How To Read Urine Culture Report

Contents

Interpretation of Urinalysis and Urine Culture for UTI Treatment

United States Pharmacopeia, vol. 38, no. 11, pp. 65-68. ABSTRACT: Outpatient and inpatient populations alike are affected by urinary tract infection (UTI), which is one of the most often diagnosed illnesses. It is critical for practitioners to understand the benefits and limitations of urinalysis and urine culture in order to make an appropriate diagnosis in their patient population. It is possible to diagnose either asymptomaticbacteriuria or asymptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI) using these tests in combination with an evaluation of urine symptoms.

Urinalysis is a powerful diagnostic technique for a wide range of common illness conditions, including diabetes.

Aside from that, it can give valuable information about the screening and diagnosis of various disorders, such as cancer, proteinuria, glycosuria, ketonuria, and renal calculi.

It is the primary emphasis of this article to discuss the interpretation of urinalysis results and the subsequent urine culture results in the diagnosis and management of UTIs.

Overview

United States Pharmacopeia, vol. 38, no. 11, pp. 65-68, November 2013. ABSTRACT: Outpatient and inpatient populations alike are susceptible to urinary tract infection (UTI), which is one of the most often diagnosed illnesses. It is critical for practitioners to understand the benefits and limitations of urinalysis and urine culture in order to establish an appropriate diagnosis in their patient populations. It is possible to diagnose either asymptomaticbacteriuria or asymptomatic UTI using these tests in combination with an evaluation of urine symptoms.

In many common illness conditions, urinalysis is a helpful diagnostic tool.

Aside from that, it can give valuable information about the screening and diagnosis of various disorders, such as cancer, proteinuria, glycosuria, ketonuria, and renal calculi.

It is the primary emphasis of this article to discuss the interpretation of urinalysis results and the following urine culture in the diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infections.

Clinical Presentation

In order to schedule a urinalysis and urine culture, it is critical to recognize the symptoms of urinary tract infection (UTI). To diagnose UTI, symptoms of the urinary tract should be considered in conjunction with test findings. However, while many of the symptoms remain intuitive, there have been some recent revisions to the definitions of the nonspecific symptoms that many health care practitioners have come to identify with urinary tract infection (UTI). Upper Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) Symptoms: The most common symptoms linked with lower UTI are dysuria or acute discomfort, frequent or urgent urinating, urgency, and incontinence.

  1. 4,5Pyelonephritis/Upper Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) Symptoms: When compared to cystitis, pyelonephritis frequently manifests as a more severe, systemic condition.
  2. 4.
  3. These nonspecific symptoms were included in prior consensus-based criteria for diagnosing urinary tract infection (UTI) in residents of skilled care institutions, which may have contributed to our finding.
  4. Patients with noncatheterized urinary tract infections (UTIs) who have acute mental status change are not included in the most current definitions of UTI in long-term care institutions.

5 Following this criteria, nonspecific symptoms such as fatigue, nausea, and vomiting should be ignored until the patient is catheterized or has unexplained leukocytosis.

Urinalysis Interpretation

When evaluating urinalysis for indicators of infection, there are a number of factors to take into account. The presence of bacteria in the urine is the most evident sign of bacterial infection, and this is generally assessed in terms of the number of germs per high-power field (HPF). Any amount of bacteria in the urine in an asymptomatic patient may suggest urinary tract infection (UTI), but the traditional definition ofbacteriuria is 5+, which is roughly equivalent to 100,000 colony-forming units (CFUs) per milliliter of urine.

  • It is believed that the presence of inflammation is indicated by the presence of WBC10 in the urine or a positive leukocyteesterase.
  • Even though pyuria has a low specificity and positive predictive value, its absence virtually eliminates infection as a possible cause, with a negative predictive value of nearly 90%.
  • An abnormally high level of nitrites in the urine indicates the presence of an organism that degrades nitrate, according to the test.
  • A positive test is highly specific for bacterial infection, but a negative test does not rule out the possibility of infection, resulting in a low sensitivity for this test.
  • 1 The interpretation of urine tests is presented in TABLE 1, with the first four tests being the most often assessed for information that might lead to the diagnosis of UTI.
  • It is common for a reflex urineculture to be ordered if any of the first four tests listed in TABLE 1 are positive.
  • Overtreatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria is a common occurrence that can be avoided by following guidelines and following recommendations carefully.

Approach to the Asymptomatic Patient

In the case of a patient who has urinalysis or culture results that are compatible with UTI but does not have any urinary symptoms, a treatment dilemma arises. Age-related increases in the occurrence of this illness, which is known as symptomatic bacteriuria. 6,7 It has been observed that 50 percent of women in long-term care institutions have asymptomatic bacteriuria, and that the frequency among males over the age of 60 is significantly higher than in the general population. Sixth, routine screening of asymptomatic individuals is not suggested by the Infectious Diseases Society of America, according to their recommendations.

(6) Treatment may also be considered in women who have bacteriuria more than 48 hours after catheter removal have been removed.

Antibiotic therapy should be initiated empirically; however, depending on the organism discovered in the urineculture, it may necessitate adjustment of the first regimen.

Approach to the Symptomatic Patient

If you have been diagnosed with urinary tract infection (UTI) based on your symptoms and urine test results, the next step is to begin empirical antibiotic medication while you await culture and susceptibility findings. As previously noted, urinary tract infection (UTI) symptoms can be classified as lower (cystitis), upper (pyelonephritis), or nonspecific in nature. An additional type of urinary tract infection (UTI) that might influence treatment and therapy duration is simple vs complex. Uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI) is described as a UTI that does not have any structural or urologic abnormalities.

  1. The physical characteristic of a longer urethra in men, which defends against the ascending transmission of germs, makes uncomplicated infections unusual in this group.
  2. Despite the fact that there are many different criteria for complicated UTI, the most persistent patient characteristics include the presence of a foreign body, blockage, immunosuppression, renal failure or transplantation, urine retention, and pregnancy.
  3. When it comes to simple infections, Escherichia coli is the most prevalent pathogen, followed by other Enterobacteriaceae such as Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus saprophyticus, among others.
  4. It is possible that the same infections are present in individuals with complex UTI; however, gram-negative organisms are more resistant to antibiotics.
  5. Several other multidrug-resistant bacteria, including Serratia, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Pseudomonas, and Acinetobacter species, are becoming increasingly prevalent in health-care–associated illnesses.
  6. In the event that a urinary catheter is in situ, the catheter should be removed and a culture taken from the midstream urine or a new catheter should be used to direct therapy.
  7. In order to avoid excessive antibiotic exposure, urine culture findings should be utilized to de-escalate or adjust therapy as needed.

The specified length of therapy should also be followed to avoid excessive antimicrobial exposure The suggested medicines and treatment durations for symptomatic UTI are shown in TABLE 3 below. 13,14

Conclusion

The clinical interpretation of urinalysis and urine culture data necessitates both a grasp of the relevance of test parameters and the inclusion of patient symptoms into the decision-making process. Antimicrobial stewardship and clinical actions are carried out in conjunction with positiveurinalysis and urine culture findings, with pharmacists playing an important role in many facilities. Although it may be tempting to just prescribe an antibiotic based on test findings, in order to avoid overtreating asymptomatic people, a thorough examination of their symptoms should be carried out.

REFERENCES

1. J.A. Simerville, W.C. Maxted, and J.J. Pahira A complete review of urine analysis. 2005;71(11):1153-1162. American Family Physician. 2. Schappert, S.M., and Burt, C.W. 2. Hospital outpatient departments and the emergency department were the most common destinations for ambulatory care visits in the United States in 2001–2002, according to the National Center for Disease Statistic. VITAL HEALTH STATISTICS (2006) 13 3. Gordon LB, Waxman MJ, Ragsdale L, Mermel LA, Waxman MJ, Waxman MJ, Waxman MJ, Waxman MJ, Waxman MJ When older women go to the emergency department with a suspected urinary tract infection, they are routinely overtreated.

  1. The infectious illnesses of the human body (Smith, CL, ed.).
  2. Stone ND, Ashraf MS, Calder J, et al.
  3. Journal of the American Medical Association.
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  5. Nicolle LE, Bradley S, Colgan R, Nicolle LE, Bradley S, Colgan R, Nicolle LE Clinical Infectious Diseases, Volume 40, Number 6, Pages 643-654, 2005.
  6. Juthani-Mehta, M.
  7. Clinical Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine, Volume 23, Number 5, 585-594, 2007.

Eur J Clin Invest 2008;38(suppl 2):50-57.

Wolf, J.S.

The Journal of Urology 179:1379-1390 (2008).

Letter from the pharmacist/letter from the prescriber 280706 is the month of July in 2012.

Hooton, T.M., Bradley, S.F., Cardenas, D.D., and colleagues The Infectious Diseases Society of America published International Clinical Practice Guidelines in 2009 for the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of catheter-associated urinary tract infection in adults.

11.

12.

Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology, 15(3), 109-115.

K.

M.

G.

Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol.

e103-e120, 2011.

14.

Editors: DiPiro JT, Talbert RL, Yee GC, and colleagues A Pathophysiologic Approach to Pharmacotherapy is in its eighth edition, published by McGraw-Hill Medical in New York City. If you have any comments or questions about this post, please email [email protected]

Urine Culture: How the Test Works

Overview When you have a urine culture, it can be used to identify bacteria in your urine. When a urinary tract infection occurs, this test can detect and identify the microorganisms that are causing it (UTI). The urethra is a passageway via which bacteria, which are primarily responsible for UTIs, can enter the urinary system. These bacteria can multiply fast in the environment of your urinary system, eventually resulting in an infection of the tract. More information may be found at: Do you want to discover everything there is to know about urinary system infection?

Females are more likely than males to get urinary tract infections.

As a result, germs from the intestines have a lot easier time making their way into the urinary system.

The following are the most frequent symptoms of a UTI:

  • Physical symptoms include: back and stomach pain
  • Fever
  • A strong need to pee often
  • Trouble passing urine through your urine stream
  • And urinary tract infection (UTI).

If you have a urinary tract infection (UTI), your urine may seem hazy or even turn pinkish or coral in color if there is blood present in it. Despite the fact that you may have a continual need to pee, you may be unable to pass more than a little volume of urine from your bladder due to bladder obstruction. Shaking, chills, and vomiting are common symptoms of an illness that is progressing to a dangerous stage. Several alternative methods are available for collecting urine for the purpose of doing a urine culture.

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When you pee, you should collect your urine in a cup as you go.

Urinary collection bag

The collection of a urine sample can also be accomplished using a urinary collection bag. With children and newborns, this strategy is the most frequently employed. A plastic bag is affixed with glue to either a girl’s labia or a boy’s penis in order to perform this surgery. A bag is placed over the child’s diaper to capture urine, which may subsequently be submitted to a laboratory for examination.

Catheter

In some circumstances, a catheter is required by a healthcare professional in order to collect a urine sample. A thin rubber tube is inserted through the urethra and into the bladder in order to do this. Once the catheter is in place, the healthcare professional can take a sample of the patient’s blood. Even if you already have a urinary catheter in place, your healthcare professional may be able to obtain a sample by closing the drainage end of your catheter before it reaches the drain bag. Once urine has been collected in the clamped tube, your healthcare professional will use a syringe to retrieve a sample of urine from the tube.

When taking urine samples, it is important not to take them immediately from the catheter collecting bag since urine that has been out of the body for an extended period of time may begin to grow germs and will not form an acceptable sample in the lab.

Suprapubic aspiration

The use of a needle to extract a urine sample from your bladder may be required in some rare situations by your doctor. If prior attempts to acquire an uncontaminated sample have been failed, this method, known as a suprapubic aspiration, is utilized to collect the sample. It is possible that your obstetrician will ask you to do a urine culture at various intervals throughout your prenatal care as a preventive step if you are pregnant. If you suffer a urinary tract infection (UTI) during your pregnancy, it is critical that you get treatment as soon as possible.

  • Untreated urinary tract infections (UTIs) might result in preterm childbirth or poor labor outcomes.
  • Preparing for and carrying out a urine collection pose no dangers to the individual conducting it.
  • If your doctor demands a urine sample, you may experience some pressure and discomfort.
  • A catheter can occasionally cause a hole to form in your urethra or bladder.
  • Pre-testing preparations should include informing your doctor if you are currently taking or have recently taken any prescriptions, or if you are taking any over-the-counter vitamins, medicines, or supplements.
  • Aside from cleaning your hands and your genitals before the clean-catch collection, there is no need to prepare for a urine culture prior to the collection.
  • If you have any questions or concerns regarding the test, the dangers involved, or the results, you should discuss them with your doctor immediately.

Following that, the material is inspected under a microscope.

If just a small number of germs or organisms are detected, you will obtain a negative test result.

The results of a urine culture are usually available in two to three days.

It is possible that your sample contains more than one type of bacteria, or that it contains just a very little amount of bacteria.

It is possible that you will be required to retake the test.

coli bacteria, which may be found in your feces.

Some cases of urinary tract infections are caused by Candida, which is yeast that has the ability to overgrow and create an infection.

Most of the time, antibiotics are used to treat a urinary tract infection.

If you continue to get numerous UTIs, you may need to be tested to see whether you are more susceptible to them.

Every chance you have to attempt to flush out some of the germs can aid your body’s recovery by allowing it to return to normal faster.

Consider them to be ammo for your white blood cells, which will be used to battle the illness.

Once upon a time, it was believed that drinking unsweetened cranberry juice would help to expel harmful germs from the urinary system.

If you believe you have a urinary tract infection, it’s most likely because you’re experiencing unpleasant symptoms.

Wearing loose-fitting, cotton underwear and cleaning your clothes on a regular basis will help prevent the infection from returning.

However, if you suspect you have one, get medical attention immediately.

If you are experiencing pain in your low back or side below your ribs, as well as feeling shaky and weak, you should not dismiss these signs. If you experience any of these symptoms, you should consult your doctor.

Interpreting Culture Results – Part 1: Urinalysis and Urine Cultures

In clinical practice, interpreting culture data and laboratory testing has long been the bread and butter of the profession. Basic chemistry is pretty straightforward, and current lab result sheets include a convenient reference that displays the upper and lower limits of what is considered ‘normal’ readings as well as the higher and lower limits of what is considered abnormal. The interpretation of culture outcomes, on the other hand, is more difficult. This series will cover the specifics of urine cultures, blood and bodily fluid cultures, as well as other types of cultures, including those used to treat wounds and treat respiratory infections.

Interpreting Urine Cultures

Automated or reflex urine cultures are becoming increasingly widespread in clinical practice, particularly in the hospital or emergency room environment. Most hospital-based laboratories have parameters set up that, if satisfied, would automatically initiate a culture of a urine sample that seems to be contaminated with a bacterial infection. This is really beneficial for us as physicians because it allows us to guarantee that patients with UTI symptoms are treated with the proper medications.

What criteria should we use to assess whether this patient requires antibiotic treatment or not?

Specimen Collection

First and foremost, in order to address urine cultures, we must first consider specimen collection as well as the possibility of contamination. It is only by the use of a sterile, suprapubic percutaneous bladder tap that the possibility of contamination of the urine sample may be fully eliminated from consideration. However, in clinical practice, this is not a viable alternative, therefore let’s move on from this point. The urethral catheterization procedure, which takes a sample of urine straight from the bladder, would be the next step in the aseptic collection process.

It is the ‘clean capture’ midstream specimen that is the most often used sample collecting method.

For uncircumcised men, it is essential to retract the foreskin, and for women, it is necessary to remove the labia away from the urethral entrance in order to prevent contamination of the samples with cells from the vaginal mucosa or skin.

Urinalysis Assessments

Now that we have a decent specimen, let’s talk about how to interpret the urinalysis results. The dipstick method, in which a test strip is dipped into a urine sample for a predetermined period of time and then either’read’ by a colorimetric machine or compared to a standardized chart that is included with the kit, is used to perform the vast majority of urinalysis tests. In this case, the pH, specific gravity, protein content, WBC count, and presence of Leukocyte Estrace and Nitrite will all be determined by the urine test results.

  • All of these information can assist the attentive clinician in determining whether or not the patient is likely to have a urinary tract infection and whether or not a urine culture should be performed.
  • Although leukocyte esterase is a consequence of the presence of white blood cells in the urine (pyuria), it does not always indicate the presence of an active urinary tract infection.
  • In both men and women, the presence of nitrite in the urine is a far more reliable indicator of urinary tract infection.
  • However, not all urinary bacteria do this, thus a negative nitrite test does not rule out the possibility of a UTI.
  • The converse is true: drugs that can cause a red colour in the urine, such as AZO, Pyridium, and beets, can result in an incorrectly positive nitrite test result.
  • Several possible problems must be addressed before to proceeding with the evaluation of the culture data.
  • First and foremost, the presence of bacteria in the urine does not always imply active infection, particularly in the asymptomatic patient, as previously stated.

We won’t go into detail about these things here, but I want to make certain that they are included in your differential compensation.

To culture or not to culture?

What do you think? Do we need to culture the urine because we have a UA from a symptomatic patient that shows infection? Patients who have characteristic UTI symptoms without signs of pyelonephritis on physical examination, as well as those who have often recurring UTI, are unlikely to require a culture. However, if they have a history of recurring urinary tract infections (UTIs), or if they have UTIs that are difficult to cure and require numerous rounds of antibiotics, a culture is recommended.

Interpreting Culture Results

After the C S has returned, what should we make of it? After all, if you have properly picked the patients who will be subjected to culture, the findings should be straightforward. An recognized bacterial pathogen with 100,000 CFU/ml and a list of typical antibiotic treatments, as well as the capacity of those antibiotics to kill the pathogen and their sensitivity, should be available. Providing your patient with notice and adjusting their prescriptions should be sufficient if you have prescribed them an antibiotic that has demonstrated resistance.

In most cases, if a patient exhibits characteristic UTI symptoms, any culture that produces more than 10,000 CFU/ml of a pathogenic bacterium is adequate to diagnose the infection.

In addition, keep in mind that the patient may be suffering from an underlying sexually transmitted infection (STI), making a thorough history of the patient’s medical history essential.

Beyond the Automatic Reflex

Remember what I said earlier about the instinctive impulse to culture from hospital laboratories? Well, remember that bit too. Even if the patient has no particular urinary symptoms or complaints, what happens when you acquire a UA as part of a generic “abdominal discomfort” workup and the patient has 2+ WBC, is positive for leukocyte esterase and has 3+ Squamous epithelial cells? This is the type of sample that is usually used for automated culture and is regularly reflexed. As a result of your meticulous approach to the patient’s history and examination, as well as your interpretation of the UA, you have established that the patient does not have a UTI and that the sample in question is tainted.

coli, what should you do next in this situation?

As long as they are not experiencing any urine symptoms, are afebrile, and generally stable, this may indicate that the patient has a contaminant, and the patient may be encouraged to return for another urinary assessment.

However, if they have began to experience signs of a urinary tract infection, it is apparent that they should be treated with antibiotics.

Know the Nuances

The interpretation of laboratory findings, particularly urinalysis results, might appear to be straightforward. It is, however, a skill that must be mastered. It is critical to understand the intricacies of the tests and their results in order to treat your patient effectively and to act as an effective antibiotic steward for your patients. The use of a’shotgun’ approach to ordering laboratory tests does not encourage appropriate patient care or cost management, especially when treating patients who are not displaying any signs of illness.

In subsequent sections, we will explore blood cultures and wound cultures, as well as the appropriate applications and interpretations of these cultures.

What You Need to Know About Urine Cultures

Your doctor informs you that an aurine culture will be performed. It’s a test to see if you have any germs or bacteria in your pee that might cause an infection of the urinary system (UTI). The urinary system is made up of the kidneys, the bladder, and the tubes that transport your urine (ureters and the urethra). In most cases, an infection begins in the bladder or urethra (the tube your pee comes out of). However, it has the potential to impact any aspect of the system. Infections can cause a burning sensation when you pee, which can be quite uncomfortable.

Having a fever and stomach ache may indicate a more serious infection, so seek medical attention immediately.

What Do I Do for a Urine Culture?

You have to pee in a cup. It appears to be straightforward, and it is. Simply ensure that you get a “clean” urine sample to ensure that any germs identified in it are from an illness in your urinary system and not from another source, such as your skin, before proceeding. Here’s how to go about it:

  1. Wipe the area surrounding where you pee with the cleaning pad that was provided to you. Wash your hands. If you’re a woman, spread the outer lips of your vagina and clean it from front to back from front to back from front to back. Men should clean the tip of their penis first, then pee a small amount in the toilet and quit rubbing their penis. Don’t pee in the cup until you’re ready. Then, place roughly 1 or 2 ounces of the mixture in a cup. Make certain that the container does not come into contact with your skin. Complete your peeing in the toilet. A pee capture in the middle of the stream is referred to as a “midstream” urine catch. Wash your hands once more
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Some people may require the collection of their sample with the use of a catheter, which is a tiny tube that is inserted into your urethra and into your bladder. This is accomplished with the assistance of a health-care professional. The sample is put in a new, clean container after being cleaned.

What Happens Next?

Your sample is sent to a laboratory for analysis. Some of your urine is collected in a petri plate and kept at room temperature. Any bacteria or yeast present in the sample will reproduce and increase over the course of the following several days. The germs will be examined under a microscope by a lab technician. The different varieties are distinguished by their size, shape, and color. The lab technician will keep track of how many are growing. If it is a real illness, one species of bacteria will generally dominate the situation.

If the culture does not contain any hazardous microorganisms, it is referred to be “negative.” If there are harmful microorganisms developing, this is considered “positive.” E-coli, a kind of bacteria that lives in your intestines, is the most common cause of urinary tract infections.

More testing may be performed in the lab to determine which medications have the highest chance of combating the illness.

When Will I Get My Results?

Your doctor’s office will contact you within one to three days. They’ll go through the results with you when they’re done. If you have an illness, you will almost certainly be prescribed antibiotics. If this is the case, make certain you complete the total amount specified. The majority of the time, the infection subsides. However, it is possible that it will return, especially if you are a sexually active woman. In young women, sexual contact increases the likelihood of contracting an infection.

It is important that you take your medication in the manner prescribed by your doctor.

Urine Culture: Reference Range, Interpretation, Collection and Panels

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  • Lisa Vanchhawng Pedroza, MD is the author, and Eric B Staros, MD is the chief editor. more

Reference Range

In 24-48 hours, there was no growth in a urine samples.

Interpretation

A positive urine culture is defined as one that has a high number of colony forming units (CFUs) of bacteria growing in it (CFUs). The findings of a urine culture should be evaluated in the context of clinical signs of a urinary tract infection (UTI), which include dysuria, urinary frequency, suprapubic discomfort, flank pain, and fever. A positive urine culture, as indicated by the growth of bacteria greater than 100,000 CFUs/mL in a clean-catch urine sample, is suggestive of urinary tract infection; however, growth of bacteria between 1,000 and 100,000 CFUs/mL may still indicate UTI, particularly in specimens obtained during cystoscopy or other invasive procedures.

It is likely that contamination will result in the growth of two or more distinct bacteria, often known as polymicrobial proliferation.

Collection and Panels

Type of specimen:

  • Random urine specimen – This is the type of specimen that is most typically utilized. In some instances (for example, diagnosing urethritis caused by Neisseria gonorrhea or Chlamydia trachomatis), a first-void morning specimen may be required.

Containers for specimens are made of sterile plastic. Volume of the specimen: 1 mLCollection methods:

  • Midstream clean catch – The patient empties the initial portion of his or her urine, then collects the specimen midstream and discards the remaining portion. A urethral catheter is used to collect urine straight from the bladder, whereas intermittent catheterization is used to collect urine from the bladder. Subpubic aspiration is the collection of urine through the suprapubic abdominal wall into the bladder following a needle aspiration. If you’re having a cystoscopy or other invasive procedure, a sample can also be taken during that operation.

Collection and processing of the specimen: Urine should be processed within 2 hours of collection. If the specimen cannot be processed in a timely manner, it should be either (1) refrigerated at 2-8°C (the specimen will be stable for 24 hours) or (2) placed in preservative fluid and stored at room temperature for up to 24-72 hours; boric acid is the most commonly used preservative fluid for culture.

Background

It is usual for urine in the urinary bladder to remain sterile, although it can be temporarily colonized with a limited number of organisms. The urethra is often inhabited by a greater number of organisms than the bladder. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are most usually transmitted by the ascending route; however, they can also be transmitted through the hematogenous and lymphatic routes. Females are far more likely than males to get urinary tract infections (UTIs), mostly due to physical differences: females have shorter urethras, and their urethras are located in greater proximity to the vaginal and perianal regions.

The microorganisms that cause urinary tract infections proliferate at a fast pace. Escherichia coli is the most prevalent bacterium associated with urinary tract infections. The majority of bacterial illnesses are caused by a single type of bacteria.

Indications/Applications

Urine culture is used to diagnose urinary tract infections (UTIs), such as cystitis, urethritis, and pyelonephritis, as well as to identify the pathogen and provide guidance for antibiotic therapy.

Considerations

The presence of a positive urine culture and the necessity of therapy, as previously said, should be understood in the context of clinical symptoms and indicators of UTI. All symptomatic urinary tract infections (UTIs) should be treated. Asymptomatic bacteriuria should be treated in pregnant women and those having invasive urological instrumentation because of the increased risk of developing a symptomatic UTI, particularly pyelonephritis. Most authorities also treat kidney transplant recipients who have asymptomatic bacteriuria.

Urine culture findings that be falsely negative due to recent or contemporaneous antibiotic medication are possible.

These specimens should be eliminated as soon as possible.

  1. NCCLS. Urinalysis and Collection, Transportation, and Preservation of Urine Specimens
  2. Approved Guideline. Philadelphia, Pa: Churchill-Livingstone
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  4. Mandell G et al, eds. Principles and Practices of Infectious Diseases. 7th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Churchill-Livingstone
  5. NCCLS. Urinalysis and Collection, Transportation, and Preservation of Urine Specimens GP-16A2, No. 19, 2001
  6. Bongard E, Frimodt-Miller N, Gal M, Wootton M, Howe R, Francis N, et al. GP-16A2, No. 19, 2001
  7. Bongard E, Frimodt-Miller N, Gal M, Wootton M, Howe R, Francis N, et al. The performance of a point-of-care urine culture kit for diagnosis and antibiotic susceptibility testing in an analytical laboratory was evaluated. The European Journal of Psychiatry Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2015 Oct
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  9. Sharifian M, Shohadaee S, Esfandiar N, Mohkam M, Dalirani R, Akhavan Sepahi M. Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2015 Oct
  10. Sharifian M, Shohadaee S, Esfandiar N, Mohkam M, Dalirani R, Akha Before and after treatment for a urinary tract infection, the serum and urine Leptin concentrations in children were measured. Iran J Kidney Dis. 2015 Sep 9(5):374-8
  11. Simes E Silva AC, Oliveira EA. Simes E Silva AC, Oliveira EA. Ongoing research on the treatment of urinary tract infection in children. J Pediatr (Journal of Pediatrics) (Rio J). Nicolle LE, Bradley S, Colgan R, Rice JC, Schaeffer A, and Hooton TM published a paper on September 7th, 2015. Guidelines from the Infectious Diseases Society of America for the identification and management of asymptomatic bacteriuria in adults have been released. Mayo Medical Laboratories published a paper in Clinical Infectious Diseases on March 1, 2005, with the number 40(5):643-54. Bacterial Culture, Aerobic, Urine. Mayo Clinic Test ID: UR. Bacterial Culture, Aerobic, Urine. You can find it here. Date of access: January 2013

Author Lisa Vanchhawng Pedroza is a member of the MDA. Cooper University Hospital’s Division of Infectious Diseases is staffed by an Assistant Professor of Medicine and an Attending Physician. Lisa Vanchhawng Pedroza, MD is a member of the following professional medical organizations: IDA stands for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Disclosure: There is nothing to reveal. Chief Editor and/or coauthor(s)

Urine Culture And Sensitivity Test – About, Preparation, Test Results & More

In order to cultivate and identify organisms that may cause a urinary tract infection, a urine culture test is conducted. The organisms that are grown and identified are primarily bacteria and fungi (UTI). In most cases, urine is sterile and devoid of any organisms while it is stored in the bladder. Compared to adult males, ladies and children are more likely than adults to have urinary tract infections. It is possible to pick an appropriate antibiotic by performing an antibiotic sensitivity or susceptibility test against certain types of bacteria or fungus that are the source of any ailment.

what is urine culture test?

A Urine Culture test is a simple test that is performed to determine whether or not there are any sorts of bacteria present in the urine that might cause infection. However, although urine does not include any germs, microbes, or bacteria in itself, it is the bacterium that enters the Urethra from the Urinary Tract that causes the illness that is known as UTI, or Urinary Tract Infection.

The purpose of a urine culture test is to determine whether or not there are any fungus or bacteria in the urinary system and to offer suggestions for drugs that may be used to inhibit the growth of these organisms on an urgent basis.

why do i need urine culture test?

A urine Culture test is often recommended by a doctor if you’ve been experiencing pain when peeing, producing less urine, or experiencing frequent urination symptoms. If this continues for an extended period of time (maybe 3-4 days) and the symptoms do not improve, the doctor may recommend a Urine Culture and Sensitivity Test to identify whether or not there is an infection and the severity of the illness. High fever and abrupt shivers in the body are common symptoms experienced by people who have higher levels of urine infection in their bodies.

The use of urine culture and sensitivity is used to detect and test for illnesses or medical disorders that are associated with urinary tract infection in individuals who are suffering symptoms such as frequent and painful urination.

reason to take urine culture and sensitivity test

You are required to get this examination due to the symptoms listed below. The following are the general signs and symptoms of a Urinary Tract Infection:-

  • Urination that is painful or difficult, with a burning feeling
  • Increased frequency of urination
  • Urine that smells foul, seems hazy, or is reddish in appearance
  • Lower abdominal (belly) pain and pressure, as well as lower back pain I’m getting the chills
  • Fever, malaise, and exhaustion without warning

what other tests might i have along with urine culture test?

In the first instance, a doctor would not request a report on a Urine Culture straight from the laboratory. In the event that a patient presents to a doctor complaining of urinary sensitivity issues, the doctor will likely order a Urine Routine test to rule out any underlying causes. A urine routine test is a collection of tests that are performed on a urine sample to determine whether or not a medical problem or disease is present. That is the first stage, and it will inform you that there is a problem; however, the Urine Culture report will show you exactly what the problem is, and it will also get you closer to finding a solution.

what do my test results mean?

First and foremost, a doctor would not want a report on a Urine Culture in the traditional sense. In the event that a patient presents to a doctor complaining of urinary sensitivity issues, the doctor will likely order a Urine Routine test as the first step. If a medical condition or illness is present, a urine routine test will be performed on the sample to determine whether the condition or disease is present. Although the first stage will inform you that there is a problem, the Urine Culture report will show you exactly what is wrong and will also bring you one step closer to finding a remedy.

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how is urine culture test done?

In order to perform the Urine Culture and Sensitivity test, the Urine Sample must be collected in a clean sterilized hygienic bottle, preferably with an empty stomach in the early hours of the morning. First and foremost, the results of the Urine Routine test are announced 14-16 hours after the test was performed. After receiving the Urine Culture report, one must wait between 48 and 72 hours for the results to be released. An employee of the laboratory will keep a close eye on the Urine Sample while it is kept in the laboratory for 2-3 days.

In the event that no germs are detected in the urine sample, the test is regarded as negative.

The bacteria E-Coli are the most common bacteria that cause urinary tract infections.

Following the detection of the bacteria, they would conduct additional testing to determine the results of the urine sensitivity test, which would entail identifying antibiotics that would be effective in this situation and completely cure the infection.

does urine culture test pose any risk?

No, the Urine Culture and Sensitivity Test does not pose any danger to the patient. It just serves to assist us in getting to the base of the problem and solving it.

what might affect my test results?

When collecting the Urine Sample, extreme caution must be exercised to ensure that the urine does not come into touch with the human skin, hands, or any other source that might dilute the test totally, since this could result in a false positive. Even if the container in which the sample is taken is not sterilised or clean, it has the potential to utterly derail the report’s outcome.

sample required?

Specimens of the following types: urine, Procedure for collecting specimens: Urine should be collected in the middle of the stream (not at the beginning or at the finish). Before collecting the genitals, take special care to clean them thoroughly. To obtain a sample, follow the steps outlined below:

  • The first few drops of pee, or the initial few drops of urine, should be flushed down the toilet. To collect a mid-stream urine sample, place it in the sterile container supplied. It is not recommended to collect the last section of the urine or the finish of the urine stream. Cover the container with a lid. During the collecting time, store it in the refrigerator or another cold location.

There is no need for any prior preparation. For at least one hour before the test, refrain from urinating, and drink a glass of water 15-20 minutes before sample collection.

how do i prepare for urine culture test?

For the Urine test, there is no need to do any particular preparation. All you have to do is make sure that you have an empty stomach and that you are well hydrated. Ensure that you drink at least 3-4 glasses of water 10 minutes before the exam. It is critical to ensure that the urine sample obtained is from mid-stream and not at the beginning or finish of the treatment in order to obtain accurate findings.

portea at-home urine culture and sensitivity test in top location include:

Bangalore, Delhi-NCR, Chennai, Hyderabad, Kolkata, Pune, Lucknow, and Indore are some of the cities in India.

Understanding results of Urine culture and sensitivity

Reference Range Interpretation
100,000 colonies/ml Positive
10,000-100,000 colonies/ml Indeterminate
10,000 colonies/ml Negative

Inference: Urine is typically free of pathogens. However, it is possible that some contamination from skin germs will occur during the collection of the urine. So up to 10,000 colonies of bacteria per milliliter of liquid are deemed typical. A positive urinary tract infection is defined as having more than 100,000 colonies per milliliter of urine. The culture is uncertain for numbers ranging between 10,000 and 100,000 individuals. ‘* A reference range is a collection of numbers that assists a healthcare worker in interpreting the results of a medical test.

Reference ranges may also differ between laboratories in terms of valueunits, depending on the equipment used and the methodology employed to determine the reference ranges.

Conclusion

When there is an observation of painful pee output, a urine culture and sensitivity test is performed. This test is performed in order to discover any micro-organisms present in the body and to remove them if present.

Urinalysis – Mayo Clinic

A urinalysis is a test that is performed on your pee. Urinary tract infections, renal illness, and diabetes are just a few of the conditions for which it is used to diagnose and treat patients. A urinalysis is a procedure that involves examining the appearance, concentration, and content of urine samples. An infection of the urinary system, for example, might cause urine to appear hazy rather than clear.

In certain cases, increased amounts of protein in the urine might indicate the presence of renal disease. Unusual urine findings may necessitate further testing in order to determine the cause of the problem.

Why it’s done

A urinalysis is a frequent test that is performed for a variety of reasons, including:

  • In order to assess your general health. It is possible that a urinalysis will be performed as part of a standard medical exam, pregnancy checkup, or pre-surgical preparation. When you’re admitted to a hospital, it may be used to screen for a number of problems, such as diabetes, renal disease, or liver disease
  • Or it might be used to screen for a variety of disorders, such as cancer. In order to determine the existence of a medical problem. If you are experiencing stomach discomfort, back pain, frequent or painful urination, blood in your urine, or any other urinary issues, your doctor may recommend a urinalysis. A urinalysis can aid in the identification of the underlying cause of these signs and symptoms. In order to keep track of a medical condition. After being diagnosed with a medical problem, such as kidney disease or a urinary tract infection, your doctor may recommend testing your urine on a regular basis to keep track of your progress and treatment.

A urine sample may also be used for other tests such as pregnancy testing and drug screening, although these procedures check for compounds that aren’t detected by a standard urine analysis.

How you prepare

If you’re merely having a urinalysis, you can eat and drink as much as you like before the test. In the event that you are scheduled for further exams, you may be required to fast before the test. Specific instructions will be provided to you by your health-care professional. Many medicines, including over-the-counter pharmaceuticals and dietary supplements, might have an impact on the findings of a urinalysis. Inform your doctor about any drugs, vitamins, or other supplements you are taking before having a urinalysis performed.

What you can expect

You may choose to collect a urine sample at home or at the office of your health-care provider. Typically, providers hand out containers for collecting urine samples. It is possible that you may be requested to collect the sample at your residence first thing in the morning, when your pee will be at its most concentrated. It is possible that you will be required to collect the sample in the middle of the process, utilizing a clean-catch approach. The following are the stages involved in this method:

  • Cleanse the entry of the urine bladder. Women should spread their labia and clean from the front to the back of their bodies. Men should clean the tip of their penis with a damp cloth. start using the toilet and urinating into it Pass the collecting container into your urine stream
  • This will help to prevent infection. Fill the collection container with at least 1 to 2 ounces (30 to 60 milliliters) of urine
  • Complete your urination in the toilet
  • Deliver the sample in accordance with the instructions provided by your health care practitioner. Refrigerate the sample if it cannot be delivered to the specified place within 60 minutes after its collection, unless your provider has instructed otherwise.

It may be necessary to put a thin, flexible tube (catheter) through the entrance of the urinary tract into the bladder in order to collect a urine sample in some instances. The urine sample is taken and forwarded to a laboratory for testing. You are free to resume to your normal activities right away.

Results

An examination of your urine sample using three methods is performed during a urinalysis. These methods are: visual examination; dipstick examination; and microscopic examination.

Visual exam

The look of the urine is examined by a lab professional. Urine is usually clear in color. The presence of cloudiness or an odd odor may suggest the presence of a condition such as an infection. The presence of protein in urine might cause it to appear frothy. The presence of blood in the urine might cause it to appear red or brown. Urine color might be affected by what you’ve eaten recently as well as by some medications you’re taking. Beets and rhubarb, for example, may cause your urine to become crimson.

Dipstick test

A dipstick — a small, plastic stick with chemical strips attached to it — is inserted into the urine sample. The color of the chemical strips changes if specific compounds are present or if their concentrations are higher than normal limits. A dipstick test looks for the following things:

  • Acidity is a term used to describe the state of being acidic (pH). In urine, the pH level shows the quantity of acid present in the urine. In some cases, a high pH level might suggest a kidney or urinary tract disease
  • Concentration The concentration of the particles in your urine may be determined by measuring the concentration of the particles. A greater than usual concentration is frequently caused by a lack of fluid intake
  • Protein intake is also inadequate. Protein concentrations in urine are typically low. In most cases, small increases in protein in urine are not a cause for worry, but bigger quantities may signal a kidney disease
  • Sugar. Most of the time, the amount of sugar (glucose) present in urine is insufficient to be identified. Following the finding of sugar on this test, it is common for follow-up testing for diabetes and ketones to be performed. Ketones found in your urine, like sugar, might be an indication of diabetes and necessitate more testing
  • Bilirubin is one such test. Bilirubin is a byproduct of the destruction of red blood cells. Normally, bilirubin is transported via the bloodstream and into the liver, where it is excreted and absorbed as part of the bile. The presence of bilirubin in your urine might suggest liver damage or illness
  • It could also be an indication of an infection. In your urine, the presence of nitrites or leukocyte esterase – a product of white blood cells — may suggest a urinary tract infection
  • Blood may be present. Additional testing is required if you have blood in your urine. Symptoms of kidney damage or infection, kidney or bladder stones, kidney or bladder cancer, and blood abnormalities can all be seen with this condition.

Microscopic exam

This test, which is sometimes done as part of a urinalysis, involves looking via a microscope at droplets of concentrated pee — urine that has been spun in a machine — to look for signs of infection. If any of the following levels are much higher than typical, you may require further testing:

  • The presence of white blood cells (leukocytes) may indicate the presence of an infection. If you have high levels of red blood cells (erythrocytes), it might indicate that you have renal illness. It could also indicate that you have a blood issue or some underlying medical condition such as bladder cancer. Infection is indicated by the presence of bacteria, yeast, or parasites. Casts, which are tube-shaped proteins, can develop as a result of renal disease. In some cases, crystals formed by chemicals in urine may be an indication of kidney stones.

A urinalysis by alone does not generally yield a definitive diagnosis in most cases. Depending on the reason your physician ordered this test, you may require follow-up if the findings are out of the ordinary. The findings of the urinalysis, in conjunction with the results of other tests, can assist your provider in determining the next steps. You should never assume that you are not sick just because you have normal test results from your urinalysis. It is possible that the sickness is detected too early, or that your urine is overly diluted.

Inform your healthcare practitioner if you are still experiencing signs and symptoms. Consult with your health-care practitioner for further information on the significance of your urinalysis findings. 14th of October, 2021

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