In Contrast To , Is More A Reflection Of The Culture In Which A Person Is Raised

Cultural Intelligence

Knowing what makes a group tick is just as vital as knowing what makes an individual tick. Successful managers learn to adapt to a variety of cultural environments, including national, corporate, and occupational cultures.”> R0410JI is a reprint of the original. Managers must be able to navigate through the maze of habits, gestures, and assumptions that characterize their employees’ differences in order to succeed in an increasingly diverse workplace. Foreign cultures may be found everywhere—not only in foreign nations, but also in organizations, occupations, and geographic locations.

And the folks who possess a high concentration of those characteristics aren’t usually the ones that achieve the most social success in their home environments.

It consists of three parts: the cognitive, the physical, and the emotional/motivational components.

According to the findings of their studies of 2,000 managers from 60 countries, the majority of managers do not have equal strengths in all three of these domains of cultural intelligence.

They come to the conclusion that anyone who is adequately aware, motivated, and poised may achieve a satisfactory CQ.


According to the Harvard Business Review, a version of this essay appeared in the October 2004 edition.

Reflections on cultural humility

Amanda Waters and Lisa Asbill are the authors of this piece. As our country’s racial and cultural variety continues to rise, so does the number of people who identify as multiracial (JonesBullock, 2012). Cultural diversity, as well as the growing emphasis on evidence-based practice in the area of psychology, have generated discussions about cultural competency among those working in mental health. A process rather than an end product is preferable when dealing with multiculturalism because of its complexity.

  • Understanding and developing a process-oriented approach to competency is one component that may be used to understand and build cultural humility.
  • 2).
  • Self-evaluation and self-critique are two aspects of a lifetime commitment to self-improvement (TervalonMurray-Garcia, 1998).
  • As a result, we must be modest and adaptable, courageous enough to examine ourselves critically and eager to learn more.
  • This part of cultural humility is also characterized by a willingness to act on the recognition that we have not and will not reach a finish line in our lives.
  • The second characteristic of cultural humility is a willingness to correct power inequalities in situations where none should exist (TervalonMurray-Garcia, 1998).
  • When practitioners interview clients, they should consider the client to be the authority on his or her own life, symptoms, and abilities.
  • In order to get the greatest results, both persons must collaborate and learn from one another.
  • Finally, cultural humility aspires to build alliances with individuals and organizations who work for the rights of others (TervalonMurray-Garcia, 1998).
  • Unless we advocate inside the broader groups in which we engage, we will be unable to commit to self-evaluation and power imbalance correction on an individual level.
  • Individuals and families who are multiracial and multiethnic serve as examples of the cultural richness that exists in our varied society.

In our roles as therapists, we have a responsibility to acknowledge and respect the differences among our clients. Cultural humility is required when entering therapeutic interactions, as we must acknowledge that we are always in the process of learning and evolving.


Utsey, S. O., Hook, J. N., Davis, D. E., Owen, J., Worthington Jr., E. L., and Worthington Jr., E. L. (2013). Cultural humility is defined as the ability to be receptive to clients from a variety of cultural backgrounds. DOI: 10.1037/a0032595 for the Journal of Counseling Psychology ®. Jones, N. A., and Bullock, J. (2001). (2012) The population of two or more races was estimated in 2010. (PDF, 2.23MB). Briefings on the 2010 Census. J. Murray-Garcia and M. Murray-Garcia (1998). When it comes to defining medical training outcomes in multicultural education, there is a significant gap between cultural humility and cultural competency.

Author bios

Amanda J. Waters, MA, is a PhD candidate in clinical psychology at Biola University’s Rosemead School of Psychology. She holds a bachelor’s degree in psychology. Her current research interests include cultural diversity, positive psychology, and forgiveness, with a special emphasis on humility and forbearance. She may be reached by e-mail address. Biola University’s Rosemead School of Psychology is home to Lisa Asbill, an MA candidate in clinical psychology who is pursuing a PhD in clinical psychology.

She may be reached by e-mail address.

Understanding Collectivist Cultures

Collectivist cultures place a greater emphasis on the needs and aims of the group as a whole than they do on the wants and ambitions of individual members. Relationships with other members of the group, as well as the interconnection of individuals, play an important part in the formation of each individual’s identity in such cultures.

Collectivistic Culture Traits

Among the characteristics of collectivist civilizations are the following:

  • In many cases, people describe themselves in terms of their relationships with others (for example, “I am a member of.”). Loyalty within the group is promoted. Determinations are made on the basis of what is best for the group. It is crucial to work as a team and to provide assistance to others. Rather than individual interests, a greater focus is placed on achieving collective goals. The rights of families and communities take precedence over the rights of an individual.

China, Korea, Japan, Costa Rica, and Indonesia are examples of countries that are comparatively more collectivistic than others. If a person demonstrates generosity, helpfulness, dependability, and attention to the needs of others, they are seen as “good” in collectivistic societies. Individualistic cultures, on the other hand, tend to place a larger premium on attributes such as assertiveness and independence, which might be counterproductive.

Collectivism vs. Individualism

Individualistic civilizations are frequently compared with collectivist cultures in academic literature. Individualism is concerned with the rights and interests of each individual, whereas collectivism is concerned with the value of the group. Individualistic societies stress independence and personal identity above unity and selflessness, whereas collectivist cultures value unity and selflessness over individualism. These cultural differences are widespread and can have a significant impact on a wide range of aspects of how society runs.

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Workers who live in a collectivist society, for example, may attempt to sacrifice their personal happiness for the greater welfare of the collective in order to achieve greater success.

On the other hand, individuals from individualistic cultures may believe that their personal well-being and aspirations are more important than those of their peers.


People’s behavior and self-concept are influenced by their cultural background. In contrast to those from individualistic cultures, those from collectivist cultures are more likely to describe themselves in terms of their social relationships and roles (e.g., “I am smart, funny, athletic, and kind”), whereas those from individualistic cultures are more likely to describe themselves in terms of their personality traits and characteristics (e.g., “I am a good son, brother, and friend”).


According to the findings of the research, collectivist societies are related with poor relational mobility, which is defined as the number of options individuals in a society have to develop relationships with others of their choosing in that community. When there is little or no relational mobility, it suggests that people’s connections are solid, robust, and long-lasting. These types of relationships are typically developed as a result of variables such as family and geography, rather than as a result of personal choice.

  • People who are strangers in a collectivistic society are more likely to stay strangers in a collectivistic culture than they are in individualistic cultures.
  • This is most likely due to the fact that changing these connections is incredibly tough.
  • According to the inverse of this, individuals in individualistic cultures put out extra effort and energy into actively sustaining intimate connections, which is generally accomplished through higher self-disclosure and greater closeness.
  • People must put out additional effort in order to keep these connections going.


In addition, cultural differences have an impact on the drive to either stand out or blend in with the rest of the group. In one experiment, individuals from different cultural backgrounds, including American and Japanese, were instructed to choose a pen. The bulk of the pens were the same color, with the exception of a couple that were different colors. The majority of participants from the United States preferred the brightly colored pen. However, the Japanese participants were considerably more likely to chose the majority color, even if they liked the distinctive hue, as opposed to the other participants.

Possibly because they came from a collectivistic society, the Japanese participants naturally prioritized interpersonal peace above personal preference and thus selected the non-offensive conduct of leaving the unique pens for others who might be interested in receiving them.

Social Anxiety

According to research, collectivistic societies are more supportive of socially hesitant and withdrawn tendencies than individualistic ones. In one study, participants from these cultures had higher degrees of social anxiety as compared to people from individualistic cultures, according to the findings. However, it is possible that collectivist beliefs were not the only factor in this development. Persons in collectivist nations in Latin America, for example, showed lower levels of social anxiety than people in collectivist countries in East Asia, according to the findings.

Social Support Use

People who live in collectivist societies are more hesitant to confide in their peers about their personal concerns. The fear of scaring others, upsetting the unity of the group, losing face, and making the situation worse are some of the reasons why people delay seeking social help, according to research. Instead, people frequently seek for implicit social support, which is a type of social assistance that is not explicitly stated. This entails spending time with individuals who are supportive of you without actually dealing with the root of your stress.

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Influence of Culture on Emotion

People’s emotions may be displayed, perceived, and experienced in a variety of ways depending on their cultural background.

Learning Objectives

Give instances of features of emotional expression that are universal vs those that are culturally dependant.

Key Takeaways

  • It is the culture in which we live that gives us with structure, norms, expectations, and rules that assist us in understanding, interpreting, and expressing a wide range of emotions. In a particular culture, a “cultural display rule” refers to a culturally defined regulation that limits the sorts and frequency of emotional displays that are regarded appropriate by that society. It is believed that cultural scripts define how good and negative emotions should be experienced and portrayed
  • They may also influence how individuals choose to manage their emotions, so shaping an individual’s emotional experience. When people are attempting to decipher facial expressions, cultural settings may also be used as clues to aid in their interpretation. Because of this, people from various cultures might have completely diverse interpretations of the same social environment. It appears that our capacity to identify and make fundamental facial expressions of emotion is universal, despite the fact that we all have our own set of emotional display standards. In reality, research has revealed seven primary categories of emotions shown in human faces: sorrow, happiness, disgust, surprise, rage, contempt, and fear
  • In addition, there are other subtypes of emotions displayed in human faces. In contrast to fundamental emotions such as happiness or sadness, complex emotions such as jealousy, love, and pride are more likely to be influenced by cultural factors than basic emotions such as happiness or sadness.
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Key Terms

  • Emotion is defined as a complex psychophysiological experience of a person’s state of mind as it interacts with biochemical (internal) and environmental (external) factors. When people speak one language and live in one geographical location, they are referred to be speakers of the same culture. They have the same beliefs, attitudes, norms, values, and conduct that they have in common with other people who speak the same language and live in the same geographic region.

In other words, people’s way of life—which includes their ideas, values, conduct, and material objects—can have a significant influence on how they express, perceive, and feel emotions. It is the culture in which we live that gives us with structure, norms, expectations, and rules that assist us in understanding and interpreting a wide range of emotions.

Expressing Emotions

A cultural display rule specifies the sorts and frequency of emotional displays that are regarded appropriate within a particular culture’s boundaries (MalatestaHaviland, 1982). These guidelines may also serve as a guide for how individuals choose to manage their emotions, eventually impacting an individual’s emotional experience and resulting in overall cultural variances in the expression and experience of emotion. For example, in many Asian cultures, communal peace takes precedence above individual gain, but Westerners throughout most of Europe and the United States place a high value on individual advancement.

Moreover, people who come from cultures that place a strong emphasis on social cohesiveness are more prone to repress their own emotional reactions in order to first choose what answer is most suitable in the particular scenario (Matsumoto, Yoo,Nakagawa, 2008).

It is possible that various rules be internalized in a specific culture as a consequence of an individual’s gender, social status, familial background, or any other element.

For example, there is some evidence that men and women may behave differently when it comes to emotion regulation, maybe as a result of culturally driven gender norms and expectations (McRae, Ochsner, Mauss, Gabrieli,Gross, 2008).

Interpreting Emotions

In a particular culture, a cultural display rule specifies the sorts and frequency of emotional displays that are deemed appropriate (MalatestaHaviland, 1982). These guidelines may also serve as a guide for how individuals choose to manage their emotions, eventually impacting an individual’s emotional experience and resulting in overall cultural variances in the experience and expression of emotion. For example, in many Asian cultures, communal peace is valued above individual gain, but Westerners throughout most of Europe and the United States value individual self-promotion above all else.

People from cultures that place a strong emphasis on social cohesiveness are also more prone to conceal their own emotional reactions in order to first choose which answer is most suitable given the circumstances (Matsumoto, Yoo,Nakagawa, 2008).

Depending on an individual’s gender, social status, familial background, or other element, various norms may be internalized in a certain culture as well.

Are Emotions Universal?

Despite the fact that cultural standards about the display of emotion differ from one another, our capacity to identify and make corresponding facial emotions appears to be a universal phenomenon. The hypothesis that there are seven universal emotions, each linked with a particular facial expression, has been substantiated by research comparing facial expressions across different cultures, according to the findings. The fact that these emotions are “universal” indicates that they work regardless of culture or language.

In spite of the fact that they have never had the opportunity to watch these feelings in others, congenitally blind persons (those who are born blind) exhibit the same facial expressions as sighted individuals while experiencing these emotions.

Facial expressions that are universal: A new study claims that seven universal emotions can be distinguished from one another by their facial expressions.

Note that more complicated emotions such as envy, love, and pride are distinct from these more fundamental emotions in that they imply a consciousness of the interactions that exist between the self and other people, whereas the former do not.

Therefore, complex emotions are more likely than the seven more fundamental emotions to be influenced by cultural variations than are the seven more basic emotions.

Valuing Diversity: Developing a Deeper Understanding of All Young Children’s Behavior

Everything we think, say, and do is filtered through the prism of our own cultural origins and experiences. However, because culture is absorbed and passed down from generation to generation rather than being openly taught, we are rarely aware of it ourselves. We can trace the influence of culture on not only our values and beliefs but also on the way we perceive and interact with others, as well as on gender roles, family structures, languages, clothing and food, etiquette, approaches to disabilities, child-rearing practices, and even our expectations for children’s behavior.

Cultural diversity and teachers

When working with children and their families, it is critical for teachers to observe and comprehend their own culture before they can grasp how the cultures of children and their families impact their behavior. Only in this way can you ensure that every child has an equal opportunity to achieve. Take a moment to consider your own background. What impact did your family’s expectations have on your actions? Did you have a close relationship with your parents, siblings, and other relatives or were they distant?

Were your expectations any different from those of your school?

These concepts are at the heart of the National Association for the Education of Young Children’s policy statement, Advancing Equity in Early Childhood Education.

  • Acknowledging that “knowledge of one’s own limitations as well as humility, respect, and a willingness to learn are essential to becoming a teacher who supports all children and families equally and effectively”
  • The acquisition of an in-depth grasp of culture and diversity
  • Recognition of the fact that “families serve as the key setting for children’s growth and learning.”

Early childhood educators must support consistently warm and caring relationships between families and their children, respect the languages and cultures of families, and incorporate those languages and cultures into the curriculum, their teaching practices, and the learning environment. This is one of the most important takeaways from the position statement.

Cultural diversity and young children

Children bring their own set of culturally based expectations, skills, talents, abilities, and values to the classroom with them, as well as their own set of culturally based expectations. As a result, kids begin to form (at least in part) their self-concept based on how others see them. It is essential for children to honor and respect their own families and cultures, and for others to honor and respect these important parts of their identities, in order to create good self-concepts. If their families and cultures are not reflected and validated in the classroom, children may feel invisible, irrelevant, inept, and ashamed of who they are, among other things.

  1. Nonetheless, research has demonstrated that this false blindness prevents us from seeing, acknowledging, and appreciating significant distinctions.
  2. We now understand that acknowledging distinctions in race and culture is critical to legitimizing such differences.
  3. Color and culture, on the other hand, assist youngsters in learning about one another and the rest of the world.
  4. Teachers must become familiar with the cultural values of each family in order to recognize what each kid may bring to the classroom.

Providing opportunities for children to recognize themselves in your pedagogy, curriculum, environment, and resources allows them (and their families) to feel accepted and appreciated. Take a peek around the room where you are teaching.

  • The artwork on the walls does it accurately reflect the children’s lives, or are the walls covered with stereotypical images purchased from a store?
  • Why not have the youngsters design their own posters using their own artwork, items from their homes, and photographs provided by their families?
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Whether labels (and other child-focused materials) be repeated in each child’s native language or solely in English is a matter of debate.

  • Why not invite family members to assist youngsters in using their native languages across the room in order to foster relationships and encourage their learning?

It is critical to view cultural and language differences as strengths rather than as deficits in one’s life. “Children’s learning is facilitated when teaching practices, curricula, and learning environments build on children’s strengths and are developmentally, culturally, and linguistically appropriate for each child,” according to the National Association for the Education of Young Children’s equity position statement.

The difference between equitable and equal

The terms equal and equitable are not synonymous. All of the children in your group have their own set of needs, skills, interests, and talents. Giving all children the same activities, resources, and literature would imply treating them all equally. The term “equitable” refers to taking into account each child’s abilities, context, and needs, as well as providing all children with chances that will help them attain their full potential. It is critical to understand the disparities that children and their families endure, both within and outside of the classroom.

For example, according to study undertaken by Yale University professor Walter Gilliam, adolescent African American males are subjected to greater rates of suspension and expulsion than their White European American counterparts.

How cultural diversity shapes behavior

Not only is your culture at work in your classroom, but so are the cultures of your students. Every school, as well as every early childhood education program, has its own culture. Cultures founded on White European-American ideals underpin the majority of schools in the United States. As the population of the United States becomes increasingly varied, there is an increase in cultural dissonance, which has an influence on children’s behavior. This culture of white European Americans is characterized by an individual attitude that encourages youngsters to be self-sufficient, stand out, talk about themselves, and see their own possessions as their own.

In reality, several languages do not have terms for the pronouns I, me, or mine.

They may be unable to articulate their requirements because they do not grasp the regulations or because they do not speak the language of the school.

Rethinking challenging behavior

Given that your answers to children’s disputes and challenging behavior are influenced by their cultural backgrounds, it is all too simple to misread children’s words or behaviors. When you witness a youngster acting defiantly, ask yourself if such behavior is impacted by their cultural background. Is it possible that I’m misinterpreting the child’s words or actions? In the case of White European Americans, for example, they are more likely to utilize implicit directives such as “Johnny, could you kindly put the blocks away?” It is understood by children who have grown up in the White European American society that they are being ordered to put away the blocks.

Adult directives are frequently straightforward in their culture, such as “DuShane, put the blocks back where they belong.” An implied order in the form of a question may appear to African American youngsters as though it provides them with an option about how to act.

Youngsters in certain cultures are fine playing close to one another, yet in others, the same area might seem claustrophobic, leading children to strike or shove a playmate who appears to be too close to their level of comfort.

Suppose Cadence does not respond to your request that the sand be kept out of her playpen because you are too far away from her to communicate with her on the phone.

Children in other cultures, on the other hand, may demonstrate their curiosity by participating; they may learn by listening to or telling a tale, observing others, or by employing trial and error.

In other words, they might be paying attention in a different way than you are.

Culture counts

There are several benefits for teachers who consider their students’ cultural backgrounds. Forming authentic, caring relationships with children and their families; making connections between what children already know and what they need to know; selecting activities, materials, and instructional strategies that are sensitive to children’s cultures and life experiences; and teaching children the skills they need to succeed in a global society are all things that can be accomplished.

From the Pages ofYoung Children: Research on How Culture Affects Learning

Check read the article ” Diverse Children, Uniform Standards: Using Early Learning and Development Standards in Multicultural Classrooms ” in the November 2019 edition of Young Children for additional examples of how culture influences learning. In this article, the writers, Jeanne L. Reid, Catherine Scott-Little, and Sharon Lynn Kagan, present numerous instances of how cultural variations impact how children pay attention, approach learning, seek assistance, and show their knowledge and abilities in various situations.

The following points are supported by this article: Accreditation requirements and subject areas for the NAEYCEarly Learning Program RELATIONSHIPS; STANDARD 7: FAMILIES; STANDARD 1: RELATIONSHIPS 7A: Becoming acquainted with and understanding the program’s families 1A:Establishing positive relationships between teachers and students’ and their families

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