false sense of self-importance. He believed that he was solely to blame for the current situation, and he was correct.

What is Creon’s greatest fear?

Antigone. Creon is the king of Thebes in the Greek tragedy Antigone. Eteocles and Polynices, Oedipus’ sons, had shared the reign together until they got into a fight, and Eteocles banished his brother from the kingdom. Creon ultimately caves in after receiving advise from the chorus leader (choragos), and after Tiresias instructs him to bury the body, Creon relents.

How did Creon die?

His son, Haemon, threatens him and attempts to assassinate him, but he ultimately commits suicide. At the conclusion of Creon’s life, a descendant of an earlier king of Thebes called Lycus invades Thebes and, after assassinatingCreon, seizes control of the city-state.

Why did Creon change his mind?

Is it possible for Creon to modify his views, in your opinion? Upon learning of the omen at Polynices’ body, Creon changes his mind, and the chorales encourage him to construct an appropriate grave and release Antigone from imprisonment.

Who is the king of Athens?

Codrus, according to tradition, was the son of Melanthus of Pylos, who fled to Attica as a refugee from the Dorian invasion in the fifth century BC (11th century bc). Melanthus gained the approval of Athens by conquering the Boeotians, who were the Athenians’ arch-enemies at the time.

Who was the first king of Athens?

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Ancient Greek Drama: Antigone by Sophocles Unit Test 84%

Which character values individual choice over submission to the state? Antigone
Read the excerpt below from Antigone by Sophocles and answer the question that follows.CHORUS:The battle’s done—let’s strive now to forgetwith songs and dancing all night long,with Bacchus leading us to make Thebes shake.Which word describes the mood this passage creates for the audience? suspenseful
Analyze the graphic organizer below and answer the question that follows.Which event completes the graphic organizer?Athenian army assists ThebesAthenian army assists rebelsPolyneices and Eteocles battleCreon fires cannons at the rebels Polyneices and Eteocles battle
Antigone’s death causes the audience to feel _. animosity toward Creon
Which situation presented during scene 2 of the play Antigone is intended to highlight the conflict between loyalty to family and civil obedience? Ismene refuses to help her sister bury Polyneices.
Which theme do the tragic deaths of Haemon and Eurydice reveal? The ultimate authority belongs to the gods.
Read the passage below and answer the question that follows.We must remember that by birth we’re women,and, as such, we shouldn’t fight with men.Since those who rule are much more powerful, we must obey in this and in events which bring us even harsher agonies.Which character speaks these lines? Ismene
Read the excerpt below from the play Antigone by Sophocles and answer the question that follows.Guard:That’s when we saw the girl. She was shrieking—a distressing painful cry, just like a birdwho’s seen an empty nest, its fledglings gone.What does the figurative language (used by the guard who arrests Antigone) reveal about how Antigone feels? She is mourning.
The arrangement of plot events in a tragedy reveals _. the downfall of the protagonist
According to Aristotle, which characteristic is not common in a tragic character? evil
Read the excerpt below from Antigone by Sophocles and answer the question that follows.CHORUS:He’s taught himself speech and wind-swift thought,trained his feelings for communal civic life.According to the passage, what did the ancient Greek culture value? knowledge
Which element of Greek tragedy is used to honor and worship the gods? the paean
Creon’s tragic flaw causes him to _. ignore the pleas of his son
Why is Creon the antagonist in the play Antigone? He stands between the protagonist and her goal.
The downfall of a tragic character is the result of _. a tragic flaw
Which thematic statement is supported by Teiresias’ character? The gods have the ultimate authority.
Read the excerpt below from Antigone by Sophocles and answer the question that follows.ANTIGONE:Without lament, without a friend,and with no marriage song, I’m being ledin this miserable state, along my final road.Which mood is created in the audience through Antigone’s lines and situation? pity
According to the Chorus Leader in Antigone, who is responsible for Antigone’s arrest and punishment? Ismene
Read the excerpt below from Antigone by Sophocles and answer the question that follows.CHORUS LEADER: Against our land he marched, sent here by the warring claimsof Polyneices, with piercing screams, an eagle flying above our land,.To what is Polyneices being compared? an eagle
Read the excerpt below from Antigone by Sophocles and answer the question that follows.ANTIGONE:I’ll do my duty to my brother—and yours as well, if you’re not prepared to.Which rhetorical appeal does Antigone use in an attempt to persuade Ismene to help her bury Polyneices? pathos
Read the passage below and answer the question that follows.ANTIGONE:Don’t fear for me. Set your own fate in order.Which character trait is revealed through these line? courage
According to Aristotle, a great playwright does not need the element of _. spectacle
Sophocles uses the downfall of a tragic character to _. produce fear and pity in the audience
Analyze the graphic organizer below and answer the question that follows.Which plot event completes the organizer? Haemon argues with Creon
Read the excerpt below from the play Antigone by Sophocles and answer the question that follows.CREON:No more delay. You slaves, take them inside.From this point on they must act like womenand have no liberty to wander off.Even bold men run when they see Hadescoming close to them to snatch their lives.What does the passage reveal about the ancient Greek culture? Some believed that women should not be free.

Antigone: UNIT TEST 3 (92%)

If you want to ensure that you pass the Antigone TEST, our website provides you with the option to obtain a large number of questions that you may use to study. You may also prepare flawlessly for any questions by carefully reviewing the multiple-choice responses. Do not hesitate to take advantage of this free option to prepare for any literary assignment, including plot summaries of works written by well-known authors, by taking use of this possibility (for example, Shakespeare). Make no mistake about it: it is the best substitute for your personal tutor.

  • animosity toward Creonanger toward Haemondistrust toward the godsdisrespect for Antigoneanimosity toward Creonanimosity toward Creon Read the following text from Sophocles’s play Antigone and then respond to the question that follows the excerpt.
  • Take them into the house, you slaves.
  • Even the most courageous men flee when they perceive Hades closing in on them, threatening to take their life.
  • Some people felt that women should be afforded the same rights as males.
  • Some others argued that women should not be allowed to exercise their rights.
  • Some others argued that women should not be allowed to exercise their rights.
  • Creon is the adversary in the drama Antigone, and why is this so?

He stands in the way of the protagonist achieving her goal.

He assists the protagonist in achieving her aim.

Read the following text from Sophocles’ Antigone and then respond to the question that follows it.

This is the rhetorical device Antigone employs in an attempt to convince Ismene to assist her in the burial of Polyneices.

CHORUS: Now that the fight is over, let us try to forget it all with singing and dancing all night long, with Bacchus guiding us to shake Thebes.

melancholyjoyfulpeacefulsuspensefuljoyful Analyze the visual organizer below and respond to the question that follows it with your findings.

Citizens demonstrate their dissatisfaction with Creon.

The Chorus Leader gives a speech Creon Gods provide a warning.

What is the underlying theme shown by the sad deaths of Haemon and Eurydice?

The gods have the ultimate authority in all things.

Women are physically and mentally weaker than males.

_.the wishes of the audience are revealed through the arranging of narrative events in a tragedy the acclamation of the tragic heroine comedy written by the writer; the protagonist’s collapse in the play The protagonist’s demise is shown as Analyze the visual organizer below and respond to the question that follows it with your findings.

  • The Athenian army lends a hand to Thebes.
  • Polyneices and Eteocles engage in combat.
  • Polyneices and Eteocles engage in combat.
  • Creon Antigone is the conductor of the chorus.
  • Antigone is betrothed to Creon’s son, Haemon, in the play Antigone.
  • Ismene is adamant about not assisting her sister in burying Polyneices.
  • Antigone is betrothed to Creon’s son, Haemon, in the play Antigone.
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thepaean the elegy this is the preface they’re called exodos this is the eulogy The play Antigone has an example of dramatic irony, which is shown as follows: Polyneices is laid to rest by the gods.

Polyneices is laid to rest by a lady.

Polyneices is laid to rest by a lady.

take into consideration the advise of his son Antigonerelease Ismeneignore his son’s pleadings for help.

ANTIGONE:Don’t be concerned about me.

Which aspect of your personality is reflected by this passage?

Ismene PolyneicesHaemon Antigone Antigone Read the paragraph below and then respond to the question that follows it with your thoughts.

Because people in authority are far more strong than we are, we must submit to them in this and in other situations that cause us even greater anguish.

Ismene Antigone Jocasta Eteocles Ismene Read the following text from Sophocles’ Antigone and then respond to the question that follows it.

What, according to the scripture, did the ancient Greek civilization place a high importance on?

a calamitous fault Poverty is the antagonist’s terrible fault.

Creon IsmeneEteocles Antigone Antigone When a tragic figure meets his or her end, Sophocles takes the chance to _.create the potential for a sequel create a sense of dread and sadness in the audience provide a lighthearted diversion for the audience elicit intense debate among the members of the audience create a sense of dread and sadness in the audience Which of theme statements is supported by the character of Teiresias?

  1. Humans are the ultimate arbiters of justice.
  2. The duty of civil obedience takes precedence above the duty of familial loyalty.
  3. The gods are the ultimate arbiters of justice.
  4. “I’m being led along my final road in this horrible state,” says Antigone.
  5. Which atmosphere is established in the audience as a result of Antigone’s lines and the predicament she finds herself in?
  6. goodflawedevilconsistentevil Tragic occurrences are linked together by the _relationship between the cause and the effect_ of the event.
  7. cautiousargumentative persuasivesensitivecautious According to Aristotle, a tragedy must _serve as a source of amusement for the audience_.
  8. Eteocle’s funeral and burial were both held on the same day.
  9. According to the pronouncement of Creon, money serves the purpose of moving the goalkeeper to the goalGuard taking responsibility for protecting the body Eteocle’s funeral and burial were both held on the same day.
  10. Polyneices Creon Haemon TiresiasCreon What is the underlying message shown by these lines?

Gender equality is the equality of both sexes. Observance of civil laws and regulations Distinguishing between the levels of authority The King family’s unbridled power is unmatched. Observance of civil laws and regulations

Greek Mythology and Gods • Ancient Greeks: Everyday Life, Beliefs and Myths

Free learning resources provided by arts, cultural, and heritage organizations are available online.

Greek Mythology and Gods

Myths are stories that are made up to educate people about something essential and relevant in their lives. Many times, they were used to educate people about situations that they could not always comprehend, such as disease and death, earthquakes and floods, among other things. Legends are similar to myths, but they differ in a few important ways. In contrast to myths, which are entirely made up, legends are based on actual events that occurred. The Greeks believed in gods and goddesses who, they believed, had complete power over all aspects of people’s life, including their own.

They created unique spaces in their houses and temples where they could pray to statues of the gods and leave gifts for them, as well as particular spots in their homes and temples.

They assumed that the gods shared a common home at the summit of Mount Olympus, like a large family unit.

In the Greek tales, the gods dispute, fall in love, get envious of one another, and make errors, among other things.

  • God Zeus, the supreme ruler of all the gods, who is in charge of rain and the sky
  • His wife Hera was the goddess of marriage and childbirth
  • She was Zeus’s consort. Poseidon, the god of the sea, is a Greek deity who represents the sea. Aphrodite is the goddess of love, and she is represented by the letter A. As the deity of the Underworld, Hades was a place where the dead dwell. ‘Ares,’ the god of war and combat

There are several myths and stories associated with Greece. Some of them are still being utilized in novels and films today, which is fantastic!

  • In one, a woman named Pandora opens a box that contains all of the bad things in the world and lets them all out
  • In another, a man named Odin opens a box that contains all of the good things in the world and lets them all out
  • And in a third, a woman named Odin opens a box that contains all of the bad things in the world and lets them all out
  • In a fourth, a woman named Odin opens a box that contains all of the good things in the The narrative of Theseus and the Minotaur revolves around a prince who is chasing after a monster through a labyrinth in order to save the lady he loves. In another story, two innovators named Icarus and Daedalus attempt to make wings so that they might escape from jail
  • However, they fail.
  • The most interesting is perhaps Perseus and the Gorgon, in which a man named Perseus is tasked with killing a lady who has the ability to turn people to stone simply by gazing at them.

Illustration depicts Perseus severing Medusa’s head from her neck.

Discussion Ideas

  • If you were to become a Greek God, what would you choose to be the ‘god’ of and why would you choose that particular thing
  • What made you believe that the Ancient Greeks required myths? Do you already have a working knowledge of any Greek myths? Can you tell me about them?

Activity Ideas

  • Consider the possibility that you have risen to the status of a Greek deity or goddess. In statues and paintings, gods are sometimes depicted holding objects or wearing items to indicate their abilities, which might be confusing. Create an image of oneself as a deity or goddess, being careful to demonstrate your authority by the clothes you are wearing and the items in your environment
  • Create your own myth: Myths frequently have the following elements: an intriguing environment, a mythological beast, a trip or a challenge, and a gripping conclusion. Why don’t you try your hand at writing your own using these four crucial ‘ingredients’
  • They are: Download the narrative of Perseus and the Gorgon, then play the’Follow Me’ gameto test your knowledge

The following section is devoted to

Death in Ancient Greece

What the Iliad of Homer may teach us about religion and warfare (Image credit:Rebecca Hendin) With her second installment in our Stories that impacted the world series, Caroline Alexander investigates how Homer’s Iliad helped reshape the way we worship – and what lessons about conflict can still be learned from the epic poem of ancient Greece. When Homer’s epic poem about the fabled Trojan War is first written, there is a famous digression known as the inventory of ships, which lists all of the Greek leaders and contingents that traveled to Troy to engage in the battle.

  1. The Iliad was written in the Greek language, and it is the oldest extant work of epic poetry.
  2. More along the lines of: In this episode, we discuss how Harry Potter became a rallying cry for young people.
  3. The Mycenaeans were well aware of the existence of writing, but it appears that they solely employed it for bureaucratic bookkeeping in their palace governments.
  4. The tradition was maintained orally until the period of Homer, when poets who performed and altered the epic did so, and the Mycenaean world was transmitted into new eras by poets who took the memory of the Mycenaean world into new ages.
  5. (Image courtesy of Alamy) The Iliad is acutely conscious of its responsibilities as a custodian of memory, and it places a high value on credibility in its narrative.
  6. While the action takes place around Troy, the cast of characters includes not just warriors and their prisoners and families, but also the immortal Olympian gods, who undertake a number of magical deeds as part of their ardent involvement in the events that take place there.
  7. Despite such unapologetically divine acts of magic, the epic strives to be as realistic as possible.
  8. Similar to the account of fighting tactics and wounds (albeit not quite physiologically correct), the meticulous description of locations in the Troad, or the territory around Troy, is also plausible.
  9. This is accomplished through the characters’ own words, namely their speeches, which make for more than half of the epic’s total length of 15,693 lines of poetry.
  10. However, Homer’s subtle characterization of Helen as a woman driven by hesitant and repentant affection is as hauntingly credible as any Anna Karenina.

Greek mythology describes Helen as the wife of the Spartan king who escaped with Paris, son of Priam, King of Troy, therefore initiating the Trojan War (also known as the Peloponnesian War) (Credit: Alamy) Eventually, in 750 BC, when the so-called Dark Age was over and literacy was restored to Greece, Homer was able to write down the epic poem in some form or another.

Not only did its characters, both mortal and divine, inspire works of art and other forms of literature, but they were also widely believed to have existed in the real world.

One of the most profound effects of the Iliad was that it altered the way people worshipped.

At the same time, people began to form cults around the human heroes of the Iliad, seeing them as heroic forefathers and mothers.

The Greek poet Homer, according to Herodutus, “gave the gods names, specified their domains of influence and activities, and portrayed their outward appearances.” (Image courtesy of Alamy) In this sense, the Iliad shaped not only the trajectory of art history, but also the course of social history.

  • Achilles tendon What I am attempting to communicate is made abundantly apparent by Homer, perhaps most sublimely in the famous episode at the conclusion of the Iliad in which King Priam travels through the night to the Greek camp to offer himself as a suppliant to Achilles.
  • His current goal is to plead for the body of his beloved son, Hector, who was murdered by Achilles in order to avenge the loss of his own traveling companion, Patroclus, in the Trojan War.
  • “I am still more wretched, Achilles, and have experienced such atrocities as no other mortal man on the face of the world, pulling to my lips the hands of the man who slaughtered my son,” he says.
  • They cried out in unison for Hector, who was lying coiled before Achilles’ feet, and Achilles mourned for his own father, and then for Patroclus again, and the sound of their mourning could be heard throughout the hall.

As a result of linguistic studies, archaeology, and ancient accounts, we know that the epic tradition originated in mainland Greece, most likely in the northern region of Thessaly, but that it spread eastwards with poets traveling eastwards to the island of Lesbos and the northwest coast of Anatolia (now Turkey), including the region around Troy, following the collapse of Bronze Age civilisations.

  1. It seems likely that the Iliad was presented in its early version in front of primarily Greek audiences, but closer to Homer’s time, the audience included Anatolians, who were most likely sympathetic to the Trojan cause.
  2. There have been several depictions of Priam pleading with Achilles for the body of his son Hector, including this 1824 painting by Alexander Andreyevich Ivanov.
  3. Would that have been a good thing?
  4. Was it possible for Homer to order Achilles to send old Priam packing; to abuse, humiliate, or even kill him?
  5. Most likely not; yet, something of significance would have been lost to the world if this had happened.

During the first century AD, a scholar named Longinus stated, “In chronicling as he does the wounds of the gods, their quarrels, revenge, weeping, imprisonment, and all their various passions, Homer has done his best to make both gods and men in the Iliad, as he has done in the Odyssey.” Achilles and Priam’s confrontation is a perfect example of this inversion, and it captures all the Iliad writers had learnt along the course of the epic’s voyage.

  • It is possible that the gods we adore may not respond, and that mankind will be called upon to fill their void.
  • A triumph in battle does not come without a cost; there is no such thing as an unassailable win.
  • Stories that created the world is a BBC Culture series that looks at epic poetry, dramas, and novels from throughout the world that have influenced history and transformed attitudes.
  • In May, the results of a survey of authors and critics, 100 stories that changed the world, will be released.

And if you like this story, you should subscribe to the weekly bbc.com features email, “If You Only Read 6 Things This Week.” Every Friday, you’ll receive a handpicked selection of stories from BBC Future, Culture, Capital, and Travel, delivered directly to your inbox.

Ancient Greek Astronomy and Cosmology

Worship and warfare: What the Iliad of Homer Can Teach Us (Image credit:Rebecca Hendin) Caroline Alexander investigates how Homer’s Iliad helped reshape the way we worship – and what the epic poem of ancient Greece may still teach us about war – in the second installment of our Stories that influenced the world series. When Homer’s epic poem about the fabled Trojan War is first written, there is a famous digression known as the inventory of ships, which lists all of the Greek leaders and contingents that traveled to Troy to engage in the war.

  • The Iliad is a collection of poems written in the Greek language and has been translated into many languages.
  • —Why The Handmaid’s Tale is still relevant today — Despite the fact that the Mycenaeans themselves were familiar with writing, it appears that they solely employed it for administrative purposes in their palace governments.
  • In this way, from the end of the Mycenaean Age until the age of Homer, poets who recited and altered the epic orally kept the tradition alive and transported memories of the Mycenaean world into new eras, preserving the heritage of the epic.
  • The photograph is courtesy of Alamy.
  • A work of fiction, the epic recounts the events of a few weeks during the tenth and last year of the Trojan War, which was waged between the Greeks and Trojans for the beautiful Helen, the Greek queen who fled her husband to elope with a Trojan prince, in the tenth and final year.
  • Whether anything is true or false depends on who you ask.
  • For example, the well-known Homeric similes convey the recognizable, factual world of nature.
  • Homer’s depiction of the epic’s key characters is, above all, utterly and continuously convincing.
  • When written in dactylic hexameter, the epic poem’s poetic meter lends itself particularly well to the Greek language, enabling for natural cadence to be established between statements of fury, indignation, bravado, regret, and mourning.
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Greek mythology describes Helen as the wife of the Spartan king who escaped with Paris, son of Priam, King of Troy, therefore initiating the Trojan War (also known as the Peloponnesian war) (Credit: Alamy) Around 750 BC, when the so-called Dark Age came to an end and literacy returned to Greece, Homer was able to record the epic poem in some form or another.

  1. Not only did its figures, both mortal and heavenly, inspire works of art and other forms of writing, but they were also widely believed to have existed in the first place.
  2. The Iliad, maybe most profoundly, altered the way people approached worship.
  3. The Iliad’s human heroes were revered as heroic ancestors, and people formed shrines dedicated to them at the same time.
  4. “He gave the gods their names, designated their spheres and functions, and detailed their outer shapes,” writes Herodutus of Homer’s creation of the gods.
  5. Thus, the Iliad not only dictated the trajectory of artistic history, but also the direction of social history.
  6. Ankle sprain or strain As Homer frequently points out, and perhaps most sublimely in the famous episode at the conclusion of the Iliad, when King Priam makes his way through the night to the Greek camp to serve as a suppliant for Achilles, I struggle to put into words what I want to say.
  7. His current goal is to plead for the body of his beloved son, Hector, who was murdered by Achilles in order to avenge the loss of his own traveling companion, Patroclus, in a previous adventure.

“I am still more wretched, Achilles, and have experienced such atrocities as no other mortal man on the face of the world, pulling to my lips the hands of the man who murdered my son,” Priam says.

While the two recalled, the one wailing uncontrollably for the man-slaughtering Hector as he lay coiled at Achilles’ feet, and Achilles sobbed for his own father, and then again for Patroclus; and the sound of their mourning resounded throughout the chamber as the two remembered.

Following the fall of the Bronze Age civilisations on mainland Greece, the epic tradition spread eastward to the island of Lesbos and the northwest coast of Anatolia (now Turkey), including the region around Troy, as evidenced by language research, archaeology, and ancient narratives.

Because of this adaptation, one of the most remarkable qualities of our Iliad is its persistent sympathetic attitude of the Trojans, who are depicted as fellow victims of the war rather than as just adversaries.

The photograph is courtesy of Alamy.

Consider the consequences if they had been deaf to the continuing history of conflict and displacement that they came across.

Was it possible that the course of history might have been altered in any way?

More than just a momentous scene in a great, timeless narrative, it is also a key statement about mankind – rendered visible because to the persistent realism that has characterised the epic’s lengthy heritage.

So that our gods might not respond when we call, and humans would have to step in to fill their void on some occasions.

That the winner shares the humanity of the most vulnerable among the defeated; that there is no such thing as an unqualified triumph in conflict A full-length English translation of The Iliad was published by Caroline Alexander in 1879, making her the first female author to do so (Penguin, 2015).

This list will be released in May after a survey of authors and critics, which will be called “100 tales that changed the world.” For any comments on this article or anything else you’ve seen on BBC Culture, please visit ourFacebook page or send us a message on Twitter (@BBCculture).

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The Sphere of the World

Throughout the ancient world, the concept of the Earth as a spherical was commonly established by the 5th century B.C. Since there is a prevalent myth that ancient peoples believed the Earth was flat, this is an important issue to emphasize. The truth is that this was not the case at all. Empedocles and Anaxagoras, who lived in the 5th century B.C., presented arguments in support of the spherical form of the Earth. During a lunar eclipse, which occurs when the Earth is between the sun and the moon, they were able to see the Earth’s shadow on the moon.

This might lead one to believe that the Earth is a spherical.

Experiencingthe Sphere of the Earth

Given the rarity of opportunity to witness a moon eclipse, sailors’ accounts of their voyages provided proof of the earth’s roundness as well as evidence of the earth’s rotation. When a ship comes on the horizon, the top of the ship is the first part of the ship to be visible. This has been used to show the roundness of the Earth in a broad variety of astronomy texts throughout history. In fact, as the figure depicts, this is exactly what one would anticipate on an aspherical planet. Because Earth is round, it would be assumed that you would be able to view the complete ship immediately when it begins to appear in your field of vision.

Measuringthe Size of the Earth

Lunar eclipses also provided an opportunity for us to gain a new perspective on our home planet, Earth. When a lunar eclipse occurred in the third century B.C., Aristarchus of Samos reasoned that he could figure out the size of the Earth using the facts he had at his disposal. A translation of his work is depicted on the right in the figure below. The sun is represented by the largest circle, the Earth is represented by the middle circle, and the moon is represented by the smallest circle. An eclipse of the moon occurs when the Earth passes between the sun and the moon.

Around 240 B.C., Eratosthenes calculated the circumference of the Earth.

The accuracy of his estimates has been called into question due to the fact that we do not know how long the units of measure were.

Mathematical theories regarding the nature of their environment were developed by the Greeks through application of mathematics.

Aristotle’sElements and Cosmology

Aristotle, following in the footsteps of Plato and Empedocles before him, asserted that there were four primary elements: fire, air, water, and earth, which he divided into four categories. Due to the fact that we think about matter in completely different ways now, it is difficult for us to properly comprehend what this means. There was no such thing as vacant space in Aristotle’s philosophy of thought. Every inch of available area was taken up by some combination of these items. Aristotle argued that these components may be further subdivided into two pairs of qualities: hot and cold, and moist and dry, respectively.

These characteristics may be replaced by their polar opposites, which in this system form the mechanism through which change occurs on Earth. For example, when water is heated, it appears to change into steam, which appears to be the same as air.

The Elements in Aristotle’s Cosmic Model

Each of the four elements (earth, water, fire, and air) has a certain weight according to Aristotle’s Cosmology. Earth was the heaviest element, followed by water, and then air and fire, which were the lightest. According to Aristotle, the lighter things gravitated away from the center of the cosmos, whereas the heavier components gravitated toward the center of the universe. Most of one’s experience was comprised of mixed entities as these aspects strove to sort themselves out in order to establish this order.

According to this viewpoint, transition and change in our world are the outcome of the interaction of the components.

The skies are a separate domain controlled by a different set of rules from the rest of the world.

The Wandering and Fixed Stars in the CelestialRegion

The celestial portion of the skies, in contrast to the earthly realm, had a fundamentally different character than the terrestrial realm. As they gazed up at the night sky, the ancient Greeks discovered two basic types of celestial objects: permanent (fixed) stars and wandering (wandering) stars. Consider the night sky as an example. Every night, it appears like the majority of the visible objects move at precisely the same pace and exhibit themselves in exactly the same configuration as they did the previous night.

  • They look to be moving as a group as a whole.
  • These were known as the wandering stars to the ancient Greeks.
  • This sphere was divided into two portions, one representing the outer celestial world and the other representing the inside terrestrial realm.
  • While the earth was a realm of transformation and flux, the skies were a place of stability and permanence.

The Unchanging Celestial Region

In the words of Aristotle, “Throughout the entire span of time past, so far as our inherited records are concerned, no alteration appears to have taken place either in the overall plan of the outermost heaven or in any of its respective portions.” Keeping in mind that Aristotle lived during a time when there were no substantial collections of observable evidence is critical. Things that appeared to be moving in the skies, such as comets, did not pose an issue in this concept since they could be explained as occurring in the earth’s atmosphere.

The celestial spheres were ruled by a group of movers, who were in charge of the movement of the wandering stars in the sky.

Each of these wanderingstars was considered to be accompanied by a “unmoved mover,” an entity responsible for propelling it across the skies. According to many Greeks, this mover may be interpreted as a deity who corresponded to any particular entity in the skies.

Ptolemy’s Circles on Circles

Claudius Ptolemy (90-168) was an Egyptian astronomer who lived in Alexandria and amassed a vast amount of celestial knowledge. A technique for forecasting the motion of the stars was devised by Ptolemy based on observations from the period of Hipparchus and Eudoxus, as well as a collection of astronomical data gathered by theBabylonians, and it was published in his principal astronomical work,Almagest, in the second century AD. When Ptolemy succeeded in combining and polishing astronomical concepts, ideas, and advances, hisAlmagest became so popular that previous books were no longer available for reading.

Ptolomaic Data

There are a lot of tables in theAlmagesti. In this way, the book might be considered a tool for predicting the positions of the stars in the sky. The book is far more concerned with functioning as a helpful tool than it is with proposing a system for explaining the nature of the skies, which is in contrast to older astronomy. Attempting to precisely anticipate the position of the stars throughout time resulted in the development of a far more sophisticated model of the universe.

The Ptolemaic Model

The Greek scientists advocated that circles be added to the circular orbits of wandering stars (including theplanets, the moon, and the sun) to explain their motion around the sun by the time of Ptolemy II. Epicycles are circles within circles that are surrounded by other circles. According to Greek legend, the heavens were a region of perfect circular motion, and the only way to account for perfection was to double the number of circles in the universe by one. As a result, the pictures became confusing.

It was necessary for him to employ concentric circles to adequately illustrate planetary motion.

Ptolemy next needed to place the epicycles on a second set of circles known as deferents, which he did.

As part of this process, Ptolomy had to introduce the concept of equants, a tool that allowed the planets to travel at varying speeds as they went around these circles.

Ptolemy and Aristotle’s Cosmic Legacy

Ptolemy came to embody a mathematical school that was concerned with the development of mathematical models that were predictive in nature. Aristotle is well known for proposing the physical model of the sky, which is still in use today. It was also of importance to Ptolemy to use his model of the skies to depict the physical reality of the world.

However, it was the mathematical models and data he utilized to estimate the motion of celestial bodies that were his most significant contribution. For a long time, his name was associated with the sky and the model of the heavens.

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