The Dominant Values Of US Culture Include Which Of The Following

Culture Flashcards

SOC 101 is a course in social psychology. Baltimore City Community College’s Introduction to Sociology is available online. The ideas, values, conduct, and material items that together make up a people’s way of lifea.social structure are collectively referred to as a.social structure. b.social structure (c).culture d.societ Various terms are used to describe the intangible universe of ideas formed by individuals of a society, such as: a.high culture; b.material culture; c.societal norms (d) nonmaterial culture is a subset of nonmaterial culture.

a.high level of culture (b).material culture; (c) social norms d.nonmaterial culture (culture that is not made of things) When we look throughout the world, we see that people all around the world have the same beliefs about what is right.

(c)Cultural systems are created by individuals.

A.2,500 years; B.25,000 years; C.25,000 years (c).

  • b.any tangible or cultural characteristic.
  • d.social tendencies that are associated with cultural shock It is the process of:a.culture patterns flowing from one civilization to another that is referred to as cultural transmission.
  • Culture is passed down from one generation to the next through transmission.
  • In your opinion, which of the following statements most accurately expresses the Sapir-Whorf thesis?
  • Language is the process of assigning labels to the physical world.
  • People experience the world through the cultural prism of the language they speak, and vice versa.
  • d.Every word exists in every language that has ever existed.

Which of the following characteristics do the major values of American culture share?

All of the principles listed above are correct they are rules for daily, casual life; they are rules with significant moral implications.

d.Prescriptive norms; proscriptive norms; proscriptive norms When someone does something wrong, such as coercing a youngster into engaging in sexual conduct, they are breaching societal norms.

c.folkways.

In everyday life, elements of social control include: a.shame; b.guilt; and c.fear.

(d).

Nonmaterial culture is the term used by sociologists to describe tangible or physical human inventions.

c.technology.

To what extent are each of the following assertions regarding technology correct?

Historically, nations with more sophisticated technology have always outperformed nations with less advanced technology (b).

c.Access to technology is equally dispersed among the population of any given civilization.

Which of the following has become increasingly crucial as our society has transitioned towards a postindustrial, computer-based phase?

b.acquiring mechanical abilities through the use of industrial machineryc.gaining a better understanding of the past All of the statements made above are correct.

b.individuals who are enthusiastic about popular culture.

d.individuals who are devoted to high culture.

The claim that European and especially English ways of life dominate American culture asserts that our culture is:a.ethnocentric.b.Afrocentric.

d.relative to one’s cultural background a.individuals who are diametrically opposed in some aspect.

c.high level of culture (2) Cultural trends that are diametrically opposed to those that are universally accepted The term “cultural integration” refers to the reality that:a.American society has a diverse range of cultural patterns; andb.

(c)Changes in one cultural pattern are frequently accompanied by changes in others.

The phrase “cultural lag” refers to the fact that:a.the rate of cultural change has been slowing; andb.the rate of cultural change has been slowing.

c.some persons have a higher level of cultural sophistication than others.

There are three basic methods in which cultural transformation might be triggered.

(a) The processes of innovation, discovery, and dissemination Invasion, innovation, and experimentation are all examples of b.

d.adaptation, integration, and immigration are all important considerations.

b.the propagation of cultural values c.popular culture and entertainment (d.)diffusion.

A person who condemns the Amish farmer as “backward” for using horses and a plowinstead of a tractor is displaying(a).ethnocentrism.

c.diffusion of cultural ideas d.intercultural cooperation Ethnocentrism is the practice of comprehending another culture on its own terms and using its own standards, rather than relying on outside sources.

c.diffusion of cultures; d.integration of cultures.

flow of products from one nation to anotherb flow of information from one country to anotherc flow of people from one country to another (d).

According to which theoretical perspective, the stability of American society is based on basic principles that are held by the majority of the population?

c.have traveled to the United States from another country.

Which theoretical method is associated with the philosophical theory of materialism?

The structural-functional approach is a good example.

b.humans are incapable of inventing new cultures by themselves.

d.Everything listed above is correct.

Culture is a source of human liberty because:a.culture does not dictate how people should behave. b.all cultures change at a breakneck pace. People, as cultural creatures, shape and reshape the world around them for their own purposes. d.Everything listed above is correct.

The dominant values of US culture include _

This sample displays pages 1 – 3 of a total of 5 pages. 8.docx is an example of a test. 78.Among the major qualities of American culture is _a.a great regard for the traditions of the country’s ancestors. b.a firm conviction in the equality of all people’s circumstances. Belief in one’s own uniqueness (c). d.a preference for human intuition above scientific evidence. While the right to equal opportunity and freedom is one of the most important values in American society, another is Get an answer to your inquiry, as well as a whole lot more.

  • The term “an growing value in our society” may be found in which of the following expressions?
  • 82.1Low-income nations have cultures that place a high priority on a.economic survival in order to survive.
  • c.expression of one’s own.
  • 83.
  • Get an answer to your inquiry, as well as a whole lot more.
  • Get an answer to your inquiry, as well as a whole lot more.
  • was the name of the early American sociologist who identified the gap between folkways and mores.

SOC100 – Culture notes

I. CULTURE AND SOCIETYA. Culture: Knowledge, language, values,customs, material objects passed from 1 generation to the next, one person tothe next. 1.Humansboth construct culture and are sustained by it 2.Culturevaries and changes through timeB.What appears to be natural features of ourlives (sexuality, aging, death, the consumption of food) are all mademeaningful by culture (Murdock).There is a strong connection between aperson’s values, beliefs, and behaviors and the culture in which they wereraised.1.Whentrying to understand why a person has particular values, use a sociologicalimagination and consider their cultural influences.If they were raised in a culture that valuesmonogamy, it would likely be the case that the person would expressdissatisfaction at their partner being intimate with another person, forexample.a.material culture: The physical or tangible creations that members of a societymake, use, and share for survival and enjoyment (cars, clothing, houses,computers, etc.)b.nonmaterial culture: Abstract or intangible human creations of society thatinfluence people’s behavior (language, beliefs, values, rules, family patterns,political systems, etc.) c.cultural universals (George Murdock 1945): Customs and practices that occuracross all societies (appearance, activities, social institutions,customary practices 1.Specific forms vary from one group to anotherand from one time to another within the same group.II. COMPONENTS OF CULTURE A. symbols: anything meaningful thatrepresents something else. -Shared meanings (flowerbehind ear, shaka sign, flag, color of clothing and gender) -But meanings vary byculture and thus are often misinterpreted: -AOKAY gesture is good inUS, but in France and Belgium, however, it means “You’re worth zero”while in Greece and Turkey, it isan insulting or vulgar sexual invitation.In parts of southern Italy,it is an offensive and graphic reference to a part of the anatomy.B. language: a set of symbols thatexpresses ideas and enables people to think and communicate with one another. -Humans have unique abilityto express abstract concepts and rules and thus to create and transmit culturefrom one generation to the next. -Language shapes ourperception of reality -Sapir-Whorf hypothesis:language shapes the view of reality of its speakers.Language precedes thought. 1) Eskimo language has over twenty wordsassociated with snow which allows them to make subtle distinctions regardingthe different types of snowfall. 2) Japan and “excuse me”. 3) The number of words and expressionspertaining to technology that have entered the English language. These include cyberspace,virtual reality, hackers, morphing, information surfers, wired, and zapped. These words reflect thepreoccupation of American culture with technology.In contrast, many Americansare at a loss for words when they are asked to describe nature: varieties ofsnow, wind, or rain, kinds of forests, vegetation zones…Why?These things are not of great importance inurban American culture.-Mostsociologists believe that language influences our behavior and interpretationof social reality but does not determine it.-Language and gender: 1) Ignores women by using the masculine form to refer tohuman beings in general (man, chairman, mankind, which supposedly includes bothmen and women.) 2) Use of pronouns he and she show gender of person weexpect to be in a particular position.(Will little girls think it’s possible to be a cop if we mainly refer tocops as ‘he’?) (Under 10% of police in the US are female). 3) A language-based predisposition to think about women insexual terms reinforces the notion that women are sexual objects (fox, bitch,babe, doll=childlike and pet-like characteristics.) By contrast, men haveperformance pressures placed on them by being defined in terms of their sexualprowess (dude, stud, hunk).-Many changes have occurred(Ms. versus Mrs., food server versus waiter/tress, chairperson, etc.)-Language, race, andethnicity -Language transmitspreconceived ideas about the superiority of one category of people over another. 1) That’s mighty white of you, black mark 2) Racial slurs popularized in movies, music, often used inconjunction with physical threats against persons. -Language reflects ourfeelings and values.C. values: collective ideas about whatis right and wrong, good bad, desirable or not, in a particular culture. -Provide us with thecriteria by which we evaluate people, objects, and events.We use values to justify our behavior. Robin Williams, 1970 10 CoreAmerican values -Individualism, achievementand success, activity and work, science and technology, progress and materialcomfort, equality, efficiency and practicality, morality and humanitarianism,freedom and liberty, racism and group superiority. -Value contradictions:Real versus Ideal culture:Ideal culture is what people say they value, and Real culture is what people actually do – sometimes there are contradictions – ie, we say we value obeying the law (ideal culture) but we break the speed limit when we are late to work (real culture).D. norms: Established rules of behavioror standards of conduct.Vary accordingto culture (Japan: pool, sleeves, train windows) -Prescriptive andproscriptive -Formal and Informal norms -Folkways:Informal norms or everyday customs that may beviolated without serous consequences (Brush teeth, wear right clothing, thanking people for helping you, etc.) -Mores:Strongly held norms with moral and ethicalconnotations that may not be violated without serous consequences. Taboos:Mores so strong that their violation is considered to be extremely offensiveand unmentionable. -Laws:formal, standardized norms that have been enactedby legislatures and are enforced by formal sanctions. -Civil or criminal.III. TECHNOLOGY, CULTURAL CHANGE AND DIVERSITY A. cultural change: many forces workingfor change and diversity.1. technology: knowledge, techniques,tools that allow people to transform resources into usable forms and theknowledge and skills required to use what is developed.2. cultural lag (Ogburn, 1966) A gap betweenthe technical development of a society and its moral and legal institutions(material culture moves faster than non-material (cloning, stem cell research,internet privacy issues). Conflict.3. discovery, invention, and diffusion -Discover cure for cancer?AIDS? -Invention of guns, thewheel, -Diffuse into othercountries by media, military, tourism, immigration.B. cultural diversity: wide range of cultural differences found betweenand within nations. -homogeneous: Include people who share a commonculture and are typically from similar social, religious, political, andeconomic backgrounds (Japan, Sweden) -heterogeneous: Include people who are dissimilarin regard to social characteristics such as religion, income, or race/ethnicity(United States) 1.subcultures: a category of people who share distinguishing attributes,beliefs, values, and/or norms that set them apart in some significant mannerfrom the dominant culture (Native Americans, Generation Xers, Amish, ethnicsubcultures in LA, NY, and other large cities, like Asians, Vietnamese,Taiwanese, etc.)2.countercultures: a group that strongly rejects dominant societal valuesand norms and seeks alternative lifestyles.Young people most likely to join these ‘cause have less invested inexisting culture (beatniks of the 1950’s, flower children of 1960’s, religioussects, or cults, KKK, Nation of Islam, etc.).C. culture shock: the disorientation that people feel when they encountercultures radically different from their own(Japan swimming pools,small appliances, tins of black bikes and not even locked up, not saying helloto strangers=aggressive, coming home in Canadian airport,etc.)D. ethnocentrism and cultural relativism -Ethnocentrism:the practice of judging all other cultures by one’s own culture.Assume one’s way of life is superior to allothers (In Japan, people would rather crawl on floor than walk in housewith shoes…if we think that’s weird, we might be being ethnocentric)-CulturalRelativism:the belief that the behaviors and customs of any culture must beviewed and analyzed by the culture’s own standards.For example, we don’t judge what people do in other cultures because we understand that it’s just part of their culture.-BUTmay be used to excuse customs and behaviors that may violate basic human rights(genital mutilation).IV. HIGH CULTURE, POPULAR CULTURE A. High culture:classicalmusic, opera, ballet, live theater, and other activities usually patronized byelite audiences, composed primarily of members of the upper classes, who havethe time, money, and knowledge assumed to be necessary for its appreciation. 1. Cultural Capital theory: (Bourdieu, 1984). -When sociologists look athigh culture and popular culture, the focus is primarily on the associationbetween culture and social class. -Karen Cox example. -High culture is a deviseused by the dominant class to exclude the subordinate classes. For example, if a lower class person goes to a 5-star restaurant and doesn’t knowwhat fork to use, they will know that they don’t belong there. -Since knowledge andappreciation ofhigh cultureare considered a prerequisite for access to thedominant class, its members can use their cultural capital to deny access tosubordinate group members and thus preserve and reproduce the existing classstructure (Hale, 1993). -The value of education ispart of cultural capital. -Parents give this to us. -People must be trained toenjoy high culture. -Individuals learn abouthigh culture in upper-middle and upper-class families and in elite educationsystems, especially higher education. -Possess a form of culturalcapital.B.Popular culture:Activities,services, products, assumed to appeal primarily to members of the middle andworking classes (rock concerts, spectator sports, movies, and TV soap operasand sit coms.) -But rise of consumersociety in which luxury items have become more widely accessible to the masseshas greatly reduced the great divide between activities and possessionsassociated with wealthy people or a social elite (Huysses, 1984).1.fads andfashions (popular culture) -fad: a temporary but widelycopied activity followed enthusiastically be large numbers of people. -Most are short-lived. -fashion: a currently valuedstyle of behavior, thinking, or appearance that is longer lasting and morewidespread than a fad (in childrearing, education, arts, clothing, music,sports).-Cultural imperialism: Theextensive infusion of one nation’s culture into other nations (Hawaii). -Homogeneous global culture?Or just becoming Westernized?V. SOCIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF CULTURE A. Functionalist: Sees society asstable, orderly system with interrelated parts that serve specific functions. -Culture helps people meetsmany needs: 1)biological: food and procreation 2)instrumental needs: law and education 3)integrative needs: religion and art -Societies in which peopleshare a common language and core values are more likely to have consensus andharmony. -Popular culture is the gluethat holds society together. -Regardless of differences,we can all enjoy a sporting event or a good movie… -We become homogenized as aresult of seeing the same images and being exposed to the same beliefs andvalues (Gerbner, 1987).-Dysfunctions: numeroussubcultures (different values) -But may overemphasize harmonyand cooperation. -Also needs to look atstructural problems like class-based inequalities, racism, and sexism, that maycontribute to conflict.B. Conflict: Assumes social life is acontinuous struggle in which members of powerful groups seek to control scarceresources. -Valuesand norms help create and sustain the privileged position of the powerful insociety while excluding others. -Marxsaid that ideas were cultural creations of society’s most powerful members. -Political,economic, and social leaders use ideology:an integrated system of ideas that is external to, and coercive of, people, tomaintain their positions of dominance in a society (Marx).-Popularculture is merely part of the capitalistic economy, products and servicescreated.We begin to think we need thesethings. Symboliccapital: public trust in the product (Boourgieu, 1984).If it’s Nike, it MUST be good.-Also,the issues of language and power and who gets to define. -Butsome say conflict focus too much on societal discord and the divisiveness ofculture.C. Interactionist (SymbolicInteractionist) -Microlevel analysis -focus on the sum ofpeople’s interactions. -People create, maintain,and modify culture as they go about their everyday activities. -Symbols make communicationpossible by providing shared meanings (clothing, for example.) -Flags, new norms, newmeanings -Values and norms arereinterpreted in each social situation we encounter. -But even Simmel said thatthe larger cultural world eventually takes a life of its own independent of theactors who daily re-create social life.Thus, people may be more controlled than they realize: Money:develops a social meaning that extends beyondits economic function. -Becomes an end in itself,rather than a means to an end.-But no systematic frameworkfor analyzing how we shape culture and how it, in turn, shapes us. -Also doesn’t say how sharedmeanings are developed AND doesn’t address thedisagreements on meanings. -Fails to take larger socialstructure into account.VI. CULTURAL PATTERNS FOR THE TWENTY- FIRST CENTURY A.Important changes in cultural patterns may include: 1. cultural diffusion and cultural diversityRESOURCES Websites: TheSociology of Culture – Wikipedia Books of Interest:After Subculture: Critical Studies in ContemporaryYouth Cultureby Andy Bennett and Keith Kahn-Harris (2004)The Graffiti Subculture: Youth, Masculinity andIdentity in London and New Yorkby Nancy Macdonald (2003)Hippies of the Religious Right:From the Countercultures of Jerry Garcia to the Subculture of Jerry Falwellby Preston Shires (2007)
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What does “dominant culture” mean in the workplace?

The efforts of your business to develop an inclusive atmosphere might be hampered by the presence of a dominating culture. However, the notion of dominant culture might be a bit ambiguous. Is it always a terrible thing, you might wonder? Learn what dominant culture is, why it is important for businesses to be aware of it, and how subcultures play a role in the workplace. Leaders may encourage a non-biased work atmosphere if they are more aware of the issue.

What is “dominant culture?”

When a dominant culture takes hold, it has established its own set of norms, values, and preferences as the standard for a whole group of people to follow. Preferences and conventions are imposed regardless of whether or not they are in conflict with what other members of the group are used to doing. Even if these habits and practices are not shared by all members of the group, the group tends to embrace and adopt them. This only occurs to a certain extent when the dominant culture’s standards are regarded to be preferred or meaningful by a majority of the people, which is not always the case.

  1. The norms of the dominant culture may be adopted because they are convenient or widely practiced.
  2. However, they may also be acceptable since breaking them would result in a social repercussion.
  3. Frequently, however, this promotion is accompanied with the repression of other cultures as a result of the promotion.
  4. In practice, we can find examples of this all over the place.
  5. Why?
  6. Swearing on the Bible is therefore a culturally meaningful act, even if it does not have the same spiritual significance for everyone.
  7. However, while culture might have an ethnic or racial meaning, the notion of culture has grown increasingly significant in the workplace.
  8. When a company supports a specific sort of culture, whether on purpose or not, it quickly spreads across the firm.
  9. For example, a startup may have a culture that is fast-paced and focused on growth at any costs.
  10. This culture is exemplified by the company’s initial few workers, who then recruit others who share their interests and way of doing things.

Someone seeking work-life balance may believe that it is simpler to find a new employment than it is to question the existing culture. This is incorrect. Because organizational culture symbolizes the leadership of the organization, culture and power are interwoven.

Why is it an important concept to consider in today’s workplace?

Modern workplaces cannot be understood without first gaining a grasp of culture – whether it is ethnic, personal, professional, or organizational in nature. It is necessary for us to have discussions about it. Employment provides a great deal more than just a location to collect a salary. We are absorbed in our job for the most of the day. And our labor, over time, contributes to the advancement of our professions. As a result, workplace culture has a significant impact on our ability to be successful in our jobs — and in our lives.

However, it might be difficult to tell the difference between the two.

These ideas guide our perceptions of what it means to be successful and to be a professional.

The more successfully you integrate into the prevailing culture, the more successful and attractive you are regarded to be by others around you.

Professionalism and dominant culture

According to scholars Tema Okun and Keith Jones, these norms are a result of the “systematic, institutionalized emphasis of whiteness” in society. This isn’t classic white supremacy in the usual meaning of the term. However, because of the bias toward whiteness and Westernized culture, individuals of other groups may be subjected to discrimination, ostracism, and violence. Not adhering to the culture is not only neutral, but it is also detrimental. Aysa Gray categorizes the ways in which white-centered professionalism is reinforced in a discussion of their findings published in the Stanford Social Innovation Review, which she co-authored.

  • Whiteness and Western culture are associated with an implicit or unconscious prejudice in psychology. Images of white, rich males as being linked with success are pervasive in the media. A number of studies have discovered that candidates with non-white names were less likely to be considered by employers. Employers who demonstrate an obvious preference for white candidates are known as overt preferences. Race-based norms that are classified as a “cultural” workplace fit are examples of cultural prejudice. Language bias: Those with a “non-white” accent are less likely to be employed or promoted than those with a “white” accent. Second-language speakers and those without a college degree are alienated by an unduly complicated vocabulary. Promotional ceilings: discrimination in the promotion of goods and services. In terms of executive jobs, Asian Americans are statistically the least likely to get appointed. Resumes and hiring bias:Employers look for “feminine” qualities in resumes, such as the use of bullet points (I’m serious —bullet points)
  • The use of a feminine-sounding title
  • And the use of a feminine-sounding title. Non-white employees are subjected to higher standards and harsher punishments as a result of micromanagement. When it comes to time management, there are cultural variances in productivity and time that might influence this norm.

As people get more comfortable acknowledging systemic racism, we can go back and look at prior standards to see if there is any prejudice there. A smaller extent of this bias is directed at any non-conforming members of a group, regardless of race or ethnicity. Despite their best efforts, many people fail to satisfy the requirements of classic white professionalism. Organizations’ efforts to develop vibrant, inclusive workplaces are jeopardized by arbitrary cultural norms. They create a climate in which a diverse, high-performing staff cannot thrive if they do not exercise caution.

What do subculture and counterculture mean in the workplace?

Subculture and counterculture may conjure up images of edgy haircuts, studded leather, and warehouse performances, among other things. In actuality, the phrases are used to describe to any groups that are not part of the prevailing cultural tradition. In contrast to the dominant culture, a subculture is a dynamic, typically unstructured group that arises outside of it. Subcultures arise around qualities that are shared by everyone: tenure, department, socioeconomic background, or even sports affinities, to name a few.

  • Examples include a college’s LGBTQIA alliance or a close-knit marketing department, among others.
  • Subcultures, on the other hand, can help people feel more connected to one another.
  • Seeing people keep their sense of self while prospering inside an organization might be helpful for those who are experiencing similar feelings.
  • The values of the organization are reinforced by the presence and assimilation of the values on an individual level, which helps to establish cohesiveness.
  • This is most often the case when the subculture is at conflict with the prevailing culture of an organization.
  • It is conceivable that a more destructive counterculture will develop.

In its very nature, a counterculture is combative. It is almost always unable to live with the prevailing culture. The existence of the mainstream culture and the counterculture is intrinsically threatened by one another’s existence.

What can you do to promote a non-biased work environment?

It might be difficult to determine which culture is the prevailing one. Even more difficult is determining which portions of it are likely to be prejudiced and harmful to your company — and which ones should be addressed first. After all, it is, by definition, widely distributed. Often, the dominant culture is so pervasive that it is hard to distinguish it from the surrounding environment. The longer you stay in it, the less conscious you are of its presence in your life (or of alternatives).

  • If you are someone who strongly connects with the prevailing culture, it is even more difficult to comprehend how things might need to alter in the future.
  • Beginning with a well-known pain point, such as an endeavor that never got off the ground or a product that failed, may be beneficial in some situations.
  • The goal is not to point fingers, but rather to raise awareness of the possibilities of alternative viewpoints and approaches.
  • Encourage participants to interact with one another, and designate one person to report the most important discoveries of the group.
  • In your company’s culture, there are several things to look out for and things to question:
  • Is everyone the same height and build? If that’s the case, it might be a red sign. Many people are demanding for all-white panels or executive boards to be called out, but there may be more to it than just that. If a group’s variety of thinking, socioeconomic background, race, or educational attainment is low, this may indicate a potential problem. Does it appear that individuals are comfortable discussing what is important to them? Do they downplay the fact that they have children, families, or other responsibilities outside of work? Do they believe they must be “sneaky” in order to practice their religious and spiritual beliefs
  • And Are employees taking advantage of their employer’s perks? Do you have employees who often take advantage of the opportunity to shorten their incapacity or paternity leave? What role does your company place on employee access to therapy and other support services? Do you actively encourage workers to engage in talks about change in your business? Is there a sense that “this is just the way things are” in your organization, or does it actively foster development? Is there a visible representation of diversity in your organization? It appears to be widespread across ethnic, racial, gender, and neurodiverse lines. Does this hold true for you? Do they feel as though they are part of something? Which criteria are being used to determine your achievement, and who is assessing your success in terms of diversity? It is important not to fall into the trap of treating individuals as if they are statistics. Don’t forget to create targets and hold people accountable for representation at all levels of your business. Have you looked into your culture to see if there is any coded language? Do you have standards that don’t matter in terms of the outcomes you achieve? For example, do you require employees to wear specific haircuts or to forego head coverings
  • Do you portray subcultures as a danger to your organization? How do you feel about inviting and encouraging people to interact with one another, or do you insist on things being done a specific way? What do the social activities at your business look like? Consider changing the time of day, day of the week, or activity to something more inclusive if the crowds are sparse or consist primarily of the same people.
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One of the most effective antidotes to an environment dominated by the dominant culture is to create an atmosphere in which its subcultures may thrive. It is not necessary to reject or eliminate a culture in order to weaken its hold on the dominant position. Making room for subcultures to develop is analogous to opening the windows and allowing more air and sunlight in. It promotes a more healthy atmosphere for everyone, including those who are most closely aligned with the mainstream cultural paradigm.

The date of publication is June 3, 2021.

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The image is courtesy of Getty Images/Saha Entertainment. Culture is defined as the features and knowledge of a certain group of people, and it includes language, religion, food, social behaviors, music, and the arts, among other things. Cultural patterns, interactions, cognitive constructs, and comprehension are defined by theCenter for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition as common patterns of behavior and interaction that are learnt via socialization, according to the Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition As a result, culture may be defined as the development of a group identity that is influenced by social patterns that are exclusive to the group.

The anthropologist Cristina De Rossi of Barnet and Southgate College in London told Live Science that culture encompasses “religion, food, what we wear, how we wear it, our language, marriage, music, what we believe is right or wrong, how we sit at the table, how we greet visitors, how we behave with loved ones, and a million other things.” “Culture encompasses religion, food,” she said.

According to Arthur Asa Berger, the word “culture” comes from a French phrase that, in turn, comes from the Latin word “colere,” which meaning to tend to the ground and flourish, or to cultivate and nourish, or to cultivate and nurture.

As De Rossi explained, “it shares its origin with a number of other terms that are associated with actively supporting development.”

Western culture

The fall of the Roman Empire had a significant impact on Western civilization. The image is courtesy of Chase Dekker Wild-Life Images/Getty Images. ) In recent years, according to Khan University, the phrase “Western culture” has come to refer to the cultures of European nations as well as those countries that have been extensively impacted by European immigration, such as the United States. Western culture may be traced back to the Classical Period of the Greco-Roman era (the fourth and fifth centuries B.C.) and the development of Christianity in the fourteenth century as its origins.

  • Throughout the past 2,500 years, a slew of historical events have contributed to the development of Western culture.
  • 476, paved the way for the development of a succession of often-warring nations in Europe, each with its own culture, after which the Middle Ages began.
  • According to Ohio State University historian John L.
  • As a result of elites being compelled to pay more for scarce labor, survivors in the working class have gained more influence.
  • Today, Western culture can be found in practically every country on the planet, and its influences may be traced back to its origins.

Eastern culture

Buddhism has a significant role in the civilizations of various Eastern countries. Three Buddhist monks are seen here on their way to the Angkor Wat temple. The image is courtesy of Getty Images/Saha Entertainment. Far East Asian culture (which includes China, Japan, Vietnam, North Korea, and South Korea) and the Indian subcontinent are commonly referred to as Eastern culture in general. When compared to Western culture, Eastern culture was highly impacted by religion throughout its early history, but the cultivation and harvesting of rice had a significant impact on its evolution as well, according to a study report published in the journal Rice in 2012.

This umbrella term, on the other hand, encompasses a vast array of traditions and histories.

Thus, Hinduism rose to prominence as a significant force in Indian culture, while Buddhism continued to have an impact on the cultures of both China and Japan.

In the case of Chinese Buddhism, for example, according to Jiahe Liu and Dongfang Shao, the philosophy of Taoism, which stresses compassion, frugality, and humility, was taken.

During the period 1876 to 1945, for example, Japan ruled or occupied Korea in various forms. A large number of Koreans were coerced or compelled to change their surnames to Japanese ones during this period according to History.com, which describes the situation as follows:

Latin culture

Da de los Muertos costumes for children in traditional attire (Image courtesy of Getty/Sollina Images.). The geographical territory that encompasses “Latin culture” is large and diverse. For the sake of this definition, Latin America is comprised of the regions of Central America, South America and Mexico where Spanish or Portuguese is the main language. Beginning in the 1400s, Spain and Portugal colonized or influenced a number of locations across the world, including those listed above. Some historians (such as Michael Gobat, “The Invention of Latin America: A Transnational History of Anti-Imperialism, Democracy, and Race,” American Historical Review, Vol.

  1. Because of this, Latin cultures are extremely diverse, and many of them combine indigenous customs with the Spanish language and Catholicism brought by Spanish and Portuguese invaders to form hybrid cultures.
  2. These impacts are particularly evident in Brazil and the countries of the Western Hemisphere’s Caribbean region.
  3. A notable example is Da de los Muertos, also known as Day of the Dead, which is a celebration dedicated to commemorating the fallen that is observed on November 1st and 2nd.
  4. According to the Smithsonian American Art Museum, Mexican immigrants to the United States carried the festival with them, and in the 1970s, artists and events focused attention on Da de los Muertos as a way of expressing their Chicano (Mexican-American) ancestry.

Middle Eastern culture

A family from the Middle East sits down to supper together (Photo courtesy of Getty/Jasmin Merdan). The Middle East is roughly defined as the area including the Arabian peninsula as well as the eastern Mediterranean region. According to the Encyclopedia Britannica, the North African countries of Libya, Egypt, and Sudan are also occasionally mentioned. The word “Middle Eastern culture” is another umbrella term that incorporates a wide range of cultural customs, religious beliefs, and everyday routines from all around the Middle East and North Africa.

  • Despite the fact that there is tremendous religious variety in the Middle East, Islam is the religion with the greatest number of adherents, and Islam has played a key part in the cultural development of the region.
  • According to the Metropoliton Museum, the death of the religion’s founder, Muhammad, in 632, was a watershed event in the development of Middle Eastern culture and civilization.
  • Consequently, a split developed between Shia Muslims, who held the value of bloodline in high regard, and Sunni Muslims, who held that leadership should not be passed down through the familial lineage.
  • Their rites and customs differ somewhat from one another, and the divisions that exist between the two groups frequently lead to conflict.

Areas that were once part of the Ottoman Empire are known for distinctive architecture that is influenced by Persian and Islamic styles.

African culture

African woman from the Maasai tribe, sitting with her infant close to her home in the African country of Kenya (Photo courtesy of hadynyah/Getty Images.) ) Africa has the longest history of human habitation of any continent: it has been inhabited since the beginning of time. According to the Natural History Museum in London, humans started there approximately 400,000 years ago and began to spread to other parts of the world around the same time period. Researchers led by Dr. Tom White, who works as a Senior Curator of Non-Insect Invertebrates at the Smithsonian Institution, were able to find this by analyzing Africa’s ancient lakes and the species that lived in them.

  • African culture differs not just across and within country borders, but also inside those borders.
  • According to Culture Trip, Nigeria alone has more than 300 tribes, which is a significant number.
  • Because of this, large urban centers sprung up along the Eastern coast, which were frequently linked together by the transportation of raw resources and commerce from landlocked portions of the continent.
  • According to Britannica, Northwest Africa has significant linkages to the Middle East, whereas Sub-Saharan Africa shares historical, geographical, and social traits with North Africa that are considerably distinct from those of the former.
  • The traditions of these cultures developed in a variety of contexts that were vastly diverse.
  • Maasai herders, on the other hand, herd their sheep and goats on broad pastures and rangelands.

What is cultural appropriation?

Cultural appropriation, according to the Oxford Reference dictionary, is defined as follows: “A phrase used to describe the taking over of creative or artistic forms, concepts, or practices by one cultural group from another.” A non-Native American wearing a Native American headdress as a fashion item would be one example of this practice. The fashion house Victoria’s Secret was highly condemned in 2012 after a model was dressed in a headdress that looked like a Lakota war bonnet, according to the newspaper USA Today.

As well as jewelry influenced by Zuni, Navajo, and Hopi styles from the desert Southwest, the model wore turquoise, demonstrating how cultural appropriation can group tribes with vastly distinct cultures and histories into a single stereotypical image through the usage of turquoise.

Sikh restaurateur and social media influencer Harjinder Singh Kukreja responded to Gucci on Twitter, noting that the Sikh Turban is “not a hip new accessory for white models, but rather an object of religion for practicing Sikhs.” Turbans have been worn as ‘hats’ by your models, although practicing Sikhs knot their turbans properly fold-by-fold.

“Using imitation Sikh turbans and turbans is as bad as selling fake Gucci merchandise.”

Constant change

One thing is clear about cultures, no matter how they appear on the surface: they change. According to De Rossi, “Culture appears to have become important in our linked globe, which is made up of so many ethnically different nations, but which is also rife with conflicts related with religion, ethnicity, ethical values, and, fundamentally, the aspects that make up culture.” “Culture, on the other hand, is no longer set, if it ever was. In its essence, it is fluid and in perpetual motion.” Consequently, it is impossible to characterize any culture in a singular manner.

  • A body known as the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) has been established by the United Nations to identify cultural and natural heritage as well as to conserve and safeguard it.
  • It was signed by UNESCO in 1972 and has been in force since since.
  • Stephanie Pappas is a contributing writer for Live Science, where she writes on a variety of subjects ranging from geology to archaeology to the human brain and psychology.
  • Her undergraduate degree in psychology came from the University of South Carolina, and her graduate certificate in scientific communication came from the University of California, Santa Cruz.

Culture definition

  • Individual and group striving over generations has resulted in a group of people accumulating a vast store of knowledge and experience, as well as beliefs and values, attitudes, and meanings. Culture includes hierarchies, religion, notions of time, roles, spatial relationships, concepts of the universe, as well as material objects and possessions. In general, culture refers to the systems of knowledge that are shared by a reasonably significant number of individuals. Cultural expressions are communicated, and cultural expressions are communicated
  • Culture, in its broadest meaning, is cultivated behavior
  • That is, it is the sum of a person’s learned, collected experience that is passed down through social transmission, or, to put it another way, it is conduct acquired through social learning. A culture is a way of life for a group of people-the behaviors, beliefs, values, and symbols that they accept, typically without questioning them, and that are passed down from one generation to the next through communication and imitation. Culture is a means of communicating symbolically. Skills, knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and motivations of a group are just a few of the symbols that may be used. The meanings of symbols are taught and purposefully preserved in a culture through the institutions of that society
  • And Culture consists of patterns of and for behavior acquired and transmitted by symbols, which constitute the distinctive achievement of human groups, including their embodiment in artifacts
  • The essential core of culture consists of traditional ideas and especially their attached values
  • Culture systems may be considered on the one hand as products of action, and on the other hand as conditioning influences upon further action
  • As defined by the United Nations, culture is “the sum total of the learned behaviors by a group of people that are widely recognized to be the tradition of that group of people and are transferred from generation to generation.” In other words, culture is a collective programming of the mind that separates the members of one group or category of people from the members of another group or category of people.
  • Human nature, according to this viewpoint, is determined by the ideas, meanings, beliefs, and values that people learn as members of society. People are defined by the lessons they have learned. Optimistic versions of cultural determinism believe that human beings have the ability to accomplish and be whatever they desire regardless of their environment. According to some anthropologists, there is no universally acceptable “correct way” to be a human being. While the “right method” is usually always “our way,” it is virtually never the case that “our way” in one civilization will be the same as “our way” in any other society. It is only through tolerance that a well-informed human being can maintain a proper attitude. The optimistic version of this theory holds that human nature is infinitely malleable and that human beings can choose the ways of life that they prefer
  • The pessimistic version holds that people are what they have been conditioned to be and that they have no control over this. Human beings are passive animals that do whatever their culture instructs them to do, regardless of their actions. In response to this theory, behaviorism is developed, which places the reasons of human behavior in a world that is completely beyond human control.
  • Different cultural groupings have distinct ways of thinking, feeling, and acting. There are no scientific standards that can be used to determine whether one group is essentially superior or inferior in comparison to another. The study of cultural variations across people and cultures implies the acceptance of a cultural relativism viewpoint. Neither for oneself nor for one’s society does it represent a return to normalcy. If one is interacting with groups or communities that are not similar to one’s own, it is necessary to exercise caution. Information regarding the nature of cultural differences across cultures, their origins, and effects should be obtained before making any decisions or taking any action. Parties that grasp the causes for their differences in opinions have a better chance of achieving a successful outcome in negotiations
  • In ethnocentrism, the conviction that one’s own culture is superior than that of other civilizations is asserted over time. It is a type of reductionism in which one lowers the “other way” of living to a distorted version of one’s own way of existence. This is especially significant in the case of international business transactions, when a corporation or a person may be under the impression that techniques, materials, or ideas that worked in the home country will likewise work in the foreign country. Consequently, environmental variations are not taken into consideration. Ethnocentrism may be classified into the following categories when it comes to international business transactions:
  • A preoccupation with specific cause-and-effect correlations in one’s own nation causes important elements in business to be disregarded. In order to ensure that all major factors have been at least considered while working abroad, it is always a good idea to consult checklists of human variables. Even though one may be aware of the environmental differences and problems associated with change, one’s primary focus may be on achieving objectives that are specific to one’s home country. A corporation or an individual’s efficacy in terms of worldwide competitiveness may be diminished as a result of this. The objectives defined for global operations should likewise be global in scope
  • While it is acknowledged that there are differences, it is expected that the accompanying modifications are so fundamental that they can be accomplished without difficulty. An examination of the costs and benefits of the planned modifications is always a good idea before proceeding. A change may cause significant disruption to essential values, and as a result, it may encounter opposition when it is attempted to be implemented. Depending on the change, the costs of implementing the change may outweigh the advantages received from implementing the change.
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EXAMPLES OF CULTURAL MANIFESTATIONS Cultural differences present themselves in a variety of ways and to varying degrees of depth in different contexts. Symbols are the most surface representations of culture, while ideals represent the most profound manifestations of culture, with heroes and rituals filling in the gaps.

  • Symbols are words, actions, pictures, or things that convey a specific meaning that can only be understood by people who are familiar with a certain culture or tradition. New symbols are readily created, but old symbols are quickly demolished. Symbols from one particular group are frequently imitated by other groups as well. This is why symbols are considered to be the most superficial layer of a society
  • Heroes are individuals, whether historical or contemporary, real or imaginary, who exemplify attributes that are highly regarded in a community. They also serve as examples for appropriate behavior
  • Rituals are group activities that, while often redundant in terms of achieving intended results, are thought to be socially necessary in order to maintain social order. Therefore, they are carried out most of the time just for their own sake (as in ways of greeting others, showing respect to others, religious and social rites, etc.)
  • Values serve as the foundation of a society’s culture. They are broad inclinations for preferring one state of affairs above another in comparison to other states of affairs (good-evil, right-wrong, natural-unnatural). Many values are held by people who are completely unaware of them. As a result, they are frequently unable to be addressed, nor can they be immediately viewed by others. It is only through seeing how people behave in different situations that we may deduce their values. Symbols, heroes, and rituals are the physical or visual parts of a culture’s activities that are visible to the general public. When practices are understood by insiders, the real cultural meaning of the practices is disclosed
  • Otherwise, the practices remain intangible and remain hidden.

The manifestation of culture at various levels of depth is seen in Figure 1: LAYERS OF CULTURE Within oneself, even people from the same culture, there are multiple levels of mental conditioning to contend with. At the following levels of development, several layers of culture may be found:

  • The national level is one that is associated with the entire nation
  • On the regional level: This refers to the disparities that exist between ethnic, linguistic, and religious groups within a country. When it comes to gender disparities (male vs. female), the gender level is associated with these differences. It is associated with the disparities between grandparents and parents, as well as between parents and children at the generational level. It is associated with educational chances as well as inequalities in occupational prospects. The corporate level: This level is associated with the specific culture of a given organization. Those who are employed are covered by this provision.

MOUNTING CULTURAL DIFFERENCESA variable can be operationalized using either single-measure or multivariate methodologies, depending on the situation. After the domain of a concept has been empirically sampled, a single-measure technique is used to measure its domain; a composite-measure technique is used to construct an index for the concept after several indicators have been used to measure its domain after the concept has been empirically sampled.

According to Hofstede (1997), a composite-measure approach has been developed to quantify cultural differences across various societies:

  • It assesses the degree of inequality that occurs in a society using a power distance index. UCAI (Uncertainty Avoidance Index): This index evaluates the extent to which a society perceives itself to be threatened by uncertain or ambiguous situations. Individualism index: The index measures how individualistic a society is in comparison to other societies. Individuals are expected to look for themselves and their immediate families exclusively, which is what individualism is all about in a society where people are expected to look after themselves and their immediate families only. In contrast, collectivism is a social structure in which individuals discriminate between in-groups and out-groups, and they expect their in-groups (relatives, clans, organizations, etc.) to care after them in exchange for their complete commitment. Specifically, the index assesses the amount to which the major values are assertiveness, money, and things (success), and that the dominating values are not caring for others or for the quality of life. Womanhood (in a romantic relationship) would be on the other end of the scale.

CULTURAL DIFFERENCES ARE BEING RECONCILIATED Consciousness of one’s cultural heritage:

  • Before embarking on a worldwide assignment, it is likely that it will be important to ascertain any cultural differences that may exist between one’s own nation and the country in which the business will be conducted or conducted. Where there are differences, it is necessary to determine whether and to what extent the practices of one’s native nation can be adapted to the foreign setting. The majority of the time, the alterations are not immediately noticeable or palpable. Certain features of a culture may be learnt consciously (for example, different ways of greeting people), while other differences may be learned unconsciously (for example, different ways of dressing) (e.g. methods of problem solving). The development of cultural awareness may not be a simple process, but once completed, it will unquestionably aid in the completion of a work efficiently in a foreign setting. Discussions and reading about different cultures absolutely aid in the development of cultural awareness, but the perspectives expressed must be carefully weighed before they are shared. Sometimes they represent incorrect prejudices, a judgment of merely a subset of a certain group of individuals, or a circumstance that has since experienced significant changes. It’s usually a good idea to obtain a variety of perspectives on a single culture.

Cultures grouped together:

  • Some nations may have many characteristics in common that contribute to the formation of their cultures (the modifiers may be language, religion, geographical location, etc.). Based on the information gathered from previous cross-cultural research, nations can be classified according to their shared values and attitudes. When travelling inside a cluster, less changes are likely to be observed than when going from one cluster to another.

Determine the amount of global participation by asking the following questions:

  • It is not necessary for all businesses operating on a global scale to have the same level of cultural knowledge. Figure 2 depicts the extent to which a company’s understanding of global cultures is required at various levels of participation. The further a firm progresses away from its primary duty of conducting domestic business, the greater the need it has for cultural awareness and understanding. The necessity of increasing cultural awareness as a result of expanding outward on more than one axis at the same time becomes even more apparent.

Figure 2: Cultural Awareness and the Degree to Which the World Is Involved Reference:Hofstede, G. (1997). (1997). Cultures and Organizations: Software of the mind. New York: McGraw Hill. Some recent publications CultureShock Challenges Firms Looking Abroad The U.S.constructionindustry has long been excellent at securing work overseas, but the temptation of rebuilding contracts in areas like Afghanistan and Iraq might entice some corporations in over their heads. Large internationalfirms have numerous resources to deal with the significant obstacles of functioning in the global economy.

Political and physical hazards are the most perilous and must be reckoned with.

Addressing them wisely can uncover numerous chances for success.

government’s conference on reconstructing Afghanistan, held in Chicago last week, went a long way to describe potential there.

The first lesson is to remove ethnocentric notions that the world should accommodate our manner of contracting rather than the other way around.

U.S.

Patience, attentiveness and sensitivity are not commonconstruction traits, but they can help inculturesdifferent from our own.

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Implications of Cultural Differences for Cross-Cultural Management Research and Practice Abstract Although observation is a common research technique, little attention has been given to the effects of culture on observer judgment making.

A laboratory study was conducted to examine the potential for discrepancies in observer judgment making among Asian American and Caucasian American subjects.

The results of the study affirm the importance of cultural influences in research and management. [LiKarakowsky (2001). (2001). Do We See Eye-to-Eye? Implications of Cultural Differences for Cross-Cultural Management Research and Practice. T he Journal of Psychology,135 (5), 501-517.]

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