In Oberg’s Essay On Pages 155-158, What Does He Say About Culture Shock

Culture shock – Wikipedia

The Aztecs were taken aback by the encounter with the conquerors armed with steel and horses, and they mistook them for eastern prophets as a result of their astonishment. If you move to a different culture, you may experience culture shock. It is also the feeling of being disoriented that a person may have when experiencing a new way of life due to immigration or a visit to another country, or when transitioning between social environments, or when simply transitioning to another type of life is the experience of culture shock.

Culture shock may be divided into four separate phases, each of which includes at least one of the following: honeymoon, negotiation, adjustment, and adaption.

There is no foolproof way to completely avoid culture shock since individuals in every community are impacted by cultural differences in their own unique ways, and there is no way to completely avoid it.

Oberg’s four phases model

Acculturation model predicts that people would first experience (1) honeymoon phase, followed by (2) transition period, often known as culture shock. A rejection of the new culture, as well as a romanticization of one’s own culture, may characterize this stage of life. But, given enough time and maybe with the assistance of locals or other cultural brokers, individuals will begin to (3) adapt (the dotted line depicted some people hated by new cultures instead). And (4) refers to those persons who have returned to their home countries and have re-adjusted to their native cultures.

Honeymoon

Individuals will first experience a (1) honeymoon period and subsequently a (2) transition period, which is culture shock, according to the Acculturation Model. When one rejects the new culture, they may also romanticize their own culture, which might be a sign of adolescence. Then, given enough time and maybe with the assistance of locals or other cultural brokers, individuals will begin to (3) adapt (the dotted line depicted some people hated by new cultures instead). (4) alludes to the fact that some people have returned to their home countries and have re-adjusted to their previous cultures.

Negotiation

After a period of time (typically three months or more, depending on the individual), the disparities between the old and new cultures become obvious, which may cause worry for the individual. As one continues to witness undesirable situations that may be viewed as weird and insulting to one’s cultural mindset, one’s excitement may finally give way to unpleasant sentiments of irritation and wrath. Obstacles like as language barriers, severe disparities in public cleanliness, traffic safety, and the accessibility and quality of food can all contribute to a sense of alienation from one’s immediate environment.

The greatest significant development, however, has been in the area of communication: People who are transitioning to a new culture frequently experience feelings of loneliness and homesickness since they are not yet accustomed to the new surroundings and encounter new people on a daily basis with whom they are not familiar.

If you are a student studying abroad, you may notice that you are experiencing extra symptoms of loneliness that may eventually influence your overall lifestyle.

This is especially true when cultural distances are great, as patterns of logic and speech are different and a strong emphasis is placed on rhetorical skills.

Adjustment

One becomes acclimated to the new culture and establishes habits after a period of time (typically 6 to 12 months). In the majority of instances, one knows what to expect, and the host nation no longer appears to be all that foreign. One begins to be concerned with the necessities of life once more, and things begin to appear more “normal.” Starting to acquire problem-solving abilities for coping with the culture and beginning to embrace the culture’s customs with a good attitude are both important steps in the learning process.

Adaptation

One becomes acclimated to the new culture and establishes routines after a period of time (often 6-12 months). In the majority of instances, one knows what to expect, and the host nation does not appear to be all that foreign anymore, which is a relief. As one’s attention returns to the necessities of life, things return to “normal” status. One begins to build problem-solving abilities for coping with the culture and comes to embrace the culture’s ways with a good attitude as one progresses through the process.

Development

Culture shock, according to Gary R. Weaver, has “three main causative explanations”: the loss of familiar cues, the breakdown of interpersonal communications, and an identity crisis, among other things. Peter S. Adler addressed the psychological factors that contributed to the situation. Tema Milstein wrote that it has the potential to be beneficial.

Reverse culture shock

It is possible to experience reverse culture shock (also known as “re-entry shock” or “own culture shock”), which occurs when a person returns to his or her own culture after becoming used to a new one. The symptoms of reverse culture shock are similar to those mentioned above. In this case, the effects of the readjustment process to the native culture have manifested themselves in the form of psychosomatic and psychological manifestations. This is frequently more startling and difficult to deal with for the individual who has been impacted than the first culture shock.

This saying is also the title of a novel by Thomas Wolfe.

When we spend a significant amount of time overseas, we tend to concentrate on the positive aspects of our history, exclude the negative aspects, and build an idealized image of the past.

We anticipate that everything will stay just as it was when we left it.

Upon realizing that life back home has changed, that the world has moved on without us, and the process of readjusting to these new circumstances while also integrating our new impressions of the world into our old way of life, we experience discomfort and psychological suffering.

Outcomes

Following the adjustment phase, there are three primary outcomes:

  • Adapting to and integrating into a new culture might be difficult for certain individuals. They separate themselves from the host country’s surroundings, which they have grown to regard as hostile, retreat into a (sometimes imaginary) ” ghetto “, and believe that the only way out is to return to their own culture. This group, which is frequently referred to as “Rejectors,” accounts for around 60 percent of all expatriates. In addition, these “Rejectors” have the most difficulty re-integrating back into their home countries after returning
  • Other people integrate entirely and completely adopt all aspects of the host culture while maintaining their own identity. This is referred to as “cultural integration.” They are often expected to remain in the host nation indefinitely. This group, commonly referred to as “Adopters,” comprises around 10% of all expatriates. Some people are able to adapt to features of the host culture that they consider to be beneficial while maintaining characteristics of their own and forming their own unique mix. They have no significant difficulties in going home or migrating elsewhere in the world. This group can be considered to be cosmopolitan in nature. This category accounts for around 30% of all expats in the world.

Culture shock manifests itself in a variety of ways, with varying durations and degrees of severity. In many cases, its existence causes problems for people who are unaware of the reason for their discomfort. There is evidence to show that the psychological impact of culture shock may have physiological consequences as well as psychological consequences. For example, the psycho-social stress experienced during these conditions has been shown to be associated with the beginning of puberty at an earlier age.

Transition shock

Effects, durations, and degrees of severity of culture shock vary depending on the individual. In many cases, its existence causes problems for those who are unaware of the reason for their discomfort. Culture shock may have physiological consequences, according to some studies, in addition to its psychological consequences. Psycho-social stress experienced during these conditions, for example, appears to be associated with the beginning of puberty at an earlier age.

  • Culture shock manifests itself in a variety of ways, across a variety of time periods, and with varying degrees of intensity. Many people are hampered by its existence and are oblivious to the reasons for their discomfort. There is evidence to show that the psychological impact of culture shock may have physiological consequences as well as psychological ones. For example, the psycho-social stress experienced during these conditions has been linked to the beginning of puberty at an earlier age.

See also

  • Cultural conflict, cultural cringe, cultural intelligence, cultural schema theory, and so on. In this section, you will find terms such as Expatriate, Fresh off the Boat (Future Shock), Intercultural communication, Jetlag, Neophobia, Outsourced (film), and Outsourced (book). Program for student exchange
  • Xenophobia
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References

  1. Macionis, John, and Linda Gerber, “Chapter 3 – Culture,” Sociology, 7th edition ed., Toronto, ON: Pearson Canada Inc., 2010. 54. Print
  2. Macionis, John, and Linda Gerber, “Chapter 3 – Culture,” Sociology, 7th edition ed., Toronto, ON: Pearson Canada Inc., 2010. Paul Pedersen is the author of this work. Observations on Critical Incidents from Around the World. The Five Stages of Culture Shock. Contributions in psychology, volume 25, number 25. Greenwood Press, Westport, Connecticut, 1995
  3. The effects of culture shock on communication are discussed by LaRay M. Barna in “How Culture Shock Affects Communication.” Communication 5.1, no date, pages 1-18. SocINDEX with Full Text is available. EBSCO.29 Sept.2009.web
  4. “Culture Shock”
  5. EBSCO.29 Sept.2009.web
  6. CiteSeerX10.1.1.461.5459
  7. s^ In Oberg, Kalervo, “Cultural shock: Adjustment to new cultural contexts,” in Practical Anthropology, vol. 7, no. 2, 1960, pp. 177–182, p. 177–182
  8. “Culture Shock and the Problem of Adjustment to New Cultural Environments,” by Kalervo Oberg, is a paper published in the journal Psychological Science. The World Wide Classroom Consortium for International Education (WWCCIE) is a non-profit organization that promotes international education across the world. Multicultural studies were conducted on September 29th, 2009
  9. Dr. Gregory Mavrides’s article, “Culture Shock and Clinical Depression,” was included in the Foreign Teachers Guide to Living and Working in China. Middle Kingdom Life, 2009. Web. 29 Sept. 2009
  10. Middle Kingdom Life, 2009. Sarah is a young woman who grew up in a little town in the United States (25 May 2016). www.thewanderlanders.com has an article titled “Adjust to New Cultures Like a Pro.” The original version of this article was published on October 4, 2017. Obtainable on March 19, 2018
  11. Understanding and coping with cross-cultural adjustment stress (G.R. Weaver, ed.). New York: Springer-Verlag. Cultural communication and conflict: Readings in intercultural relations (Ginn Press, Needham Heights, MA, 1994), pp. 169–189
  12. P.S. Adler, Culture, Communication, and Conflict: Readings in Intercultural Relations (1994), pp. 169–189. The transitory experience: A different perspective on culture shock. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, volume 15, number 4, pages 13–23
  13. T. Milstein published a paper in 2005 titled Sojourning and the apparent strengthening of one’s own self-efficacy are two aspects of transformation overseas. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, volume 29, number 2, pages 217-238. Martin Woesler, et al. A new model of intercultural communication – critically reviewing, combining, and further developing the basic models of Permutter, Yoshikawa, Hall, Geert Hofstede, Thomas, Hallpike, and the social-constructivism, Bochum/Berlin 2009, book series Comparative Cultural Sciences vol. 1
  14. A new model of intercultural communication – critically reviewing, combining, and further developing the basic models of Permutter, Yoshikawa, Hall, Geert Hofstede Laura Clarke is a writer who lives in the United Kingdom (6 November 2016). “How expats deal with the loss of their sense of self.” BBC Capital (British Broadcasting Corporation), retrieved on 5 December 2017
  15. BBC Capital (British Broadcasting Corporation), retrieved on 5 December 2017
  16. Elizabeth Garone is a writer who lives in Los Angeles (3 November 2014). “The effects of expat culture shock reverberate across the workplace.” BBC Capital (British Broadcasting Corporation), retrieved on 5 December 2017
  17. Jennifer L. Huff is the author of this work (2001). Parents’ connection, reverse culture shock, perceived social support, and college adjustment of missionary offspring are all examined in this study. Journal of Psychology and Theology, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 246–264. Martin, Hank
  18. Doi: 10.1177/009164710102900307.S2CID142635674
  19. Martin, Hank Reverse Culture Shock: How to Cope with It. Winkelman, Michael, “Breaking Trail Online” (Archived at the Wayback Machine)
  20. (1994). “Cultural Shock and Adaptation” is the title of this article. The Journal of Counseling Development, vol. 73, no. 2, pp. 121–126. doi: 10.1002/j.1556-6676.1994.tb01723.x
  21. Abc”Culture Shock”
  22. Doi: 10.1002/j.1556-6676.1994.tb01723.x The original version of this article was published on August 8, 2019. Retrieved2019-08-08
  23. s^ Howard Winant is credited with inventing the term “winant” (2001). A Ghetto Has Been Created On The Face Of The Earth. ISBN 0-465-04341-0
  24. New York, NY: Basic Books, p.258.ISBN 0-465-04341-0
  25. Victoria Christofi and Charles L. Thompson are co-authors of this work. “You Can’t Go Home Again: A Phenomenological Investigation of Returning to the Sojourn Country After Studying Abroad” is a paper published in the journal “You Can’t Go Home Again.” Journal of Counseling Development, volume 85, number 1, pages 53-63, 2007. SocINDEX with Full Text is available. EBSCOhost, accessed October 15, 2009
  26. Victoria Christofi and Charles L. Thompson have collaborated on this project (January 2007). After studying abroad, “You Can’t Go Home Again: A Phenomenological Investigation of Returning to the Sojourn Country After Studying Abroad” was written by a group of researchers. Journal of Counseling Development, volume 85, number 1, pages 53–63. • Houghton, Lauren C
  27. Troisi, Rebecca
  28. Sommer, Marni
  29. Katki, Hormuzd A
  30. Booth, Mark
  31. Choudhury, Osul A
  32. Hampshire, Kate R. doi: 10.1002/j.1556-6678.2007.tb00444.x (2020). Cultural shock, puberty, and growing up as British-Bangladeshi girls are all discussed in “”I’m not a freshi””. Social Science and Medicine, vol. 258 no. 113058, 1982. CESA, “Dealing with Culture Shock,” Social Science and Medicine, doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2020.113058.ISSN1873-5347.PMC7369632.PMID32504913
  33. CESA, “Dealing with Culture Shock.” The Office of International Research, Education, and Development (OIRED) is in charge of administration. The original version of this article was published on August 28, 2009. Obtainable on September 29, 2009

1.7.1 – Common Reactions

1.7.1 – Common ReactionsCulture shock is an extreme response to an international transition.There are other “surprises” thatare less severe. It is helpfulto think of common reactions when going abroad in these terms:Culture”Surprise”:Usuallyoccurs early in your stay in the new culture when you begin to be awareof superficial, novel, and startling differences. Often characterizes the”honeymoon” phase of adjustment.Culture “Stress”: A mild response to “stimulusoverload.” Culture Stress”is often seen in travelers abroad. One becomes tired and withdrawn. Annoyance builds as dailyreality becomes more difficult.Culture”Irritation”:Often manifests itself in terms of �Item Irritation� and is usually traceable to a few observable behaviors that are common in the culture, and to which an individual reacts particularly strongly (a personal �hot button�). These may include spitting, hygiene, verbal harassment, public displays (affection, drunkenness, etc.), or other overt behaviors to which an individual has a strong negative response.Culture”Fatigue”:A fairly short-term response to “stimulus overload.” This occurs when you begin to respond to the behavior of the “new” culture and are stressed by trying to deal with lots of new culturalinformation all at once. Stress and irritation intensify as you attemptto study or work in a foreign environment. There is a cumulatively greaterimpact due to the “need to operate” in unfamiliar and difficultcontexts.Symptoms intensify.Ability to function declines. It can occur soon after arrival or withina few weeks. It can hit you quickly and is often accompanied by “Language Fatigue.” Language fatigue occurs when, trying to use a second languageconstantly, you become physically and psychologically drained by speaking,listening, and finding meaning in, until now, a little used “new”language. Culture “Shock”:Culture Shock comes fromthe natural contradiction between our accustomed patterns of behaviorand the psychological conflict of attempting to maintain them in the newcultural environment. While the time of onset is variable, it usuallyoccurs within a few months of entering a new culture and is a normal,healthy psychological reaction. While culture shock is common, reliefis available. There are ways to minimize its effects -the first ofwhich is to accept that it is a real phenomenon- and to learn to recognizeits sometimes vague, if persistent, signs in yourself as well as others.If negative attitudes towards minor annoyancesdo not change, a low level of persistent frustration is likely to buildup. This can quickly lead to volatile anger when accumulated stress inappropriatelyand unexpectedly erupts and you vent your feelings, but you are unableto trace the outburst to a single source. People around you mightcomment, “What was that all about?” or “Where did that come from?”Just remember that unlike temporary annoyance when you are in the presenceof a particular cultural practice (e.g., mistreatment of animals or publicdisplays of affection), culture shock is neither caused by a single actnor easily traceable to a particular event. It is cumulative, attributableto many small things that happen over time, and it has the potential tobe more deeply felt and take longer to alleviate.
The sources of stress overseas are often similarto the ones we encounter at home, but they may become magnified in a new setting. Without accessiblesupport, studying abroad can become, often temporarily, more a dauntingchallenge than a pleasurable experience. A “bad day” at homecan usually be attributed to something concrete (a fight with a friend,a bad test result, lack of sleep) and quickly resolved. The sources ofstress abroad are a bit harder to identify.
  1. Chapter 3 – Culture (John Macionis and Linda Gerber, eds.). Sociology, 7th edition ed. Toronto, ON: Pearson Canada, Inc., 2010. 54. Print
  2. Macionis, John, and Linda Gerber. “Chapter 3 – Culture.” Sociology, 7th edition ed. Toronto, ON: Pearson Canada, Inc. Paul Pedersen is a writer who lives in Denmark. Critical Incidents from Around the World: The Five Stages of Culture Shock Psychiatric contributions, volume 25, issue 1. Greenwood Press, Westport, Connecticut, 1995. The effects of culture shock on communication are discussed in Barna, LaRay M. 1-18 in Communication 5.1 (n.d.). SocINDEX with Full Text is a database of social sciences. “Culture Shock,” according to EBSCO, published on September 29, 2009. CiteSeerX10.1.1.461.5459
  3. s^ In Oberg, Kalervo, “Cultural shock: Adjustment to new cultural contexts,” in Practical Anthropology, vol. 7, no. 3, 1960, pp. 177–182, p. 177–182
  4. Culture Shock and the Problem of Adjustment to New Cultural Environments” is a paper by Kalervo Oberg that was published in the journal Psychological Science. The World Wide Classroom Consortium for International Education (WWCCIE) is a non-profit organization that promotes international education around the world. Multicultural studies were conducted on September 29th, 2009. Culture Shock and Clinical Depression, by Gregory Mavrides, Ph.D., in Foreign Teachers Guide to Living and Working in China (forthcoming). 29 September 2009
  5. Middle Kingdom Life, 2009
  6. Middle Kingdom Life, 2009. Sarah is a young woman who grew up in a little town in the United Kingdom (25 May 2016). www.thewanderlanders.com/article/adjust-to-new-cultures-like-a-pro On October 4, 2017, the original version of this article was archived online. retrieved on March 19, 2018
  7. Retrieved on March 19, 2018. Understanding and coping with cross-cultural adjustment stress (G.R. Weaver, ed.). New York: Springer-Verlag, 1998. Cultural communication and conflict: Readings in intercultural relations (Ginn Press, Needham Heights, MA, 1994), pp. 169–189
  8. P.S. Adler, Culture, Communication, and Conflict: Readings in Intercultural Relations (1994), pp. 169–189
  9. And The transitory experience: A different perspective on culture shock 15(4), pp. 13–23 in Journal of Humanistic Psychology
  10. A review of the literature by T. Milstein (2005a). Sojourning and the apparent improvement in self-efficacy are two aspects of transformation abroad. Journal of Intercultural Relations, 29(2): 217-238
  11. International Journal of Intercultural Relations Martin Woesler is a writer and editor based in New York, United States. Permutter and Yoshikawa’s basic models of intercultural communication are critically reviewed, combined, and further developed in A New Model of Intercultural Communication – Critical Review, Combination and Further Development of the Basic Models of Permutter and Yoshikawa’s Basic Models of Intercultural Communication – Critical Review, Combination and Further Development of the Basic Models of Permutter and Yoshikawa’s Basic Model of Intercultural Communication – Critical Review, Combination and Further Development of the Basic Models Laura Clarke is a writer who lives in New York City (6 November 2016). Expats’ reactions to the loss of their identity are discussed in this article. “BBC Capital,” British Broadcasting Corporation, retrieved on December 5, 2017
  12. “BBC Capital, ” British Broadcasting Corporation, retrieved on December 5, 2017
  13. Elizabeth Garone is the author of this article (3 November 2014). “The effects of expat culture shock reverberate across the organization.” “BBC Capital,” British Broadcasting Corporation, retrieved on December 5, 2017
  14. Jennifer L. Huff is a writer and editor who lives in the United States of America (2001). “Missionary children’s connection to their parents, reverse culture shock, perceived social support, and college transition” Journal of Psychology and Theology, Volume 9, Number 3, Pages 246–264, 2003. S2CID142635674
  15. 009164710102900307.S2CID142635674
  16. Hank Martin Reverse Culture Shock: How to Cope with It Winkelman, Michael, “Breaking Trail Online” (Archived at the Wayback Machine) (1994). Cultural Shock and Adaptation is a term used to describe the process of overcoming cultural shock and adapting. This article appears in the journal Counseling Development, volume 73(2), pages 128-130. DOI: 10.1002/j.1556-6676.1994.tb01723.x
  17. Abc”Culture Shock”
  18. Doi: 10.1002/j.1556-6676.1994.tb01723.x
  19. Abc It was archived on 2019-08-08 and republished here. Retrieved2019-08-08
  20. s^ Howard Winant is credited with inventing the term “internet” (2001). A Ghetto Has Been Created On The Face Of The Planet. 258 pages, ISBN 0-465-04341-0, New York, NY: Basic Books
  21. Charles L. Thompson (left) and Victoria Christofi (right) “You Can’t Go Home Again: A Phenomenological Investigation of Returning to the Sojourn Country After Studying Abroad” is a research paper published in the journal Phenomenological Research. Journal of Counseling Development, volume 85, number 1, pages 53-63 (2007). SocINDEX with Full Text is a database of social sciences. On the 15th of October 2009, EBSCO hosted a web page with the following title: Charles L. Thompson & Victoria Christofi have collaborated on this project (January 2007). After studying abroad, “You Can’t Go Back Home: A Phenomenological Investigation of Returning to the Sojourn Country After Studying Abroad” was written by a group of researchers. 53–63 in the Journal of Counseling Development, volume 85, number one.
  22. Doi: 10.1002/j.1556-6678.2007.tb00444.x
  23. Houghton, Lauren C
  24. Troisi, Rebecca
  25. Sommer, Marni
  26. Katki, Hormuzd A
  27. Booth, Mark
  28. Choudhury, Osul A
  29. Hampshire, Kate R.
  30. (2020). Cultural shock, puberty, and growing up as British-Bangladeshi girls are all discussed in “I’m not a freshi.” Social Science and Medicine, vol. 258 no. 113058 (August 1982). PMID32504913
  31. CESA. “Dealing with culture shock.” doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2020.113058.ISSN1873-5347.PMC7369632. The Office of International Research, Education, and Development serves as the management entity for the organization. On the 28th of August, 2009, the original version of this article was retrieved from the internet. 29th of September, 2009
  32. Retrieved from

It is possible that these kinds of difficulties will subside as you become more aware and adept in the new culture. There is a good chance that they are suffering from “cultural weariness.” Unlike “frustration,” culture shock is a more strong and prolonged form of the feeling. It frequently results from origins that are less visible and from conditions that last for an extended period of time. Psychologists and study abroad counsellors agree that transition shock is a common occurrence and that it is perfectly “natural,” however students who are experiencing difficulties in their adjustment may find it a major emotional hardship.

“Can you tell me what I’m doing here?” “What exactly is the problem with these people?” as well as “Why aren’t they doing it the proper way?” With reasonable certainty, some degree of transition shock will be present.

It may be difficult to identify the connection between culture shock and the emotions you are experiencing at any one time.

Symptoms of culture shock include the following:

  • Hyper-irritability, which may include inappropriate anger and aggressiveness
  • Feelings of helplessness or reliance
  • Disorientation and isolation
  • Depression and melancholy
  • Extreme homesickness Excessive critical reactions to the host culture/stereotyping
  • Sleep and eating disorders (either too little or too much)
  • And Hypochondria
  • Excessive drinking
  • Recreational drug use
  • Extreme worry about sanitation, safety (even paranoia), and being taken advantage of
  • Inability to concentrate and accomplish activities
  • And loss of concentration and capacity to perform jobs
It is important to understandthat �culture shock� has a wide range of symptoms and that many people experienceonly mild annoyances and temporary dissatisfaction in the process of adjustingto life overseas. These reactions are probably better characterized as �itemirritation� (a cultural practice or attitude that �drives you nuts� whenyou encounter it) or �culturefatigue� (a temporary frustration). However, for a few, culture shock canbe a profoundly disorienting experience and take much longer to recover from,particularly if those in the midst of the experience are unaware of thesources of the problem and have no idea of how to counteract it.Inaddition to studies on what causes culture shock, many studies have been doneon when culture shock occurs and its stages. From this, we can generalizethe following:Arrival/HoneymoonInspite of jet-lag, local transportation and housing issues, communication difficulties,and the normal heightened anxiety one feels when embarking upon a journey andafter arrival, most travelers find the first few days or weeks in a new countryan exhilarating experience. Called the “Honeymoon Phase,” this canbe a little like the “It�s a small world” sentiment one can succumb to on avisit to Disneyland. Things arenew, different, interesting, “quaint,” “traditional,” novel, or “historical”and everything takes on a slight glow of unreality. Beyond the “quaint,” itis the similarities that stand out, not the differences (or they are minimizedor romanticized).The”Honeymoon” phase of initial culturalcontact will likely be brief, but in some cases it may linger for a month ormore. For some students the phase may quickly give way to a downward spiralwhere an increasing realization of difference is coupled with a tendency toplace exaggerated emphasis on these cultural characteristics. Some begin tosee these differences as �defects� in the host culture. Others, criticized for inappropriate actions, respond by �blaming the hosts,�thereby increasing their own alienation and justifying their attitudes. Thismakes it even more difficult for them to evaluate their own behavior or objectivelyobserve the host culture. DeepeningCulture ShockMoreserious culture shock arises as a result of cumulative, largely puzzling encountersresulting in equally negative perceptions. Forthat reason, the �shock� is deceptively gradual. Those who enter another countrywith an attitude of what anthropologists call �naive realism� the view that everyone sees the world essentially as they do are susceptible to beingquickly disabused of that idea as reality sets in. If the naive realist also holds an ethnocentric belief thathis or her cultural ways are preferable and superior to all others, the likelihoodof some kind of conflict escalates enormously.Formost study abroad students, culture shock is a mild, transitory annoyance thatcan be overcome with relative ease through personal effort and increased knowledge andwith the assistance of sympathetic friends and advisers. Culture shock is simply the deepest trough of the �U-curve�and rarely lasts more than a few weeks. The recovery from culture shock is themirror image of its onset�that is, it comes on gradually and leaves the sameway. When you feel particularlydown or discouraged, it helps to know that it will almost surely get better.Mostimportant, culture shock can be a period of intense self-assessment and culturelearning. Experiencing the process itself can be beneficial. Overcoming evena mild case of culture shock will result in your feeling more confident, self-reliant,independent, and capable of your ability to cope with cross-cultural experiences.In a way, having a little culture shock can immunize you for future travels.Even though coping with culture shock in one context won�t necessarily preventit from ever occurring again, it will definitely lessen its impact and giveyou the insight and understanding to deal with it effectively.Whilefew study abroad students experience the more severe forms of culture shock,most feel some of its effects unless they rarely interact with the local populations. Fortunately, although culture shock cannot be totally avoided,simply being aware of its symptoms and knowing how and why it happens can makeadjustment to overseas living easier and more effective. Remember, culture shocksignals that you are learning something new about the culture and, presumably,that is what you want to do.Manystudents never experience culture shock to any appreciable extent and performtheir overseas tasks and manage their relationships just fine. For those whodo experience a degree of discomfort in the process of living abroad, it canbe an opportunity to grow and learn, although probably best appreciated fromthe perspective of being on the “right-hand” side of the U-shaped curve of adjustment.MovingOn and AdaptingMovingbeyond culture shock and continuing to live and learn overseas puts you on thepath to becoming interculturally fluent. Becoming more deeply engaged with the local culture increases your levelof intercultural adaptation and your ability to reach your goals. It also makes cultural learning more enjoyable, if not always easier.Thislearning process is complex and almost inevitably results in reports from returningstudents that, �I learned more about myself and my culture than about the cultureI was living in.� The learning process can be a bit painful,take longerthan expected, and can lead to the onset of symptoms associated with cultureshock. The good news is that this indicates that learning is occurring and thatyou are getting better and better at understanding the culture.Beingaware of this cycle of cultural adjustment will allow you to better understandyour reactions during your time abroad. In addition, this cycle of culturaladjustment can be linked with levels of Cultural Awareness.

The 4 Stages of Culture Shock

Living in a foreign country may be a thrilling and rewarding experience. It promotes the development of new worldviews, enhances cultural curiosity, and boosts the readiness to venture into unexpected territory. It may, on the other hand, elicit feelings of being a bit disoriented in the world. Ambassador teachers are instructors who leave their native countries to live in the United States for a period of up to five years. This cultural exchange experience is extremely gratifying, but it is frequently accompanied with culture shock.

  • Despite the fact that it may take months to develop, it frequently has unforeseen consequences for travelers and people who are away from home for extended periods of time.
  • When traveling, it has a tendency to have an influence even after tourists have gotten accustomed with and comfortable in new cultures.
  • Individuals have varying levels of experience with these stages, and the influence and sequence of each stage varies significantly.
  • Sverre Lysgaard published his findings in 19551.
  • It is common for travelers to get enamored with the language, culture, and cuisine of their new surroundings.
  • When you first start out, the entire procedure will seem strange to you.
  • When traveling for a short period of time, the honeymoon phase may take over the entire experience since the later symptoms of culture shock have not had time to manifest themselves.

1.

The frustration stageFrustration may be the most difficult stage of culture shock, and it is likely to be familiar to anybody who has lived abroad or who travels regularly.

“It was challenging at first, but it turned out to be the finest experience I’ve ever had,” said Esmelin Rayo, a Costa Rican ambassador teacher who spoke at the event.

And while dissatisfaction might come and go, it is a normal emotion for those who are spending lengthy periods of time in a foreign country.

The third step is the adjustment stage.

Finding your way around becomes simpler when you meet new people and form friendships and support networks.

“From the moment I arrived, the individuals with whom I engaged made a world of difference.

4.

The last step of culture shock is often acceptance, however it might take weeks, months, or even years after a person has gone through the emotional stages indicated above.

Instead, it implies that a thorough comprehension of the new environment is not required in order to operate and prosper in the new environment.

Though it might be one of the most difficult aspects of traveling, culture shock is equally as important as the cuisine, people, and landscape in terms of the whole experience.

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Culture shock and travelers

As travel has become more accessible and economical, the number of individuals who travel has increased significantly. People travel for a variety of reasons, ranging from business travelers on international assignments to backpackers looking to explore new and exotic countries on their trip itinerary. Others may choose to relocate to various areas, states, or nations for a variety of reasons, including familial, business, or political reasons. Others are fleeing religious or political persecution in their home countries.

The acquisition of culture and language occurs naturally in early life and is maintained throughout childhood and adulthood through formal and sophisticated informal social education programs.

As a result, coming into touch with a new culture is not always the thrilling or joyful experience that one hopes for.

Contact with a foreign culture can result in feelings of worry, tension, and mental sickness, as well as physical illness and suicide in the most extreme circumstances.

It is the initial shock of the unfamiliar.

It is also referred to as cross-cultural adjustment since it refers to the period of worry and bewilderment that occurs when one enters a new culture.

Both adults and children are affected by culture shock.

Children who have lived in shielded environments such as expatriate communities may also have transition difficulties when they return home.

When it comes to culture shock and many other psychological adjustment processes, people tend to suffer in silence, believing that they are the only ones who are having difficulty adjusting to their new environment.

The purpose of this study was to raise awareness of the issue of culture shock among travel health professionals, who can then counsel travelers, particularly long-term travelers, on how to have reasonable expectations about their journey and living in foreign countries.

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