- 1 Political socialization – Wikipedia
- 2 Media’s effects
- 3 See also
- 4 References
- 5 Political Culture and Public Opinion: Political Socialization
- 6 What Factors Shape Political Attitudes? [ushistory.org]
- 7 Chapter 10: Public Opinion
- 8 Unit 3: Public Opinion & Political Action Flashcards
Apolitical socialization is defined as the “process by which individuals learn and frequently internalizepolitical concepts, thereby framing their perceptions of how power is arranged and how the world around them is (and should be) organized; these perceptions in turn shape and define individuals’ definitions of who they are, and how they should behave within the political and economic institutions in which they live.” It is a “study of the developmental processes by which people of all ages and adolescents acquire political cognition, attitudes, and behaviors.” Political socialization is also defined as “the process by which people of all ages and adolescents acquire political cognition, attitudes, and behaviors.” It refers to the process through which standards and behaviors that are acceptable in a well-functioning political system are passed down from one generation to the next through the generations.
Individuals are indoctrinated into political culture and their attitudes toward political objects are shaped as a result of the execution of this function on their part.
People’s political and economic norms and values are influenced and shaped by agents of socialization, which are also known as institutions in some cases.
- Family: Families pass on values that favor political authority to their children, and they can have a significant impact on their children’s first political ideology beliefs or political party memberships. Families have an impact on “political knowledge, identification, efficacy, and participation,” depending on variables such as “family demographics, life cycle, parenting style, parental level of political cynicism, and frequency of political discussions.” Families also have an impact on “political knowledge, identification, efficacy, and participation.”
- Schools: After spending a significant amount of time in school, pupils in the United States are taught and reinforced a worldview that “privileges capitalism and ownership, competitive individualism, and democracy,” according to the World Economic Forum. Students learn fundamental values such as individual rights and property, personal responsibility, and their role to their country as they go through elementary, secondary, and high schools. Media: The mass media is not only a source of political information, but it also has an impact on political ideals and views, as well as on public opinion. Partisan policy viewpoints linked with political engagement are provided through a variety of media venues, including news coverage and late-night talk show hosts. Religion: Religious beliefs and practices have an important influence in the formation of political opinions and the engagement in political activities. Such a situation may be seen clearly in Arab nations, where there is no discernible separation between political traditions and religious beliefs, for example. The theological and moral perspectives offered by religious institutions influence public policy decisions, which ultimately results in “direct political decision making on governmental matters such as the redistribution of wealth, equality, tolerance for deviance and the limits on individual freedom, the severity of criminal punishment, policies relating to family structure, gender roles, and the value of human life,” according to the Institute for Policy Studies.
- Because of a variety of social elements such as age, environment, authority, and so forth, scholars such as Campbell (1960) have observed that political parties have relatively little direct impact on children. As a primary source of information for media outlets, the government has the potential to “inform, misinformation, or disinformation the press and ultimately the public,” a method known as propaganda, in order to further a political or economic goal.
Politics is instilled in children from an early age. Some research implies that the most powerful variables in socializing children are their families and school instructors, however current study designs have more precisely approximated the strong effect of the media in the process of political socialization in youngsters. Teenagers in the United States spend an average of more hours each week watching television and using digital media than they do in school, according to the National Center for Education Statistics.
In comparison to their peers, family, and instructors, high school students place a greater emphasis on mass media for providing the knowledge that shapes their thoughts and attitudes on race, war, economics, and patriotism.
It’s possible that this is due to the fact that eighty percent of the media information youngsters receive is designed for adults.
The function of the media in political socialization extends into adulthood, and this is true of both fictional and factual media outlets. Adults are increasingly exposed to news and political information that is incorporated in entertainment; fictitious entertainment (primarily television) is the most prevalent source of political information for adults to consume. The culmination of knowledge gleaned from entertainment becomes the ideals and standards by which people assess one another and themselves.
The majority of individuals pick the media they are exposed to depending on the values they already have, and they utilize information from the media to confirm their previous beliefs.
Studies of public opinion on the Bush administration’s energy policies have revealed that the public pays greater attention to subjects that receive a great deal of media coverage and adopts collective opinions on these matters, according to the findings.
Further, widespread exposure to television has resulted in “mainstreaming,” which means that people’s perceptions of political life and society are becoming more aligned with how television portrays them.
Race, ethnicity, gender, age, money, education, geographic location, and the size of a city all influence socialization patterns in various ways. For example, African Americans and Hispanics, in general, rely on television for their knowledge more than white people do, according to research. Women are more likely than men to watch daytime television, and males are more likely than women to watch sports shows. Individuals above the age of sixty-five read more newspapers than persons under the age of sixty-five, while people between the ages of twelve and seventeen (despite the fact that they consume the most media) read the least quantity of news.
News outlets on the East Coast are more likely than those on the West Coast to cover foreign issues in Europe and the Middle East, whilst news outlets on the West Coast are more likely to cover Asian affairs; this illustrates that location has an impact on media socialization patterns.
Final result is a common core of information, together with the interpretations applied to it by the media, that results in shared knowledge and fundamental values throughout the United States.
Despite the fact that there are still disagreements and differences in political beliefs and party affiliations, there are generally not large ideological disparities among the population as a result of the media’s role in fostering a broad consensus on fundamental democratic principles in the United States.
- Influence of a group of people
- Public opinion
- Political culture
- Political cognition
- AbcdeGlasberg, Davita Silfen
- Shannon, Deric
- AbcdeGlasberg, Davita Silfen (2011). Oppression, resistance, and the state are all topics in political sociology. Pine Forge Press, Thousand Oaks, California, p. 56
- Powell, L., and Cowart, J. (in press) (2013). The Internal and External Communications of a Political Campaign Allyn & Bacon, Boston, Massachusetts
- K. Varkey et al (2003). From a Philosophical Perspective on Political Theory Publishers and distributors in India
- RAPHAEL VENTURA VENTURA, RAPHAEL VENTURA (2016). “Family Political Socialization in Multiparty Systems” is the title of this paper. Comparative Political Studies, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 666–691 AbKononova, A.
- Saleem, A.
- Doi: 10.1177/0010414001034006004
- AbKononova, A.
- Saleem, A. (2011). “The media’s influence in the process of socialization to American politics among overseas students,” writes the author. (doi: 10.1177/1748048511398592
- ) International Communication Gazette.73(4): 302–321. Shanna Pearson-Merkowitz and James G. Gimpel are the authors of this article (2009-08-19). Religion and Political Socialization.doi: 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780195326529.003.0006
- Campbell, C. M. Religion and Political Socialization.doi: 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780195326529.003.0006
- (1960). The American Voter is a person who votes in elections in the United States. The John Wiley & Sons Company
- AbcdeGraber, Doris
- Dunaway, Johanna
- New York (2014). The American Political System and the Mass Media CQ Press (ISBN 978-1-4522-8728-7)
- ISBN 978-1-4522-8728-7
- In 2020, Muhammad Saud and Rachmah IdaMusta’in Mashud will publish a doctoral study on democratic practices and youth participation in political participation in the International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, 25:1, 800-808, DOI: 10.1080/02673843.2020.1746676
- In 2020, Muhammad Saud will publish a doctoral study on youth participation in political activities in Bhakkar, Punjab Pakistan, Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 30:
Political Culture and Public Opinion: Political Socialization
Political culture is acquired by individuals through a process known as political socialization. Despite the fact that the majority of political socialization happens during childhood, adults continue to be socialized on political issues. Political socialization can take place in a variety of ways:
- Family: Because young children spend the majority of their time with their families rather than with anybody else, they are more likely to pick up on their parents’ routines, beliefs, actions, and attitudes. As a result, family tends to be the most important source of political socialization among young people. The majority of the time, families unknowingly pass on political culture to their children through serving as role models. People frequently end up with political ideas that are similar to those held by their parents. School: The majority of youngsters learn about their nation in school, generally as part of a civic education program. This curriculum, which is frequently based on history, government, and social studies, prepares young people to be good citizens. Despite the fact that these teachings are typically elementary in nature, many of the most important ideals and values of a society are taught in school.
Consider the following example: Although most kids learn about United States history at an early age, textbooks and instructors tend to simplify the past and present it in a good way. For example, the abolition of racial segregation is frequently cited as an example of the progress achieved by the United States toward equality and liberty.
- People around you: Friends and acquaintances will have an impact on your opinions at any age. Religion: Diverse religious traditions hold vastly different values, and one’s religious beliefs frequently have a substantial impact on one’s political opinions.
To give an example, Roman Catholicism has a well defined set of beliefs on a wide range of political problems, spanning from abortion to the death penalty to social justice, among others. Although not all Catholics are against abortion or in favor of expanding social programs, many are as a consequence of their religious convictions.
- Social and economic class: One’s political and social beliefs are shaped by the social class to which one belongs.
As an illustration, blue-collar workers in the United States tend to support liberal economic policies while opposing many liberal social programs, as shown in the chart below. When it came to blue-collar workers throughout the first half of the twentieth century, economic matters seemed to be more significant than social issues, and they tended to vote for Democrats.
Social problems, on the other hand, have risen in significance in recent decades, and a rising proportion of blue-collar workers are voting Republican.
- Minority status: Members of a minority group may experience feelings of isolation and alienation, which can have an impact on their attitudes toward society and the government. This is especially true when the minority group is treated either better or worse than the majority group in society. Media: With the rise of 24-hour cable news networks, talk radio, the Internet, and the apparent omnipresence of personal audio and video devices, the power of the media is expanding, and the impact of the media on political socialization is no longer limited to the young. Important political events: A big political event may have a profound impact on the sentiments of an entire generation regarding their country and government.
For example, World War II shaped the opinions of many Americans, particularly those who fought in the conflict. Many veterans felt committed to upholding the ideas that they had proclaimed throughout the fight. In the next twenty years, the Vietnam War would have a similar significant influence, contributing to a growing distrust of foreign military operations. In the 1970s, the Watergate crisis fostered widespread distrust in the government in the minds of many citizens.
The Role of Government
In a number of ways, the government contributes to political socialization through various means. It establishes laws and curriculum for public schools, as well as the texts that pupils are allowed to study in class. In addition, the government regulates the media, which has an impact on what we see and hear. Unlike in other countries, broadcast television shows in the United States are not permitted to feature nudity or profanity, and the government also requires a specific quantity of “family-friendly” content each week.
- In a similar vein, governments regularly organize parades and festivals to memorialize significant events and individuals in history.
- Depending on the state, the assessments may include citizenship exams, which measure students’ understanding of the government and political culture.
- The differences across the states in terms of what they educate can be significant.
- Young people in Germany during the Third Reich were imbued with a sense of loyalty to Adolf Hitler by the Nazis, who established the Hitler Youth as an example of this.
What Factors Shape Political Attitudes? [ushistory.org]
The Bush family demonstrates that politics is a family affair. Former Congressman George Bush Sr. rose to become the 41st President of the United States, George W. Bush served as Governor of Texas before becoming the 43rd President of the United States, and Jeb Bush served as Governor of Florida from 1999 to 2007. The existence of a shared political culture does not imply that all Americans think in the same way. Some people are conservative and lean toward voting for the Republican Party. Some are liberal and lean Democratic in their voting preferences.
They influence how Americans participate in politics, who they vote for, and which political parties they support. A variety of variables, including family, gender, religion, color and ethnicity, and area, all influence political beliefs and behavior in the United States of America.
Family arguments and generation disparities aside, children tend to grow up and vote in the same manner that their parents do, notwithstanding their differences. When it comes to shaping young people’s political ideas, families are almost always the initial, and often the most lasting, impact. As people grow older, they are exposed to a wider range of influences that span the family, and their perspectives inevitably diverge from those of their parents. The influence, on the other hand, continues to exist.
Take, for example, the Bush family.
A member of the Kennedy family serves at every level of government, making them one of the most influential families in the United States. Three members of the Kennedy family, including President John F. Kennedy, Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy, and Senator Edward Kennedy, grin for the camera in this photograph. Since women gained the right to vote in 1920, political scientists have seen significant transformations in the power of men and women. During the 1950s, women tended to vote for Republicans in large numbers.
- By the 1960s, women had begun to change their political allegiances from the Republicans to the Democrats.
- According to polls, the Democratic Party is more favorable to women on a wide range of subjects, including education and health care, than the Republican Party is.
- However, the evidence does not give any conclusive proof that they do.
People’s voting decisions are frequently influenced by their religious views. In their statement, the Christian Coalition of America asserts that “people of religion have a right and a responsibility to be active in their communities and in the wider world.” Older research, some dating back to the late 1940s, usually suggest that Jewish voters are more likely than Catholics or Protestants to favor Democrats. In terms of economic problems (such as the minimum wage and taxation), Catholics tend to be more liberal than they are in terms of social concerns (such as abortion and divorce).
It has been observed that members of the religious right tend to favor more conservative candidates for public office, and that they are more likely than other members of the religious right to give to the Republican Party.
More than economic or foreign policy concerns, this tendency is more strongly related with social issues such as school prayer, abortion, and divorce than with economic or foreign policy ones.
Race and Ethnicity
African Americans, more than any other identified demographic, have been the most faithful Democrats during the previous half-century, according to historical trends. Although some academics claim that black Americans’ allegiance to the Democratic Party is waning, recent elections have shown the strong inclination of black Americans to vote for the Democratic Party. Overall, Latinos prefer to vote Democratic, although the correlation is not as strong as it is for blacks. To make matters even more complicated, the voting habits of the various Latino groupings are quite diverse.
Asian Americans, according to some surveys, tend to vote conservatively, however there is currently no strong evidence to support this claim.
This map depicts a statistical breakdown of the presidential election of 1996 in the United States. Republican Bob Dole won states in red, while Democrat Bill Clinton won states in blue, according to the results of the presidential election. It should be noted that Clinton performed well on the country’s coastlines, although Dole won the majority of the country’s mid-west. A typical rule of thumb is that those who live on either coast are generally more liberal than those who live in the middle of the country.
- Many Californians, as well as a significant percentage of New Englanders, are archconservatives.
- During the 1950s, the “Solid South,” or the inclination to vote for Democrats no matter what, began to crumble, and now, both Republicans and Democrats are competitive in much of the South.
- It is quite difficult to keep track of trends in political culture.
- At the end of the day, when Americans cast their secret ballots on Election Day, they are impacted by a wide range of different variables.
Chapter 10: Public Opinion
Introduction Public opinion—citizens’ perceptions about political problems, leaders, institutions, and events—serves as a political foundation for contemporary politicians by providing them with a political base of support. Presidents, members of Congress, and even the Supreme Court must take public opinion into consideration in their efforts to govern, as well as in the formulation and implementation of public policy. Public opinion, including its origins, evolution, and influence, is a major subject in contemporary political science since it serves as the yardstick by which we measure the strength of American democracy.
The primary objectives of this chapter are to comprehend the origins of public opinion, the level of present public awareness about politics, and the manner in which political elites form and measure public opinion, among other things.
What Is the Definition of Public Opinion?
What is the manner in which it is expressed? When it comes to political perspectives, what are the most prevalent themes on which people have differing views? Is the character of American public opinion best defined as consensus-oriented or as evidence of polarization, and how do you know?
- Public opinion is the aggregate of numerous persons’ perspectives and interests towards political topics, leaders, institutions, and events
- It is also known as popular opinion. When it comes to beliefs, people’s knowledge and understanding of the universe are reflected in their preferences, which are distinguished by their intensity. Directly or indirectly, preferences and views are expressed in reaction to the options that are presented. There are several areas of agreement, or consensus, among American public opinion, including agreement on the legitimacy of the government, equality of opportunity, liberty, and democracy
- Yet, there are also areas of disagreement. Although there are numerous areas in which the public differs on political concerns, people express their varied ideas through private messages to officeholders, public publications and speeches, as well as by voting. There is public opinion on a wide range of political matters, including the following, for example:
- Examining the performance of persons in government and other organizations
- Evaluations of governmental policy
- Evaluations of the existing state of affairs Politics, including partisanship and ideology
- Political orientations
- Today’s political analysts contend that contemporary American politics is characterized by polarization, which they believe reflects not only America’s long-term consensus on some issues, but also the persistence of interest-based conflicts, as predicted by James Madison’s theory of America’s factionalism.
Secondly, the origins of public opinion When it comes to politics, where do Americans receive their information? Where does one’s own self-interest come into play in establishing one’s political beliefs? Is it possible to identify the most prevalent sources of political socialization, and how do these sources shed light on the ideological divides that characterize American politics? What is the function of political ideology in the organization of political beliefs held by the people of the United States?
- Generally speaking, people’s political and policy choices are based in part on their own self-interest, which includes economic interests as well as interests originating from laws pertaining to geography, social standing, and other personal characteristics. Additionally, people’s opinions toward politics are influenced by underlying beliefs that are firmly ingrained in their lives and reflect established communal standards. In addition, because they delve into deep psychological relationships that go beyond interests and values, individuals’ identities influence their preferences as well. Preferences are developed socially as a result of a variety of agents and processes together referred to as political socialization. It is possible to socialize through a variety of means.
- The family is a significant socialization agent
- Children frequently (but by no means always) adopt their parents’ political opinions from them. The fact that educational attainment gaps are significantly connected with variations in political engagement, for example, demonstrates that education may be a tremendous equalizer and source of common ideals
- Nevertheless, education can also engender political divides. Important disparities in political views may be seen among involuntary social groups (such as gender and racial groupings), as well as within voluntary social groups (such as political parties, labor unions, religious organizations, educational and vocational groups). In polls, patterns of diverse viewpoints depending on race, ethnicity, religious affiliation, and gender consistently appear as a result of the questions asked. Political beliefs and conduct can be influenced by changes in political conditions that are related with generational disparities and when individuals are initially drawn into political activity.
- A political ideology (a basic philosophy regarding the function of government) is formed when people’ ideas, attitudes, and views come together to form a coherent whole.
- Generally speaking, liberals are in favor of political and social change
- Considerable government participation in the economy
- Federal social programs
- Increased efforts on behalf of the poor and minorities and women
- Environmental concerns and consumer rights
- And a free market economy. Conservatives tend to favor the status quo in social and economic matters
- Many prefer less government, oppose business regulation, oppose abortion, support school prayer, and advocate for the continuation of American military strength.
Public Opinion and Political Knowledge are the third and final criteria. What is the current level of political attention and political awareness among the general public in the United States? What are the ramifications of the current status of political knowledge in the United States of America?
- The fact that it is expensive to obtain political information leads to an American population that does not devote enough time, energy, or attention to politics to fully understand or evaluate issues
- This “rational” ignorance of politics results in a citizenry that has little knowledge of and awareness of politics. While many people in the United States are interested in political information, many are looking for “cheap” political information by taking cues from trusted others (such as ministers
- And so on)
- Or by interpreting issues in light of prior general beliefs and ideology Individuals’ failure to protect their political interests is one of the implications of this collective inattentiveness to politics, as is the fact that widespread inattentiveness puts democratic processes vulnerable to increased manipulation by those seeking to mold public opinion. “The alchemy of aggregation,” on the other hand, makes democratic politics conceivable.
The fact that it is expensive to obtain political information leads to an American population that does not devote enough time, energy, or attention to politics to fully understand or evaluate issues; this “rational” ignorance of politics results in a citizenry that has little knowledge of and awareness of politics; The majority of Americans who seek political information do so in an attempt to obtain “cheap” political information by absorbing signals from trustworthy sources (such as clergy, pundits, journalists and friends), or by interpreting situations in the context of past broad ideas and ideology.
Individuals’ failure to protect their political interests is one of the implications of this collective inattentiveness to politics, as is the fact that widespread inattentiveness puts democratic processes vulnerable to increased manipulation by those attempting to change public opinion.
- All governments strive to influence their populations’ opinions, albeit in the United States, official messaging must compete with the messages of a plethora of other political players. Even if they differ in the specifics of how they go about influencing public opinion, all modern presidents have relied on polling similar to that used in election campaigns to gauge and change public opinion. Influential figures from the worlds of politics, industry, and public interest organizations work to change public opinion on specific topics and advance ideological objectives. The communication media are among the most powerful forces in the marketplace of ideas, and they play an important role in shaping public opinion. Political elites on the one hand, and the general public on the other, might be regarded of as intermediaries between them and the general public. These are nonetheless powerful mediators: the news media create the public agenda, “prime” the criteria by which people judge politicians and political events, and “frame” events and topics in ways that influence public perceptions of politics
- However, these are not neutral mediators.
5. Obtaining Input from the General Public What are the ramifications of polling the general public for public opinion? What methods do pollsters use to get information? What are the chances that those procedures may occasionally result in measurement mistakes or outright shifts in public opinion?
- In contrast to previous generations of politicians, who gauged public opinion by listening to applause, counting crowds, or engaging in one-on-one conversations with constituents, contemporary politicians rely heavily on public opinion polls to determine whether to run for office, which policies to support, how to vote, and what appeals to make during campaigns. The results of surveys are used to build a picture of public opinion, and if done appropriately, they may be fairly accurate.
- First and foremost, pollsters must select a sample that is typical of the group they are attempting to depict. Pollsters use a range of sample procedures, such as probability sampling and random-digit dialing, in order to prevent selection bias in their results. Sample size has an effect on poll dependability
- Excellent polls reflect the amount of sampling error they encountered
- The design of a survey, the wording of questions, and even the sequencing of questions in a survey may all contribute to measurement error.
- The practice of polling itself has the potential to have an impact on public opinion.
- Using the example of push polling, which is a technique in which the questions are written exactly in order to mold the respondent’s attitude, The concentration of a survey on a single problem or combination of concerns can create the illusion of salience (that is, the perception that a certain issue is significant to the public when it is not)
- And Support for a politician or topic might occasionally grow simply because the candidate or issue has been reported to be popular as a consequence of poll findings.
6. What role does public opinion play in the formulation of government policy? When it comes to a democratic republic that values both democracy and republicanism, what is the right role for public opinion to play? What are the many ways in which politicians rule on our behalf? What is the best way for us to set policy for ourselves?
- The founders were wary of putting their faith in the people when it came to governing, and they created institutions that shielded the government from popular pressure. Others claim that, at the aggregate level, public opinion is consistent and steady, however some researchers argue that American individuals lack fundamental political understanding and have been unpredictable in the opinions they have reported to pollsters. Leaders in democratic countries should pay attention to public opinion, and the majority of evidence shows that they do so. Even However, policies may not always correspond to popular opinion, either because the minority was far more concerned or because public opinion changes more fast than policies do. Inconsistencies between public opinion and official policy can be resolved by democratic procedures such as ballot initiatives, albeit these processes are also prone to elite manipulation.
Unit 3: Public Opinion & Political Action Flashcards
The distribution of public opinion on political and policy topics throughout the general public. Population change is a branch of science that studies how populations change through time. A useful tool for gaining a better grasp of demographic shifts. Every ten years, the government is required to undertake a “actual enumeration” of the population, according to the United States Constitution. The blending of cultures, ideas, and peoples that has transformed the United States of America. Because of its long history of immigration, the United States has frequently used this phrase to characterize the phenomenon.
It is expected that Hispanic Americans, African Americans, and Asian Americans would collectively exceed White Americans by around 2045, according to census data.
Re-allocation of House of Representatives seats every ten years on the basis of the results of the census is known as reapportionment.
A survey sample is composed of a relatively small number of persons who are chosen to be representative of the entire population.
The degree to which one has trust in the results of a public opinion survey.
When conducting a survey, pollsters utilize a method known as random dialing to send telephone calls to both listed and unlisted numbers at random.
A collection of views about politics, public policy, and the public good that are consistent with one another.
A word that refers to the recurring trend in which women are more likely than males to support Democratic candidates in presidential elections.
All of the efforts undertaken by citizens in order to influence the selection of political leaders or the policies pursued by those leaders are included.
Protest and civil disobedience are examples of alternative tactics.
Involvement in politics that is motivated by a conscious decision to breach a law that is perceived to be immoral and to bear the repercussions of that decision.
Supports a less active role for the government, which allows the private sector to operate more freely.
Compared to Jews and Catholics, they are a more conservative group.
It all depends on how pious you are.
The term “unconventional participation” refers to behaviors that are typically theatrical, such as protesting, civil disobedience, and sometimes even violence.