In the late 1940s and early 1950s, many citizens in the United States were alarmed by the threat of communist infiltration both at home and abroad, which they perceived as a terrifying possibility. These anxieties came to define–and, in some cases, corrode–the political culture of the time period. For many Americans, Republican Senator Joseph R. McCarthy of Wisconsin will always be remembered as the most enduring icon of the “Red Scare.” Senator McCarthy spent nearly five years attempting in vain to expose communists and other left-wing “loyalty risks” in the United States government, but was ultimately unsuccessful.
Only a small number of people ventured to speak out against McCarthy because his claims were so threatening.
The Cold War
In the years following World War II’s conclusion, events at home and abroad appeared to many Americans to demonstrate that the “Red menace” was a genuine threat. For example, in August 1949, the Soviet Union detonated its first atomic weapon in the history of the world. Later that year, communist forces declared victory in the Chinese Civil War and founded the People’s Republic of China as a result of their efforts. As a result, the Soviet-backed army of North Korea attacked its pro-Western neighbors to the south in 1950, prompting the United States to enter the fight on the side of the South Korean government.
Left-wingers in Hollywood and liberals in the State Department were among those targeted by the HUAC.
However, a majority of Congress overruled President Truman’s veto of the Act, claiming that it “would make a mockery of our Bill of Rights.”
Joseph McCarthy and the Rise of McCarthyism
Combined, these circumstances created an atmosphere of fear and dread, which proved to be an ideal climate for the ascent of a fanatical anticommunist like Joseph McCarthy to prominence. When McCarthy was elected to the Senate in 1946, he was a first-term senator from Wisconsin who had gained election on the strength of a campaign in which he attacked his opponent’s reluctance to join during World War II while highlighting his own military heroism. McCarthy was a Democrat. McCarthy made a speech in Wheeling, West Virginia, in February 1950, before the Ohio County Women’s Republican Club, which catapulted him into the national limelight.
The following month, a Senate subcommittee started an investigation that found no evidence of any subversive action on the part of the group.
Despite this, the senator continued his so-called “Red-baiting” campaign against the president.
McCarthy served in the Senate for two terms.
Despite the fact that McCarthy’s investigations found no evidence of subversion, more than 2,000 federal personnel were fired as a result of his investigations.
“Have you no sense of decency, sir?”
Senator McCarthy shifted his focus from the alleged communist infiltration of the military forces to “exposing” this infiltration in April of 1954. Many individuals had been ready to overlook their dissatisfaction with McCarthyism during the senator’s campaign against government personnel and others whom they saw to be “elites,” but their support for the senator had begun to fade by this point. McCarthy’s air of invulnerability, which had encircled him for over five years, began to dissipate almost immediately.
Then came the decision to broadcast the “Army-McCarthy” hearings on national television, which proved to be the last nail in the coffin.
He was scolded by the Army’s senior counsel for having insulted a young Army lawyer, who said, “Do you have no sense of decency, sir?” The Army-McCarthy hearings were widely seen as a low point in American politics by many commentators.
The Fall of Joseph McCarthy
McCarthy had lost the support of the majority of his supporters by the time the hearings were over. Sen. John McCain (R-AZ) was censured by the Senate on Wednesday for engaging in “inexcusable, repugnant, vulgar, and insulting” behavior that was “unbecoming of a senator.” Although he retained his position, he lost his influence, and he died in 1957 at the age of 48.
Fast Food during the 1950s and 60s
|Fast FoodIn the 1950s and 60s, fast food chains – epitomized by McDonald’s – revolutionized the restaurant industry and changed farming and food distribution businesses. The first McDonald’s restaurant was actually a barbecue joint that opened in 1940 by brothers Dick and Maurice (Mac) McDonald along Route 66 in San Bernardino, California. At first, they offered 25 different items served by carhops. They catered to young affluent people who were part of the emerging California car culture. Teens drove up, placed their order with the carhops and were served on trays that hooked onto rolled down windows.In 1940, The brothers figured out that almost all of their profits were coming the sale of hamburgers. They also sensed that teens and families alike were interested in eating quickly. So, they closed down their restaurant for several months and developed their “Speedee Service System” of food preparation. This was a streamlined assembly line for food. They also streamlined their menu to hamburgers, milkshakes and french fries. The burgers sold for 15-cents, about half of what a burger cost at regular diners of the time. With success, the brothers franchised their enterprise and had eight restaurants open by the early 50s.It’s significant that McDonald’s concentrated on milkshakes because that brought Ray Kroc to McDonalds in 1954. Kroc was selling the Multimixer – a machine that could mix five shakes at a time – when he became fascinated with the Speedee system. He asks the brothers to allow him to franchise McDonald’s outside of California. They do and Kroc opened his first outlet in Des Plaines, Illinois, a suburb of Chicago.By 1958, the company sold its 100 millionth hamburger. By 1961, Kroc bought out the McDonald brothers and opened a training facility called Hamburger University in Illinois. The rest, as they say, is history.In a way, Burger King was an outgrowth of McDonald’s. The same year that Ray Kroc visited the original McDonald’s, James McLamore and David Edgerton visited as well. They were both graduates of the Cornell University course in hotel administration, and they also saw the potential of assembly-line fast food. They opened their first restaurant in 1954 in a suburb of Miami, Florida. Now, Burger King has more than 11,220 franchise outlets in 61 countries.The franchise model was quickly adapted to other types of food, for example, pizza. By the early 50s, servicemen returning from Italy brought back a taste for pizza. Up until then, pizza was a regional dish concentrated in Italian immigrant neighborhoods in New York and Chicago. New York pizza was very thin, and Chicago pizza tended to be very thick. After WWII, other local pizza joints began to open up with a variety of recipes.In 1958, Dan and Frank Carney borrowed $600 from their mother and opened the first Pizza Hut in Wichita Kansas. It was so successful that they began franchising restaurants quickly. By 1968, they opened their first restaurant in Canada. Now they have operations in over 100 countries.Dominos added delivery to the pizza business when they opened their first store in Detroit Michigan in 1960. Their guarantee – delivery in 30 minutes or it’s free – helped them expand to include more than 8,000 stores in 55 countries.Today, there are 4.2 billion pizzas sold every year by 60,000 pizzerias.The franchise model – with a central source of supply for food items and standardized menu – became so successful that fast food joints are now part of multi-national corporate giants. Pizza Hut is now part of the aptly named Yum! Brands, a corporation that also owns Taco Bell, A W, Long John Silver’s, and the American icon KFC.In the early 1950s, Col. Harland Sanders was both a victim and a beneficiary of the automobile boom. Since the Depression, Sanders had been serving fried chicken – prepared with a “secret recipe of 11 herbs and spices” – at his gas station and restaurant in Corbin, Kentucky. But the route for the new Interstate 75 was going to bypass his establishment, so the Colonel sold his property and started traveling across the U.S. trying to sell his spice recipe and preparation method. Sanders claimed that frying his chicken in a pressure cooker shortened the preparation time. The short cooking time would take advantage of the fast food boom. No one bought, until Pete Harman of South Salt Lake, Utah, opened the first “Kentucky Fried Chicken outlet in 1952. Today, KFC has 750,000 employees and is the most popular Western fast food chain in China. Coincidently, Dave Thomas got into the fast food business by franchising several KFC stores in Ohio. He was the one who came up the idea that the chicken should be sold in paper buckets to wick away excess moisture, and he also came up with the rotating bucket-of-chicken advertising sign that, at one time, was outside every KFC.But in 1969, Thomas wanted to go out on his own, and so he opened the first Wendy’s in Columbus, Ohio. He stressed fresh, rather than frozen, meat served as square patties prepared fresh and served “hot off the grill.” Wendy’s was also the first fast food restaurant to build a drive-through window in 1970. That cut down on labor costs because carhops were no longer needed, and all of the fast food chains built drive-throughs within a few years.The predominance of fast food restaurants changed the food supply chain all the way down to the farmer. McDonald’s quickly became the single largest buyer of beef, pork, potatoes and apples in the U.S. That gave them tremendous economic clout.The fast food system is all about standardization, and so when the companies went looking for someone to supply their meat, they choose to deal with their large, corporate counterparts in the packing industry. IBP began to produce “boxed beef,” where the final cuts of beef, including hamburger, were produced at the processing plant rather than the local grocery. IBP became the largest supplier of hamburger meat to the fast food industry.Kentucky Fried Chicken buys all of its chickens from huge suppliers like Perdue, Tyson and Pilgrim’s Pride. McDonald’s gets its fish products from the giant supplier Gorton’s of Gloucester.Because consumers with busy lifestyles needed food fast, the chains needed raw materials in standardized packages. So, meat packers needed a consistent supply of standardized animals to produce their meat. They couldn’t afford to deal with the uncertainty of many, small family farms. So, livestock producers became bigger and bigger. McDonald’sand other chains have also been accused of using their huge buying power to keep farm produce prices artificially low.When McDonald’s expanded into international marketplaces beginning in 1971, McDonald’s both adapted to local conditions and forced local farmers to adapt to them. For instance, beef is not the lead meat item offered in countries that have cultural taboos or food preferences for other types of meat. However, the company has been accused of changing food preferences and exporting American culture around the world along with its propensity for obesity.McDonald’s and other fast food chains have affected farmers wherever new restaurants open. In 1990, McDonald’s opened their first outlet in Russia. When they realized that they couldn’t guarantee a high quality, reliable supply of meat and other food products, they opened their own farms, controlling the supply chain at every step.Written by Bill Ganzel, theGanzel Group. First published in 2007. A partial bibliography of sources ishere.|
Frequently Asked Questions
What are the four main elements of hip-hop?
Hip-hop is a cultural movement that gained great appeal in the 1980s and 1990s; it is also the music that serves as the background for rap, a musical style that incorporates rhythmic and/or rhyming speaking that has become the movement’s most lasting and important artistic expression.
Origins and the old school
While often used as a synonym for rap music, the term hip-hop refers to a multifaceted subculture comprised of four elements: deejaying, also known as “turntabling,” rapping, also known as “MCing” or “rhyming,” graffitipainting, also known as “graf” or “writing,” and “B-boying,” which includes hip-hop dance, style, and attitude, as well as the type of virile body language that philosopherCorn (“Knowledge of self/consciousness” is a fifth ingredient that is occasionally added to the list of hip-hop elements, especially by socially concerned hip-hop artists and researchers.) Hip-hop began in the largely African-American and economically impoverished South Bronx district of New York City in the late 1970s, when the genre was first popularized.
The beginnings of the hip-hop movement are cloaked in mystery, intrigue, and obfuscation since it originated on the periphery of society.
According to legend, the graffiti movement was launched in 1972 by a Greek American adolescent who wrote, or “tagged,” Taki 183 (his name and the street where he lived, 183rd Street), on walls all around the subway system in New York City.
Influential art dealers in the United States, Europe, and Japan began exhibiting graffiti at prominent galleries within a short period of time.
graffiti In New York City, the Empire State Building looms above a wall of graffiti, creating a dramatic contrast.
His name was DJKool Herc (Clive Campbell), and he was the first prominent hip-hop deejay.
His music was created by fusing percussion bits from ancient records with popular dance tracks on two turntables, which resulted in a continuous flow of sound.
Break dancing competitions grew in popularity as the top dancers developed a repertoire of acrobatic and occasionally aerial routines, such as gravity-defying headspins and backspins, which they performed in front of an audience.
Grandmaster Flash accepting an award in 2006.
Grandmaster Flash invented the technique of needle dropping, which allowed him to extend brief drum breaks by playing two copies of the same record at the same time and sliding the needle on one turntable back to the beginning of the break while the other played.
Kool Herc is widely regarded as the founder of modern rapping because of his spoken interjections over records.
With the release of the Sugarhill Gang’s song “Rapper’s Delight” (1979) on the independent African American-owned record labelSugar Hill, rap first gained national attention in the United States.
A few of the most important early MCs and deejays were Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five, Kurtis Blow, and the Cold Crush Brothers, whose Grandmaster Caz is controversially considered by some to be the true author of some of the most powerful lyrics in “Rapper’s Delight.” These pioneers comprised what is known as rap’s “old school.”