- 1 [PDF] reform – Free Download PDF
- 2 The Protestant Reformation and the allocation of resources in Europe
- 3 Conceptual framework
- 4 A changed political economy in early modern Germany
- 5 Empirical evidence on resource reallocation
- 6 Implications for social science and beyond
- 7 References
- 8 Reformation
- 9 Three surprising ways the Protestant Reformation shaped our world
- 10 what kinds of cultural changes occurred in china and india during the early modern era
- 11 Which of the following is a reason that the Scientific Revolution occurred in Europe?
- 12 How did the Scientific Revolution transform Europe?
- 13 What changes resulted from the Scientific Revolution?
- 14 What effects did the Scientific Revolution have on society?
- 15 Which change occurred during the Renaissance?
- 16 What religions are banned in China?
- 17 What religions are in China?
- 18 What factors both within China and outside its borders contributed?
- 19 How did Islam spread to India?
- 20 What is Islamic culture and civilization?
- 21 What changes did Islamic expansion generate in those societies that encountered it?
- 22 How did the traditions and religious views of pre Islamic peoples become integrated into the culture shaped by Islam?
- 23 What are three factors that contributed to the spread of Islam in the Middle East and North Africa in the 7th and 8th century?
- 24 How did Islam rise and spread?
- 25 What effect did the Protestant Reformation have on cultural unity in Europe?
- 26 What were the causes and effects of the Protestant Reformation?
- 27 What changes did the Catholic Church make during the Catholic Reformation?
- 28 China vs India: What are the Similarities
[PDF] reform – Free Download PDF
Reform is available for download. THIRTEENTH CHAPTER: RELIGION AND SCIENCE FROM 1450–1750 REFORMATION OF THE PROTESTANT What were the specific ways in which the Protestant Reformation altered European society, culture, and politics? What were the specific ways in which the Protestant Reformation altered European society, culture, and politics? It resulted in a lasting division within Catholicism’s hierarchy. Some kings and princes used it to justify their own independence from the Church, and it provided them with a chance to acquire control of territories and revenues that had previously belonged to the Church.
In return for their expanding influence in society, the urban middle classes were given new religious legitimacy.
Women’s life were less affected, despite the fact that it encouraged female education and literacy, despite the fact that there was limited opportunity for women to benefit from that education outside the home.
Following religious division came sectarian violence, then war, and finally religious cooperation.
- People were encouraged to read and interpret the scriptures for themselves, as well as to seek salvation without the assistance of the Church, which helped to promote religious individualism.
- The Pringing Press is being implemented on a large scale as a result.
- In the sixteenth century, the Protestant Reformation took place.
- As a result of Martin Luther’s religious reforms, Protestantism came into existence.
- They aimed to bring about reform in the Catholic Church.
- Erasmus and the Humanism of the Christian Faith Desiderius Erasmus was the most well-known Christian humanist of his day.
- He did not want to leave the church, but rather wanted to reform it.
The popes and councils have no power over me, and I reject their authority.
I’m standing where I am because I have no choice.
Amen.” — Martin Luther King, Jr.
Between 1450 and 1520, a succession of popes fell short of meeting the spiritual requirements of the Church.
Julius II, known as the “warriorpope,” was known for leading troops against his adversaries.
Corruption in the Church Erasmus and the Humanism of the Christian Faith Indulgences Church leaders appeared to be unaware of their spiritual responsibilities, particularly when it came to advising the faithful on how to achieve salvation – admittance into Heaven.
According to the Church of the period, veneration of a saint might result in an indulgence, which is a reprieve from all or part of the punishment for sin.
The Reverend Martin Luther was a monk and a professor at the University of Wittenberg, where he lectured on biblical topics.
Luther eventually came to reject the Catholic belief that salvation could only be gained via faith and good works.
Luther became an outlaw throughout the empire as a result of the Edict of Worms.
Luther, on the other hand, was protected by the local king.
The Reformation in the United Kingdom The English Reformation was not brought about by religion, but rather by politics.
The pope, on the other hand, was hesitant to annul (declare invalid) Henry’s marriage, so Henry appealed to the church courts of England for assistance.
“I’m ready for a divorce!” (as well as a low-carb diet) The Reformation in the United Kingdom The next year, Henry married Anne Boleyn, who was proclaimed queen and gave birth to a daughter.
Erasmus and the Humanism of the Christian Faith Anne Boleyn is a historical figure who lived during the reign of Henry VIII.
Catherine of Aragon was unable to produce a male heir.
Erasmus and the Humanism of the Christian Faith Henry was a man who kept himself quite occupied.
Some Englishmen were offended by the fact that the Catholic church “owned” land on their country’s soil.
Some Englishmen were dissatisfied with the taxes that England had to pay to Rome because they felt they were unfair. As a result, while Henry’s marriage requirements were not the sole cause of this reformation, they did contribute to it.
The Protestant Reformation and the allocation of resources in Europe
Five hundred years ago today, Martin Luther nailed 95 theses to the door of the Wittenberg Castle church, denouncing corruption within the Catholic Church and igniting the Protestant Reformation in Europe. Specifically, this column argues that the Reformation not only transformed Western Europe’s religious landscape, but it also resulted in the immediate and widespread secularization of Europe’s political economy. On October 31, 1517, 500 years ago today, Martin Luther nailed 95 theses to the door of the Wittenberg Castle church, denouncing corruption within the Catholic Church and igniting the Protestant Reformation.
Long before the Reformation, social scientists contended that it had a significant impact on the European economy and had a part in the growth of the Western civilization.
An early and widespread secularisation of Europe’s political economy has been documented in recent study as a first-order effect of the Reformation, according to our findings (Cantoni et al.
We amass a wealth of data from early modern Germany and demonstrate that:
- Martin Luther nailed 95 theses to the door of the Wittenberg Castle church, denouncing corruption within the Catholic Church and igniting the Protestant Reformation 500 years ago today. Specifically, this column contends that the Reformation not only altered Western Europe’s theological landscape, but it also resulted in an instantaneous and significant secularization of Europe’s political economy. This day in history marks 500 years since Martin Luther posted 95 theses on the Wittenberg Castle church door, denouncing the corruption of the Catholic Church and igniting the Protestant Reformation. Historically, the Reformation constituted a watershed point in Western history, since it marked the first time that the religious monopoly of the massively wealthy and powerful Catholic Church was effectively challenged. Long before the Reformation, social scientists contended that it had a significant impact on the European economy and had a part in the development of the Western civilization. Although these positions have been challenged, the empirical evidence on the economic consequences of what is considered to be one of the most important episodes in European history has been mixed (e.g., Weber 1904/1905, Tawney 1926, Becker and Woessmann 2009, Cantoni 2015, Rubin 2017
- See also Weber 1904/1905, Tawney 1926). An early and widespread secularisation of Europe’s political economy has been documented in recent study as a first-order result of the Reformation, according to the authors (Cantoni et al. 2017). With the use of extensive research into early modern Germany, we demonstrate that:
This is a surprise result, to say the least. How could a fervently religious movement, preaching biblical revival, result in the economic secularization that we see around us today? And why did resources disproportionately transfer from the hands of religious kings to the control of secular rulers? The advent of religious rivalry during the Reformation had the potential to revolutionize Europe’s political economy, and we developed a conceptual framework to assist us understand how this may happen.
- Ekelund et al.
- Those who believe in God must pay a price, which includes financial charges in the form of tithes and offerings, in addition to time spent attending services and praying.
- It is true that Protestant theology provided a road to salvation that did not include the purchase of indulgences to sustain costly monasteries or the establishment of a vast bureaucracy of priests.
- All throughout human history, deals in this market have been at the center of political economics, particularly in places where religion offers legitimacy to political authorities (Weber 1978, North et al.
- As a condition for the church’s support, the secular lord must generally grant his own endorsement of the church’s doctrine, as well as a package of temporal concessions, including money, land, economic privileges, and political authority.
- The immense wealth that had been held by monasteries that had been closed after 1517, notably in the Protestant regions, was at the heart of much of the post-Reformation haggling between secular authorities and religious elites during the period after the Reformation.
What would happen if this money was redistributed to religious causes, or if it was expropriated by secular landowners? Because of the shift in the balance of power toward secular governments, our model implies that the latter is the case.
A changed political economy in early modern Germany
Significant historical evidence supports the notion that Protestant religious elites and secular territorial rulers negotiated over the distribution of monastery resources. While Protestant theologians strove to conserve these resources for religious and social causes at first, the price of political legitimacy plummeted, and secular territorial rulers were able to arrange bargains that made them substantially wealthy than they had been previously. Protestant authorities expropriated a significant amount of monastery property.
In all, 40 percent of monastery money in Hesse was given to the ruler, rather than being used for religious, educational, or social welfare endeavors.
Following the acceptance of Protestantism in Brandenburg, monasteries were permitted to retain their privileges in exchange for a payment of 300,000 guilders.
Empirical evidence on resource reallocation
Significant historical evidence supports the idea that Protestant religious elites and secular territorial rulers negotiated over the distribution of monastery resources. While Protestant theologians strove to conserve these riches for religious and social reasons at first, the price of political legitimacy plummeted, and secular territorial rulers were able to arrange bargains that made them substantially wealthy than they had been before. Lutheran and Reformed authorities confiscated a large amount of monastery treasures.
Hesse’s monastery income was divided 40 percent to the ruler, with the remaining 30 percent going to religious and educational institutions and social welfare organizations.
Following the acceptance of Protestantism in Brandenburg, monasteries were permitted to retain their privileges in exchange for the payment of 300,000 guilders.
Protestant theologians supplied the legal legitimacy for these transfers of wealth — this is compatible with our approach, which considers these transfers to be the result of negotiations between secular and religious elites.
- Labor demand in the religious sector of the economy is expected to decline, but demand in the secular sector is expected to climb — notably from affluent secular lords. Students who were thinking ahead would have redirected their educational investments away from theology, which was profitable only in the religious sector, and toward more broad disciplines. Construction of palaces and administrative buildings, as well as other structures representing the interests of secular lords, would have been the focus of major new construction events, which represented the accumulation of physical, financial, and human resources, as well as land.
Labor demand in the religious sector of the economy is expected to decline, but demand in the secular sector is expected to expand – notably from affluent secular lords – Students who were thinking ahead would have shifted their educational investments away from theology, which paid off specifically in the religious sector, and toward more general subjects. Construction of palaces and administrative buildings, as well as other structures representing the interests of secular lords, would have been the focus of major new construction events, which represented the accumulation of physical, financial, and human capital as well as land.
Labor demand in the religious sector of the economy is expected to decline, while demand in the secular sector is expected to climb — notably from affluent secular lords; Students who were thinking ahead would have switched their educational expenditures away from theology, which paid off primarily in the religious sector, and towards more broad courses. Major new construction events – representing the accumulation of physical, financial, and human resources, as well as land – would have turned toward structures reflecting the interests of secular rulers (palaces and administrative buildings);
Was Weber completely wrong?,” Becker, S O, and L Woessmann (2009). A Human Capital Theory of Protestant Economic History,” Quarterly Journal of Economics, vol. 124, no. 2, pp. 531–596, is a paper published in the journal Quarterly Journal of Economics. Cantoni, D. (2015), “The Economic Effects of the Protestant Reformation: Testing the Weber Hypothesis in the German Lands,” Journal of the European Economic Association, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 561–598, is a journal published by the European Economic Association.
- (2017), “Religious Competition and Reallocation: The Political Economy of Secularization in the Protestant Reformation,” NBER Working Paper No.
- Ekelund, Robert F.
- North, D.
The Cambridge University Press has published a book titled Rulers, Religion, and Riches: Why the West Got Rich and the Middle East Didn’t, by J.
It is available in Cambridge, UK and New York, NY.
Tawney’s Religion and the Rise of Capitalism was published by J.
Aristotle, “The Protestant Ethic and the ‘Geist’ of Capitalism,” in Archiv für Sozialwissenschaften und Sozialpolitik 20-21 (1904/05), pp.
17–84 and 1–110. (English translation published in 1930 asThe Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalismby AllenUnwin). “Economy and society: An overview of interpretative sociology,” by M. Weber, published by the University of California Press in 1978, Vol. 1.
“Was Weber Wrong?,” by S O Becker and L Woessmann (2009). In “A Human Capital Theory of Protestant Economic History,” Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 124(2), 531–596, the authors propose a human capital theory of Protestant economic history. A study of the economic consequences of the Protestant Reformation in the German lands was published in The Journal of the European Economic Association (JEEA) in 2015, and it was titled “The Economic Effects of the Protestant Reformation: Testing the Weber Hypothesis in the German lands.” “Religious Competition and Reallocation: The Political Economy of Secularization in the Protestant Reformation,” NBER Working Paper No.
- 23934, published by the National Bureau of Economic Research.
- Chaney’s article, “Revolt on the Nile: Economic shocks, religion, and political power,” was published in the journal Economic Development and Cultural Change in 2013.
- In 2006, the MIT Press published The Marketplace of Christianity by Robert B.
- Hébert, and Richard D.
- (2009), Violence and Social Orders: A Conceptual Framework for Interpreting Recorded Human History (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press).
- C., J.
- Wallis, and B.
Weingast (2009),Violence and Social Orders: A Conceptual Framework for Interpreting Recorded Human History The Cambridge University Press has published a book titled Rulers, Religion, and Riches: Why the West Got Rich and the Middle East Didn’t, by J.
It is available in Cambridge, UK and New York, New York.
In his book Religion and the Rise of Capitalism, published in London by J.
(English translation published in 1930 asThe Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalismby AllenUnwin).
Weber, published by the University of California Press in 1978 (Vol.
Where and when did the Reformation start?
Learn about the practices of the Roman Catholic Church that prompted Martin Luther to pen his Ninety-Five Theses. During this video produced by the Encyclopaedia Britannica Educational Corporation, you will learn about the Reformation and its leader Martin Luther. Because of his grievances against the Roman Catholic Church, a chain of events occurred that had a significant impact on religion and politics throughout history. Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. is a publishing company that publishes encyclopedias.
- A religious upheaval that took place in the Western church during the 16th century, known as the Reformation or the Protestant Reformation, was known as the Protestant Reformation.
- The Reformation had far-reaching political, economic, and social consequences, and it served as the foundation for the establishment of Protestantism, one of the three major streams of Christian religion.
- It had been hundreds of years since the church had gotten intimately entangled in the political life of western Europe, notably through the office of the pope.
- Abuse by the clergy, such as the sale of indulgences (or spiritual privileges) and other allegations of corruption, weakened the church’s ability to exercise spiritual power.
- The church continued to provide spiritual solace for the majority of people.
- One thing is clear: the political authorities have been increasingly concerned with curtailing the church’s public position, which has resulted in increased friction.
- Many of the reformers within the medieval church, including St.
- Erasmus of Rotterdam, a renowned humanistscholar who lived in the 16th century, was the leading proponent of liberal Catholic reform, which opposed popular beliefs in the church and promoted the imitation of Christ as the greatest moral teacher in the church.
(See the Researcher’s Note for more information.) It was Martin Luther who stated that he was different from past reformers because, while they targeted corruption in church life, he focused on what he perceived to be its source, namely a distorted understanding of the idea of redemption and grace.
- In his Ninety-five Theses, he took aim at the indulgence system, claiming that the pope lacked jurisdiction over purgatory and that the notion of the merits of the saints had no basis in the gospel of Jesus Christ.
- While he had no intention of breaking with the Catholic church, he knew that a confrontation with the Vatican would be inevitable sooner or later.
- IndulgencesA woodcut from the title page of Luther’s pamphletOn Aplas von Rom, which was published anonymously in Augsburg in 1525 and depicts the sale of indulgences in church.
- Almost soon after Luther’s death, the Reformation movement in Germany began to diversify, and new reform impulses formed independently of Luther.
- Zwingli agreed with Luther on the primacy of the notion of justification by faith, but he had a different view of the Holy Communion than Luther did on the subject.
- According to Luther’s belief, the body of Christ was physically present in the elements since Christ is present everywhere, however Zwingli believed that this implied a spiritual presence of Christ and a statement of faith on the part of those who received the gifts of the Holy Spirit.
Photograph courtesy of the Kunstmuseum Winterthur in Switzerland; artwork courtesy of the Schweizerisches Institut für Kunstwissenschaft.
They were known as Anabaptists in the 16th century, but they continued to exist as Mennonites and Hutterites throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, despite intense persecution.
There were also others who were opposed to the old Trinitarian doctrine who made an appearance.
In addition to Protestantism (as those rebelling against their suppressions were dubbed by the Diet of Speyer in 1529), Calvinism is an important variant of Protestantism, named after John Calvin, a French lawyer who converted to the Protestant cause and fled France following his conversion.
Calvin was the founder of the Calvinist movement.
Luther, on the other hand, saw law as having a more negative place in the Christian community than did Calvin.
Also important to Calvin was the notion of predestination, which he saw as a spiritual partaking of the flesh and blood of Christ during Holy Communion.
During the course of the 16th century, the Reformation extended to other European countries as well as the United States.
Because of the weakness of the monarchs, the might of the nobility, the scarcity of cities, and the long history of religious plurality in Eastern Europe, the region served as a breeding ground for even more extreme versions of Protestantism.
The foundations of the Reformation in England were both political and religious in nature.
It was possible to begin religious transformation in England through the restructuring of the church, which was accomplished despite its political ramifications.
InScotland, John Knox, who had spent time in Geneva and had been highly influenced by John Calvin, was the driving force behind the foundation of Presbyterianism, which made it feasible for Scotland to be united with England later on.
For a more in-depth discussion of the Reformation, see Protestantism, a historical perspective. See Protestantism for a discussion of the theological theory in question. Melissa Petruzzello was the author of the most recent revision and update to this article.
Three surprising ways the Protestant Reformation shaped our world
To learn more about what motivated Martin Luther to pen his Ninety-Five Theses, visit the Catholic Encyclopedia website. The Reformation and its leader, Martin Luther, are discussed in this video created by the Encyclopaedia Britannica Educational Corporation. Luther’s grievances against the Roman Catholic Church triggered a series of events that had a major influence on religion and politics. Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. is a publishing company that specializes in encyclopedias. This page contains a number of videos.
- The Reformation had far-reaching political, economic, and social ramifications, and it served as the foundation for the establishment of Protestantism, one of the three major streams of Christian religion, in the sixteenth century.
- It had been hundreds of years since the church had gotten intimately entangled in the political life of western Europe, notably through the office of the Pope.
- Church spiritual authority was eroded by abuses such as the sale of indulgences (or spiritual privileges) by clergy and other allegations of corruption.
- A spiritual source of solace for the vast majority of people was the church.
- One change is unmistakable: the political authorities have been increasingly concerned with curtailing the church’s public position, which has sparked conflict.
- Prior to 1517, reformers throughout the medieval church, like St.
- Erasmus of Rotterdam, a renowned humanistscholar who lived in the 16th century, was the leading proponent of liberal Catholic reform, which opposed popular beliefs in the church and promoted the imitation of Christ as the greatest moral teacher in society.
(See the Researcher’s Note for more information).
God’s free gift of grace had been entangled in a convoluted system of indulgences and good deeds, according to Luther, a pastor and professor at the University of Wittenberg.
He had no intention of breaking with the Catholic Church, but he knew that a confrontation with the Pope was inevitable.
Excerpt from the title page of Luther’s pamphletOn Aplas von Rom, published anonymously in Augsburg in 1525.
Photograph courtesy of the trustees of the British Museum; John R.
It was not long before the Reformation movement in Germany began to diversify, and other reform movements formed on their own initiative, unrelated to Luther.
Zwingli agreed with Luther on the primacy of the teaching of justification by faith, although he had a different view of the Holy Communion than Luther did on this point.
According to Luther’s belief, the body of Christ was physically present in the elements since Christ is present everywhere, however Zwingli believed that it implied a spiritual presence of Christ and a statement of faith on the part of those who received the gifts of the Holy Spirit.
Painting by Hans Asper of Huldrych Zwingli, 1531; at the Kunstmuseum Winterthur, Switzerland.
Swiss art museum Kunstmuseum Winterthur; photograph courtesy of the Schweizerisches Institut für Kunstwissenschaft.
They were known as Anabaptists in the 16th century, but they continued to exist as Mennonites and Hutterites into the 19th and 20th centuries, despite intense persecution.
It was in Poland that they created flourishing congregations, which they were known as Socinians after their founder.
Calvin published the first edition of his Institutes of the Christian Religion at Basel, Switzerland, in 1536, marking the beginning of the new reform movement’s systematic, theological treatise era.
The Christian society, on the other hand, saw him as having a more positive view of the law than Luther did.
Predestination was also emphasized, and Calvin saw Holy Communion to be a spiritual partaking of the flesh and blood of Christ, rather than a physical partaking.
During the course of the 16th century, the Reformation expanded to other European countries.
The fact that Eastern Europe had weak rulers, powerful nobles, and few towns, as well as the fact that religious diversity had long existed, provided a breeding ground for even more extreme versions of Protestantism.
The Reformation had political as well as theological origins in England.
Despite the political ramifications of the restructuring of the church, it enabled the beginning of religious transformation in England, which included the production of a liturgy in English, known as the Book of Common Prayer (also known as the Book of Common Prayer).
This made it feasible for Scotland to be united with England later on.
More information about the Reformation may be found at the history of Protestantism. Protestantism is a religious doctrine that is discussed in greater depth elsewhere. Melissa Petruzzello has made the most recent revisions and additions to this article.
Everyone had a voice all of a sudden, and no one could tell anybody else what to believe anymore. Nearly 200 years of religious warfare would ensue as a result of Luther’s radical appeal to the absolute supremacy of individual faith. If you’re inclined to assume that our present divides stem from Luther’s destruction of all order and authority, no one can convince you that you’re incorrect. However, if you believe that modern life is more than a never-ending round of bad-tempered arguments, you may agree that Luther’s Reformation provided us with a number of helpful, if generally unexpected, gifts.
1. Free inquiry
Luther was not a proponent of freedom of expression. He desired for Christians to believe the truth rather than whatever they want. Nevertheless, by stressing that all human authority is temporary and that conscience can only be restrained by the Bible and the Holy Spirit, he insured that Protestants who attempt to police the bounds of permissible argumentation will in the end always fail. Protestantism has not provided us with a paradise of free expression, but rather with an open-ended, unrestrained debate.
Take, for example, slavery, which for centuries Christians accepted as a necessary evil or simply as a part of life, as an example.
After a difficult series of debates and fights, the old orthodoxy was finally overturned.
Universities and academics associated with Protestantism also played a key role in the development of the new scientific sciences during the 16th and 17th centuries.
If you had told Luther that he would be the one to lead the world toward democracy, he would have choked on his favorite German lager. He, like practically everyone else in his generation, was horrified by the concept. Luther, on the other hand, was hardly the last Protestant to oppose an oppressive authority. The movement he established was unwavering in its pursuit of that objective. Protestants maintained that they did not have the right to choose their rulers, but that they did have the obligation to confront them.
- However, the concept took on a life of its own.
- It turned out to be untrue.
- Their rulers, on the other hand, had an unacceptable proclivity to violate God’s will.
- They persisted on having their voices heard, and when they were compelled to do so, they took up weapons against the tyrants who were oppressing them.
- If left to its own devices, this theory may have resulted in the establishment of self-righteous theocracies, such as the one that some New England Puritans attempted to establish.
However, such have been few and far between, in part because Protestants are so prone to squabbling, but also because of the Reformation’s third contribution to the contemporary world, which is the abolition of slavery.
3. Limited government
Protestants have occasionally confronted or overthrown their rulers, but their most persistent political demand has been simply to be left alone, regardless of the circumstances. They have attempted to carve out a spiritual space where governmental authority does not apply, insisting that this space, the kingdom of God, is far more important than this world’s sordid and fleeting quarrels, all the way back to Christianity’s origins in ancient Rome. The results are incongruous with expectations.
- They have also shown surprising tenacity in their resistance to rulers who have refused to recognize their desire for freedom from government encroachment.
- It’s a philosophy that has been woven into the very fabric of the United States government.
- The German sociologist Max Weber is famous for claiming that the “Protestant work ethic” was responsible for the development of the modern economy.
- It was in a handful of Protestant countries, including the Netherlands, Britain, and the United States, that capitalism first gained traction.
- The Protestant renaissance in Latin America appears to be accompanied by a corresponding renaissance in private entrepreneurship.
- In the words of Weber, capitalism is a system characterized by “restless activity.” Protestantism is in the same boat.
- Protestants are always on the lookout for new sins or attempting to reclaim lost virtues.
- Moreover, it indicates that its behavior is unpredictable.
- Politicians who believe they have Protestants in their back pockets should be on the lookout for them.
what kinds of cultural changes occurred in china and india during the early modern era
Christians are always on the lookout for new faults and working to restore lost virtues. Protestants are no exception! That self-perpetuating dynamo of discontent and longing has undoubtedly had economic consequences, and it has also meant that Protestantism has thrived the greatest during periods of fast or traumatic social transformation.
That it will behave in an unforeseen manner is also implied. It’s impossible to predict where these restless consciences will take you. Protestants should be on the lookout for politicians who believe they have Protestants in their pocket.
Which of the following is a reason that the Scientific Revolution occurred in Europe?
Which of the following is a contributing factor to the occurrence of the Scientific Revolution in Europe? Europe’s universities had autonomy, allowing researchers to explore ideas in an environment that was relatively free of interference from both religious and secular authorities. As a result, they were successful in establishing a dominant European presence in these territories.
How did the Scientific Revolution transform Europe?
Which of the following is a contributing factor to the occurrence of the Scientific Revolution in Europe? a. Scholars could explore ideas in an environment that was relatively free of interference from both religious and secular authority in Europe’s colleges. The Soviet Union and its allies were successful in establishing a dominant European presence in these areas.
What changes resulted from the Scientific Revolution?
In medicine, mathematics, and physics, substantial advances were made; the establishment of biological taxonomy; a new knowledge of magnetism and electricity; and the maturing of chemistry as a scientific field, which laid the groundwork for contemporary chemistry.
What effects did the Scientific Revolution have on society?
Because it proved the potential of the human intellect, the Scientific Revolution had an impact on the development of the Enlightenment ideas of individuality and individual liberty. The capacity of scientists to reach their own findings rather than surrendering to ingrained authority demonstrated the individual’s potential and importance.
Which change occurred during the Renaissance?
Many significant innovations occurred during the Renaissance, including astronomy, humanist philosophy, the printing press, the use of common language in written works as well as painting and sculpture technique, globe exploration as well as, during the late Renaissance, Shakespeare’s works.
What religions are banned in China?
In China, religion is officially prohibited, and Communist Party members are prohibited from believing in or practicing any religion. The government fears that religion might serve as an alternative to Communism, so undermining allegiance to the government and causing social unrest.
What religions are in China?
Several folk beliefs and five main religions are recognized by the Chinese government in an official government declaration, as well as many more religious practices. Buddhism, Taoism, Islam, Catholicism, and Protestantism are among the faiths recognized. Tibetan Buddhism, which is practiced by the majority of ethnic Tibetans, is a separate variety of Buddhism.
What factors both within China and outside its borders contributed?
What forces, both within and outside of China, had a role in the demise of the Ming dynasty are unknown. Ineffective rulers, unscrupulous bureaucrats, and a government that was out of money were all factors contributing to the situation. Millions of peasants were forced to starve as a result of increased levies and poor harvests. Civil unrest and insurrection ensued as a result.
How did Islam spread to India?
Islam came in the Indian subcontinent’s interior in the 7th century when the Arabs conquered the region. Sindhand was later brought to North India by the Ghurids during their invasion in the 12th century, and it has since formed a part of India’s religious and cultural history.
What is Islamic culture and civilization?
The fact that it is a civilization based on Islamic faith and imbued with its values and principles is the first distinguishing characteristic.
In its monotheistic form, it is based on the belief in the oneness of Allah Almighty, who is the Creator of men and all other creatures and who created them all.
What changes did Islamic expansion generate in those societies that encountered it?
Specifically, what changes did Islamic expansion bring about in the civilizations that came into contact with it, and how was Islam itself modified as a result of such encounters? Many locations saw a significant increase in the number of people who converted to Islam, either completely or partially.
How did the traditions and religious views of pre Islamic peoples become integrated into the culture shaped by Islam?
Because pre-Islamic Arabs were Bedouins or nomads, the traditions and religious beliefs of pre-Islamic peoples were assimilated into the civilization established by Islam. There was a religious center for many Bedouins in Mecca, known as the Ka’ba, where they could pray to idols. … When it came to the formation of Islamic civilisation, how did regional variety factor in?
What are three factors that contributed to the spread of Islam in the Middle East and North Africa in the 7th and 8th century?
Islam spread through military conquest, trade, pilgrimage, and missionaries, among other methods of dissemination. Over time, Arab Muslim soldiers captured enormous swaths of territory and established imperial organizations.
How did Islam rise and spread?
Because to the conquest of the Middle East, the Muslim community expanded throughout the region, and the subsequent rise of the Muslim state created the necessary conditions for the newly revealed faith to take root and thrive. The religious inspiration for the military conquest was strong, but it was also fueled by wealth and politics.
What effect did the Protestant Reformation have on cultural unity in Europe?
The Reformation had a significant impact on the Catholic Church’s ecclesiastical, social, and political life. The Reformation brought an end to the Christian unity of Europe and left it fragmented on a cultural level. Through reforms such as the Council of Trent, the Roman Catholic Church was able to achieve more unity among its members.
What were the causes and effects of the Protestant Reformation?
There were a variety of factors that contributed to the Protestant Reformation and had an impact on society, politics, and religion in Europe throughout the sixteenth century. The consequences for society were that common people were becoming more educated on their own, and they no longer need the leadership of the Church in order to conduct their lives.
What changes did the Catholic Church make during the Catholic Reformation?
The clarification or refinement of several areas of Catholic theology, ecclesiastical institutions, new religious organizations, and Catholic spirituality were achieved, and Catholic piety was revitalized in a number of locations. Additionally, Catholicism was able to expand its influence around the world as a result of the numerous missionary endeavors that were launched during the Counter-Reformation.
China vs India: What are the Similarities
Describe the kind of cultural transformations that took place in China and India throughout the early modern era. In what ways were Christian missionary efforts less effective in China compared to their counterparts in Latin America? Which scientific traditions did China, Japan, and the Ottoman Empire acquire throughout the early modern era? China, Japan, and the Ottoman Empire What accounts for Islam’s continuous growth in the early modern age is not well understood. What was the reception of European science in the main civilizations of Asia?
What role did European imperial expansion have in the spread of Christian faith? Which aspects of European politics were transformed by the protestant reformation, and which aspects of Christian faith were integrated into European culture? See more entries in the FAQ category.