- 1 Stool Sample Culture Test
- 2 Why Do You Need It?
- 3 How Is a Stool Culture Done?
- 4 When Do You Get the Results?
- 5 What Do the Results Mean?
- 6 Stool Culture
- 7 Stool Test: Bacteria Culture (for Parents)
- 8 Stool Culture
- 9 Fecal Culture: Purpose, Procedure & Risks
- 10 Why Might Your Healthcare Provider Order A Stool Culture?
- 11 Why It’s Used
- 12 How to Prepare for a Stool Culture
- 13 How a Stool Sample Is Performed
- 14 Potential Risks
- 15 Follow-up Necessary
- 16 How should I collect and store a poo (stool) sample?
- 17 Collecting a stool sample
- 18 Storing a stool sample
- 19 What are stool samples used for?
- 20 Further information
- 21 Stool culture
- 22 Indications for testing
- 23 What should I tell my patient about the test?
- 24 What do the results mean?
- 25 What are the common next steps if the test is positive?
- 26 What if the result is negative?
- 27 Summary
- 28 Acknowledgements
- 29 Stool test
- 30 How long does it take to get results from a stool culture?
Stool Sample Culture Test
Depending on the severity of your stomach troubles, your doctor may prescribe a stool culture or request a stool sample from you. Bacteria, viruses, and other pathogens that might be causing your illness can be found in your stool with this test.
Why Do You Need It?
If you have any of the following symptoms, your doctor may request this test for you:
- If you have any of the following symptoms, your doctor may request this test:
If any of the following apply, your doctor may be more concerned:
- You’re a child or an elderly person
- You are suffering from a weaker immune system. Traveling outside of the United States is something you’ve done. tainted food or drink has been consumed by you
- Your symptoms are really acute.
You’re a child or an old person in need of assistance. Your immune system is compromised; Traveling outside of the United States is something you’ve done; tainted food or drink has been consumed by you. Symptoms are unbearably acute in your case.
How Is a Stool Culture Done?
You’ll be required to provide a sample of your feces to your doctor. You will not be required to do this task at the doctor’s office. An alternative is to receive a specific container with a lid to take home with you. It’s possible that your name and birthday are printed on this. If you don’t know, you can write it down on the label. Your doctor will go through the procedure for collecting the sample as well as any specific instructions that may be required. In the majority of circumstances, you’ll follow the methods outlined below: Put something in your toilet to catch the excrement you produce.
- If your stool is not loose or watery, you might also place a piece of newspaper or plastic wrap over the toilet rim to prevent it from overflowing.
- It has the potential to take up germs that are not your own.
- Don’t touch anything with your hands.
- Don’t fill the container to the brim.
- Make sure to include any bleeding, slimy, or watery bits in your collection.
- If you need to go to the bathroom, do so before you begin.
- Any residual feces should be flushed into the toilet.
- It can be stored in your refrigerator until then, but only for a maximum of 24 hours per container.
- They should also be aware of any herbs, supplements, vitamins, over-the-counter medications, or illicit substances that you are using.
When Do You Get the Results?
Once your sample has arrived at the lab, it will be spread onto a specific sterile plate that will aid in the growth of bacteria.
Any that do is subjected to a closer examination under a microscope. The majority of the time, you should have your findings within 1 or 2 days.
What Do the Results Mean?
If your test results come back negative, this indicates that everything is OK. There were no germs identified in your feces, and you are not infected with anything. A positive test result indicates that your feces was contaminated with a germ, virus, or other sort of bacterium during the testing process. Your doctor will be informed of the sort of infection and which medications will be used to combat it by the lab. This can assist them in determining the best course of action.
Sources consulted for the current review B. Devkota is the author of this article (2014 January 16 Updated). Medications and Diseases on Medscape (Stool Culture). This resource is available online atAccessed on February 8, 2016. S. Guandalini and R. Frye are co-authors of the paper (2015 August 19 Updated). Diarrhea is a medical condition that is listed on Medscape Drugs and Diseases. This resource is available online atAccessed on February 8, 2016. Lehrer, J., et al (2014 May 15 Updated). Fecal culture is a type of feces culture.
- Available on the internet at This page was last updated on 02/08/16.
- (2014 September Reviewed).
- Nemours Children’s Health offers a variety of services for children.
- (2016 January Updated).
- Available on the internet at This page was last updated on 02/08/16.
- The GI diagnostic testing field is being transformed by the molecular revolution.
- This resource is available online atAccessed on February 8, 2016.
Rolek and colleagues (2014 December 3).
Nebraska Medicine is a specialty of the University of Nebraska Medical Center.
Available on the internet at the time of this writing (March 2016).
A Multidisciplinary Approach to Symptom Management of Chemotherapy-Induced Diarrhea Available online atAccessed March 2016.Koselke E, Kraft S.
Available online atAccessed March 2016.
Available on the internet at The date of access was March 2016.
Thomas is the editor of this work (1997).
Pagana, Kathleen D.; Pagana, Timothy J.; Pagana, Timothy J.
(2003 March 6).
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Disease Information.
Campylobacter Infections, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases’ Disease Information.
Disease Information about Escherichia coli O157:H7 from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases.
Technical Information about Escherichia coli O157:H7.
Available on the internet at (2003 March 7).
Available on the internet at (2003 June 9).
Available on the internet at (2003 March 7).
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Disease Information.
Typhoid Fever is a serious illness.
Available on the internet at (2000 April).
Campylobacter Enteritis, according to the MedlinePlus Health Information, a medical dictionary.
(Current Access) (2002 February 20).
coli enteritis, according to MedlinePlus Health Information, a medical dictionary.
Culture of feces, according to the MedlinePlus Health Information, Medical Encyclopedia.
Salmonella enterocolitis is a kind of intestinal inflammation caused by the bacteria Salmonella.
Parsons, C., ed., is available online at (2002 July 31).
Pagana, Kathleen D., and Pagana, Timothy J.
Pp 887 in Mosby’s Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference, 8th Edition, published by Mosby, Inc.
Tietz Clinical Guide to Laboratory Tests, Fourth Edition is a clinical guide to laboratory tests written by Tietz.
Louis, Missouri: Saunders Elsevier Science Publishers.
Lentnek’s article on the subject (2007 November 12, Updated).
It was accessed on the 30th of January, 2008.
The National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse provides information about diarrhea.
(Updated 2010 April 8).
Available on the internet atAccessed in May of 2011.
Vorvick and colleagues (Updated 2010 May 4).
MedlinePlus is a medical dictionary and encyclopedia.
Fisher, M., et al (Updated 2011 April).
ARUP Consult is a consulting firm.
(From 1995 until 2011).
Mayo Clinic and Mayo Medical Laboratories are affiliated with the Mayo Clinic.
10th edition of Mosby’s Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference published by Mosby, Inc.
in Saint Louis, Missouri, pp 911-912. Forbes BA, Sahm DF, and Weissfeld AS. Forbes BA, Sahm DF, Weissfeld AS 873-883 in BaileyScott’s Diagnostic Microbiology, 12th Edition, published by Mosby Elsevier in St. Louis, Missouri in 2007.
Stool Test: Bacteria Culture (for Parents)
When a kid has a problem in the stomach, intestines, or another part of the gastrointestinal (GI) system, a stool (feces) sample can give clinicians with crucial information about what is going on. A stool culture is used to determine whether or not a bacterial infection is present in the intestines. A technician deposits tiny stool samples in sterile plastic dishes with nutrients that promote the development of certain bacteria. The samples are then tested. If the targetedbacteria are already present in the stool sample, they will not reproduce.
Why It’s Done
A stool culture may be requested by a clinician in order to check for illness-causing germs such as:
- Shigella, salmonella, yersinia, campylobacter, and E. coli are all bacteria that can cause illness.
Other bacteria have been discovered on occasion. If your child has had diarrhea for several days or has bloody diarrhea, a stool culture may be ordered. This is especially true if there has been an outbreak of foodborne illness in your community, if your child has recently consumed undercooked meat or eggs, or unpasteurized milk, or if your child has recently traveled to certain countries outside of the United States.
Stool samples are often collected by parents at home, rather than by health-care professionals in a hospital or clinic, in contrast to the majority of other lab tests. There is no specific preparation necessary, but please inform your doctor if your kid has recently taken antibiotics or other medications.
Written instructions on how to obtain a stool sample are normally supplied by the doctor or hospital laboratory. If you don’t have any instructions, here are some suggestions for obtaining a feces sample from your child:
- Wearing protective gloves and washing your hands as well as your child’s hands afterward are essential. Children with diarrhea, particularly young children, are unable to notify their parents when they are about to have a bowel movement in advance. As a result, the feces specimen is collected using a hat-shaped plastic cover. For collection of the sample, this collecting device may be swiftly positioned over a toilet bowl or beneath the bottom of your child’s pants. The use of a capturing device can help to prevent the contamination of stool by toilet water in some cases. Another option for collecting a feces sample is to lay a piece of plastic wrap over the toilet seat and leave it there. After that, place the stool sample in a clean, sealable container before transporting it to the laboratory. If your child is an infant or toddler who has not yet learned to use the toilet, you can line his or her diaper with plastic wrap. If possible, the wrap should be set such that pee flows into the diaper rather than the wrap. It is not acceptable for your youngster to urinate into the container. In order to prevent the stool sample from being diluted by pee, try to have your kid empty his or her bladder before going to the bathroom before going to the bathroom. The stool should be placed into clean, dry plastic jars with screw-on lids to prevent it from drying out. It is possible that your kid will be requested to produce a stool sample on one or more occasions. This should be done within a few hours of collection in order to achieve the optimum outcomes.
Wearing protective gloves and washing your hands as well as your child’s hands afterward are recommended. For many children suffering with diarrhea, especially young children, it is difficult to predict the timing of their bowel movements. Consequently, the feces specimen is collected with the help of a hat-shaped piece of plastic. For collection of the sample, this collecting device may be swiftly positioned over a toilet bowl or beneath the bottom of your child’s bottom. The use of a capturing device can help to prevent the contamination of stool by toilet water in some situations.
Put your feces sample in a clean, airtight container before bringing it to the laboratory.
The wrap should be set in such a way that pee flows into the diaper rather than the wrap.
Try to have your child empty his or her bladder before a bowel movement in order to prevent the stool sample from being diluted by pee.
You may be requested to collect a stool sample from your kid on one or more occasions. This should be done within a few hours of collection in order to get the best results.
Getting the Results
In most cases, the results of the stool culture are available within 24 to 48 hours of taking the sample.
It is not need to worry about the safety of collecting stool samples.
Helping Your Child
In the case of stool samples, there are no dangers involved.
If You Have Questions
If you have any queries concerning the stool culture, you should consult with your physician.
What is a stool culture, and how does it work? Your doctor may order a stool culture to better understand and treat disorders with your digestive tract, often known as the gastrointestinal tract. If you are experiencing painful stomach issues, there are several reasons for this to occur. Bacterial infections are the root of several of these problems. A stool culture can be ordered by your doctor to examine a sample of your stool, or feces, for the presence of dangerous microorganisms. In contrast to anova and parasite examination of the feces, a stool culture is performed on the stool.
The bacteria found in your feces will be grown or “cultured” by laboratory personnel during a stool culture.
Using special plates, they will spread a sample of your feces on them.
Then, using dye staining, microscopy examination, and other techniques, laboratory workers will attempt to identify the bacteria they have discovered.
- Campylobacterspecies, Salmonellaspecies, Shigellaspecies are all examples of bacteria that can cause illness.
The following tests may be performed if you have recently been outside of the United States or if you have additional risk factors:
- The following tests may also be performed if you have recently been outside of the United States or if you have additional risk factors:
They may also undertake further tests, such as a test for the Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) toxin or an ova and parasite exam to check for parasites. Other tests may be performed as well. An infection of the digestive tract can cause a variety of unpleasant symptoms. Occasionally, they can even be life threatening in nature. Many different illnesses have symptoms that are similar to one another, such as:
- Fever, nausea, and vomiting
- Abdominal pain and cramping
- Severe diarrhea that requires you to go to the bathroom every 30 minutes
- Blood in your stool
- And other symptoms.
The presence of dangerous organisms in your feces can assist your doctor in determining the source of your symptoms. A stool culture can assist them in determining whether or not dangerous germs are present. It may also assist them in determining which medicines are most effective in killing certain germs. In order to do a stool culture, your doctor will need to collect a sample of your stool from your bathroom. They will very certainly provide you with a sample container in which to collect it.
- Some laboratories even have a particular type of toilet paper that may be used to collect your sample, which can be found in the supply room.
- If you want to collect your feces sample, you can use a bedpan or another big container.
- After that, you may transfer the sample into your collecting container by wrapping it in plastic wrap.
- When dealing with infants in diapers or persons who are experiencing active diarrhea, the feces collection process might be more difficult.
- Additionally, they may suggest that you place plastic wrap in their diaper to gather a sample.
- Consult your doctor for advice.
- To test for bacteria growth in your stool, experts will spread a sample of your waste onto plates that contain gels that promote bacterial growth.
Using specific colors, they can detect the different species of bacteria that are growing on the surface of the water.
This can assist them in determining which therapies are likely to be beneficial.
Your doctor will be able to assist you in understanding the results of the stool culture.
If your doctor discovers hazardous germs in your feces, he or she may prescribe antibiotics or other therapies for you.
Your doctor may recommend further tests or examinations as a result of the results of the initial checkup.
A diverse population of “good” bacteria and other species reside within your intestines while you are in excellent health.
It contributes to the preservation of your health.
Broad-spectrum antibiotics might make you more susceptible to disease-causing organisms, so be cautious when using them.
Occasionally, your usual flora may not rebuild themselves after a round of antibiotics has been completed.
Bacteria that are antibiotic-resistant and potentially dangerous to your health can survive and take over your digestive tract.
difficile, for example, is one of those potentially hazardous bacteria.
difficile can be extremely difficult to treat.
This illness is characterized by an unpleasant and sometimes life-threatening inflammation of your colon.
difficileis fecal bacteriotherapy has been developed.
An implanted stool sample from a healthy individual is introduced into your colon during this surgery.
The healthy bacteria from donor feces or a pure culture can be used to recolonize your colon with beneficial bacteria. This can assist you in recovering from a C. difficile infection that has persisted.
Fecal Culture: Purpose, Procedure & Risks
What Is the Definition of Fecal Culture? It is possible to detect what sorts of bacteria are present in your digestive system using a fecal culture, which is performed in a laboratory. Bacterial infections and diseases can be caused by certain kinds of bacteria. Your doctor can determine which types of bacteria are present in your feces or stool by doing a feces or stool test. This can assist them in determining the source of their digestive difficulties as well as the most appropriate treatment approach for them.
Enteric pathogens culture or stool culture were the terms used to describe this procedure.
Symptoms might include any of the following:
- What Is a Fecal Culture and Why Should You Care? It is possible to detect what sorts of bacteria are present in your digestive system by a fecal culture, which is a laboratory test. Bacterial infections and diseases are caused by certain kinds of bacteria. Your doctor can determine the types of bacteria present in your feces or stool by testing it. In order to determine the source of digestive issues and the most appropriate treatment plan, they need consult with a doctor. A short, painless, and generally simple test is administered. Enteric pathogens culture or stool culture were the terms used to describe this procedure in the past. Depending on your symptoms, a fecal culture test may be recommended by the American Association for Clinical Chemistry if you have chronic, recurrent digestive issues. Following are examples of symptoms:
Before ordering the test, your doctor will ask you a series of questions to determine whether your symptoms are the result of a food-borne disease. For example, if you recently consumed raw eggs or badly prepared meals, you may have had similar reactions to those described above. In addition, your doctor will inquire as to whether or not you have traveled outside of the United States. International tourists, particularly those who have traveled to impoverished countries, may be at more risk of food contamination than domestic visitors.
- Those with compromised immune systems, on the other hand, may require antibiotics to help them fight infections.
- Your doctor may prescribe more than one stool test over the course of many weeks or months.
- A fecal culture test does not pose any dangers to the patient.
- Remember to thoroughly wash your hands with antibacterial soap after you’ve finished collecting your sample.
- This includes a container, which you will need to return together with your stool sample for testing in order to receive credit.
- It is customary to collect a feces sample by placing a piece of wax paper over the bottom of your toilet bowl.
- Place a sample of your feces on the wax paper and place it in the container provided before giving it to your doctor.
- The sample is examined under a microscope to determine whether or not bacteria are present.
- The results will be used by your doctor to determine the sort of bacteria that is present in your digestive tract.
- Identifying the source of your symptoms allows them to recommend the most appropriate antibiotic or other treatment plan for you.
- Obtaining a fecal culture is a straightforward and risk-free method for your doctor to learn more about the microorganisms in your digestive tract.
In the event that you have been having persistent digestive difficulties such as diarrhea, vomiting, or nausea, you should consult with your doctor. They may ask you to submit a fecal culture in order to better determine the source of your condition.
Why Might Your Healthcare Provider Order A Stool Culture?
If you are experiencing digestive difficulties, such as diarrhea, you should visit your doctor. If the condition persists after visiting your doctor, you should see a gastroenterologist. When you have symptoms such as diarrhea, stomach discomfort, nausea, or vomiting, your healthcare practitioner will want to run certain tests to determine whether there is an underlying explanation for them. In some cases, a stool culture will be ordered as part of a series of tests that will be performed to determine what is causing all of the symptoms.
Fortunately, a stool test is noninvasive and, when it comes to testing, it is rather simple.
Why It’s Used
Some digestive disorders, such as diarrhea, may subside on their own; however, if they do not, a visit to the doctor is necessary to determine the cause. When you have symptoms such as diarrhea, stomach discomfort, nausea, or vomiting, your healthcare practitioner will want to run certain tests to determine whether there is a medical reason for them. In some cases, a stool culture will be ordered as part of a series of tests that will be performed to determine what is causing all of the symptoms.
Stool testing is noninvasive and very simple when compared to other types of medical testing (such as blood tests).
How to Prepare for a Stool Culture
For a stool culture, there are normally no preparations necessary; feces is simply collected in a sterile container and transported to a laboratory for testing. To collect stool samples, the physician or another healthcare professional who orders the test will supply the patient with a sterile container (along with any other items needed to complete the test, such as disposable gloves). It is necessary to take precautions to ensure that the feces does not become contaminated by urine or toilet water.
It is possible to collect feces in the event of diarrhea by wearing a disposable glove and placing a sample cup beneath the bottom of the toilet bowl while using it.
For samples that are not taken to the lab immediately or collected at the lab, they should be refrigerated to maintain their coolness or kept cold.
How a Stool Sample Is Performed
Following the placement of the feces in the culture, it may take two to three days for any bacteria present in the stool to begin to develop.
Afterwards, these bacteria may be separated and studied under a microscope to determine whether or not they are pathogenic.
If the feces is collected when one is alone in the toilet, this test is safe, painless, and somewhat private. Even though many patients may be embarrassed or uncomfortable about submitting their stool samples to a lab, it is crucial to remember that receiving stool samples is a routine aspect of the work for lab technicians, and it is just business as usual for them. To assist ease some of the shame, placing the sample in a bag, such as a brown paper bag, and transporting it to the lab can help.
In a few days, you should contact your healthcare practitioner to find out the findings. A pathogen is discovered, and the test results are positive or “isolated,” it may be required to treat the patient. The type of bacteria that was discovered will determine the sort of therapy that is required. The majority of the time, only one type of bacteria will be present in the feces, but in other circumstances, there may be several pathogens present in the stool. If no pathogen is discovered, this is referred to as a result of negative or “not isolated,” and more tests (or a repeat stool culture) may be required to determine the source of the symptoms (or the stool culture may need to be repeated).
A Word From Verywell
In a few days, you should contact your healthcare practitioner to find out the outcome of your test. The presence of a pathogen is detected, and the test results are positive or “isolated,” therapy may be required. According on the type of bacteria that was discovered, different treatments will be necessary. When bacteria are present in the feces, they are almost often of a single variety; however, there may be several pathogens present in certain circumstances. Further testing (or a repeat stool culture) may be required to determine the source of the symptoms if no pathogen is discovered, which is referred to as a result of negative or “not isolated.”
- In a few days, you should contact your healthcare practitioner to get the findings. The presence of a pathogen is detected, and the test result is positive or “isolated,” therapy may be required. The type of bacteria that was discovered will determine the sort of therapy that will be required. The majority of the time, only one type of bacteria will be present in the feces, but in certain circumstances, there may be several pathogens present as well. If no pathogen is discovered, this is referred to as a result of negative or “not isolated.” Additional testing (or a repeat stool culture) may be required to determine the source of the symptoms.
How should I collect and store a poo (stool) sample?
You should do the following:
- Collect your poo (stool) sample in a container that has been well cleaned (sterilized)
- If you are unable to give it in immediately, place the container in the refrigerator in a sealed plastic bag.
Collecting a stool sample
Your primary care physician or another healthcare expert, such as a nurse, should be able to explain how to obtain a sample. It should be gathered in a screw-top container that is clean and dry. Your doctor or a member of the hospital’s staff will provide you with a plastic (specimen) container to use, but you are free to use any clean container as long as it is able to be sealed properly. Try not to collect pee (urine) or water from the toilet together with the feces, but don’t be concerned if you accidentally do.
The following steps must be taken in order to collect the sample:
- You should be instructed on how to collect the sample by your primary care physician or another healthcare expert such as a nurse. Clean, dry screw-top containers should be used for collection. Your doctor or a member of the hospital’s staff will provide you with a plastic (specimen) container to use, but you are free to use any clean container as long as it is able to seal properly. When using the toilet, try not to collect any pee (urine) or water, but do not be concerned if you do so. If you need to go to the bathroom, take care of that first before gathering the feces and dropping it. The following steps must be taken in order to collect the specimen:
Follow any additional directions that your doctor has provided you with.
Storing a stool sample
Other directions from your physician should be followed.
What are stool samples used for?
Your primary care physician or another healthcare expert may request a stool sample from you in order to diagnose or rule out a specific health issue. Bacteria and other chemicals found in the digestive system can be found in feces as well.
It is possible to determine what is going on in your digestive tract by evaluating the quantities of these compounds and bacteria in your feces. For example, the sample can be analyzed to aid in the diagnosis of the following conditions:
- Gastroenteritis is a common condition that causes diarrhoea and vomiting, and is usually caused by a bacterial or viral stomach bug
- Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) includes Crohn’s disease, which is an inflammation of the lining of the digestive system, and ulcerative colitis, which is an inflammation of the colon and rectum
- And other conditions.
Learn more about the operations, testing, and procedures that are performed.
- Explore the operations, tests and procedures that are available to you.
The page was last reviewed on August 27, 2019. The deadline for the next review is August 27, 2022.
More than 90% of cases of acute diarrhoea are caused by infectious agents1 that are spread by faecal-oral transmission, either through direct human contact or through the intake of contaminated food or water.1 It is critical to be familiar with the wide variety of infections that can cause infectious diarrhoeal syndromes (Tables 1–3) in order to effectively treat patients.
|Syndrome||Clinical features||Epidemiology||Typical pathogens|
|Watery diarrhoea||Loose, watery stools, no blood||Most common presentation|
- The following bacteria: Campylobacterspp
- The majority of viruses and parasites
|Bloody diarrhoea||Bloody stools, sometimes mucous or pusOften abdominal pain, fever, tenesmus||Less common|
- Escherichia coli (STEC), Shigellaspp., Campylobacterspp., Shigellaspp., Shigellaspp., Shigellaspp., Shigellaspp., Shigellaspp.
|Travellers’ diarrhoea||Loose, watery stools sometimes bloody||Visitors to developing tropical/semi-tropical countries|
- Bacteria that cause enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) and enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) include Campylobacterspp. 8 and Salmonellaspp., viruses and parasites, and other pathogens.
|Nosocomial diarrhoea||Spectrum of disease; mild diarrhoea, fulminant colitis, toxic megacolonHealthcare and antibiotic associated diarrhoea 9||Risk factors:|
|Diarrhoea in immunocompromised patients||Variable presentationCareful investigation required|
- Patients with HIV
- Recipients of solid organ and bone marrow transplants Patients with cancer who are undergoing chemotherapy
- Salmonellaspp., Shigellaspp., Campylobacterspp., Atypical mycobacteria 10
- Viruses and parasites 10
- Salmonellaspp., Shigellaspp., Campylobacterspp., Atypical mycobacteria 10
- Salmonellaspp., Shigellaspp., Campylobacterspp., Salmonellaspp., Shigellaspp., Salmonellaspp.,
|Pathogen||Major modes of transmission||Clinical features||Epidemiological features|
|Campylobacter jejuni||Food borne|
- Flu-like symptoms including fever and bloody diarrhoea are possible.
- It is a widespread infection
- It is associated with undercooked chicken and is a common cause of travellers’ diarrhoea.
- Undercooked chicken, eggs, and other animal products are frequently contaminated with this disease.
|Shigellaspp.||Person-to-personFood and water borne|
- Frequently severe diarrhoea, bloody stools, fever, and stomach discomfort are all symptoms.
- Human reservoir
- Low infectious inoculum
- Low infectious inoculum Cases of secondary infection are prevalent in homes
- The most severe illness is caused by S. dysenteriae, which is primarily seen in impoverished nations.
- Usually causes watery diarrhoea
- However, it can also cause fever and bloody diarrhoea, and it can mimic acute appendicitis.
- Animal reservoir (particularly pigs)
- Associated with the production of pork products
|Shiga-toxin producingE. coli(STEC), includesE. coli0157||Food borne|
- Symptoms include: watery diarrhoea, which can escalate to bloody diarrhoea
- A significant contributing factor to haemolytic uraemic syndrome
- Children and the elderly are particularly vulnerable.
- It is found in cattle as a reservoir
- It is associated with undercooked meat (particularly ground beef)
- Associated with shellfish and other seafood (especially prominent throughout the summer months)
- Symptoms include watery diarrhoea, bloody feces, and fever. Symptoms of severe illness are present in patients with liver disease and cancer.
- There may be blood in the feces
- Diarrhoea that is watery
- Symptoms of severe illness are present in patients with liver disease and cancer
- Acute watery diarrhoea, bloody diarrhoea, and persistent diarrhoea are all possible symptoms. Symptoms of severe illness are present in patients with liver disease and cancer.
|SalmonellaentericaserovarsTyphi andParatyphi||Food and water borne|
- Symptoms of systemic toxicity include stomach pain, fever with or without diarrhoea, and bacteraemia.
- Travelers visiting underdeveloped nations are the majority of the population. Food and water that have been contaminated
- Reservoir of human resources
|Clostridium difficile||Bacteria and spores in the hospital environment (eg. the hands of staff, fomites including benchtops and surfaces)|
- Diarrhoea is generally watery but can be bloody
- The disease has a wide range of symptoms. It is possible to develop a toxic megacolon, perforation, and death.
- The most prevalent cause of healthcare-associated diarrhoea and antibiotic-associated diarrhea is 9
- Community-acquired disease (CAD) is being more recognized.
Indications for testing
The majority of episodes of acute diarrhoea are mild and self-limiting, necessitating no further evaluation or treatment. Returning travelers, patients with diarrhoea that has continued for more than 4–5 days, patients with bloody stools, immunocompromised patients, and situations where there is suspicion of an epidemic of enteric disease are all candidates for investigation, regardless of the severity of their illness. Admission to the hospital is typically only necessary in the case of severe dehydration, severe toxaemia, recurrent vomiting, or severe stomach discomfort, among other things.
Before obtaining a stool culture, it is critical to conduct a comprehensive clinical history and examination. There are a number of nonbacterial causes of diarrhoea that should be explored in the differential diagnosis, including viral and parasite infections. When it comes to viruses, children are more susceptible (especially to rotavirus and adenovirus). Viruses are normally self-limiting in nature. Norovirus is also a common cause of community-acquired diarrhoea, according to the CDC. For the identification of viruses in the feces, nucleic acid amplification tests or antigen detection assays are available; however, they are seldom used in the outpatient context because of the high cost.
- travel, immunocompromised host).
- It is becoming widely recognized that Clostridium difficile is a source of community-acquired diarrhoea.
- 3 Should a stool specimen be submitted for culture and/or antigen screening when C.
- A condition known as “food poisoning” happens when a person consumes pre-formed bacterial toxins that have been present in food.
What should I tell my patient about the test?
Collected feces specimens should be loose or unformed, as many laboratories will not handle stool specimens that have been formed during the collecting procedure. Stool specimens are recommended over rectal swabs as a source of information. The patient should empty his or her feces into a clean, dry pan or a container that is attached to the toilet. Afterwards, 5 mL of diarrhoeal stool or 1–2 cubic centimetres of faeces should be collected and placed into an airtight container with a screw-top cover.
Because of the possibility of faecal-oral transmission of infections, it is essential to practice thorough hand hygiene after collecting and handling feces specimens.
It is never recommended to freeze stool specimens.
Some laboratories may reject specimens if they are received more than 2 hours after they were collected and have not been transported via a transport medium. Delays in the processing of specimens can have a negative impact on the recovery of certain bacteria, such as the Shigellaspecies of bacteria.
Timing of the test
Collection of specimens: Stool specimens submitted for testing should be loose or unformed, as many laboratories will not treat formed feces. Over rectal swabs, stool samples are preferable for study. The stool should be passed into a clean, dry pan or a container that is installed on the toilet. Transferring 5 mL of diarrhoeal feces or 1–2 cubic centimetres of faeces into a sterile container with a screw-top cover is the next step. To avoid contamination with urine or toilet paper, extreme caution should be exercised during collection and transportation, and the specimen should be transported as soon as possible to the laboratory.
It is recommended that specimens be stored at 4°C in a dedicated refrigerator in cases where transit delays are anticipated or are typical (for example, in rural regions).
To assist in maintaining the viability of pathogens, specimen jars containing a transport medium such as Cary-Blair can be utilized.
If you wait too long to process your specimens, you may have a hard time getting back some bacteria, such as the Shigellaspecies.
Medicare eligibility and/or costs for the patient
Patients who are qualified for Medicare Benefits Schedule coverage will have no out-of-pocket expenses for faecal microscopy and culture, pathogen identification, and susceptibility testing (a single examination during a seven-day period) (MBS).
How does the test work?
When the specimen is received at the laboratory, it is examined for consistency and the presence of blood or mucus on the surface of the specimen. After that, microscopy is used to check for erythrocytes and leucocytes, as well as for eggs, cysts, and parasites, among other things. If a parasitic illness is suspected, a complete investigation for eggs, cysts, and parasites should be ordered specifically, since the laboratory must treat these specimens using particular procedures to ensure that no parasites are present.
- Lactoferrin is an iron-binding glycoprotein present in the granules of leucocytes that is used to detect the presence of leucocytes in the feces.
- The term “selective and differential media” refers to media that are employed for the isolation and preliminary identification of certain organisms, respectively.
- Salmonella, Shigella, and Campylobacter species are frequently cultured in laboratories for identification.
- coli that produces Shiga toxin and Clostridium difficile, necessitates the use of specialized laboratory procedures.
Salmonellaisolates are sent to a reference laboratory for serotyping in order to protect the public’s health from infection.
What do the results mean?
Stool culture is used to determine the presence of any potentially pathogenic organisms in a sample.
What won’t it tell you?
The identification of the majority of bacterial infections may typically be accomplished with a single specimen. The submission of a second specimen, on the other hand, has been demonstrated to boost the overall sensitivity of the test by around 20%. Five consecutive specimens have been found to be adequate for the detection of 99 percent of bacterial agents in the laboratory. 6 Because of this, the test cannot distinguish between colonisation (i.e., asymptomatic carrying) and illness. Some bacteria, such as Clostridium difficile and Salmonella species, are capable of causing asymptomatic carriage.
Because most infections (e.g., Campylobacter) exhibit predicted susceptibility profiles to antibiotics, the findings of antibiotic susceptibility tests are not typically published.
What are the common next steps if the test is positive?
The majority of bouts of bacterial diarrhoea are self-limiting, and the majority of treatment is supportive in nature. The use of antibiotics to treat bacterial diarrhoea is a topic that has generated a great deal of discussion and is beyond the scope of this article. However, a positive stool culture does not necessitate the use of antibiotics; good recommendations for the diagnosis and management of infectious diarrhoea are available on the website of the Infectious Diseases Society of America ().
In many jurisdictions, specific enteric pathogens that cause diarrhoea must be reported to the appropriate public health authorities.
In the laboratory report, the requirement to notify an infection should be indicated at the conclusion of the report.
What if the result is negative?
After a negative stool culture is obtained and the diarrhoea persists, consideration should be given to clinical re-evaluation and/or further investigations for nonbacterial (e.g. parasites, viruses) and noninfectious (e.g. gastrointestinal parasites) causes of diarrhoea (eg. inflammatory bowel disease or adverse effects of medication). This may involve stool examination for eggs, cysts, and parasites, antigen detection tests, nucleic acid amplification tests, blood tests (e.g., a full blood count including peripheral blood eosinophilia, parasite serology, serum chemistry), and endoscopy, among other procedures.
A consultation with a clinical microbiologist or an infectious diseases specialist may be required in instances when an infectious etiology is suspected but normal laboratory testing fails to identify a culprit. This is especially true when contemplating additional testing or empirical therapy.
Special features of the test
After a negative stool culture is obtained and the diarrhoea persists, consideration should be given to clinical re-evaluation and/or further investigations for nonbacterial (e.g. parasites, viruses) and noninfectious (e.g. gastrointestinal worms) causes of diarrhoea (eg. inflammatory bowel disease or adverse effects of medication). This may involve stool examination for eggs, cysts, and parasites, antigen detection tests, nucleic acid amplification assays, blood tests (e.g., a full blood count including peripheral blood eosinophilia, parasite serology, serum chemistry), and endoscopy, among other things.
Reporting of results
Figure 1 is an example of a laboratory report for illustration. Illustration of a laboratory report (Figure 1).
During the examination of a patient with suspected infectious diarrhoea, stool culture is a crucial component of the inquiry. It is crucial to have a thorough grasp of the most prevalent infections and to recognize that providing proper clinical information to the laboratory is critical in order to guarantee that the right stool testing is conducted when dealing with these pathogens. Declaration: Christopher Heath has served on the Antifungal Advisory Boards of Gilead Sciences Inc (Australia), Merck SharpDohme (Australia), Pfizer, and Schering Plough, and has received reimbursement for expenses incurred while attending IDSA and ICCAC meetings from both Merck and Pfizer, among other companies.
The investigation of a patient with suspected infectious diarrhoea is greatly aided by the use of stool culture. It is crucial to have a thorough grasp of the most frequent infections and to recognize that providing the laboratory with relevant clinical information is critical in ensuring that the right stool testing is conducted. Declaration: He has served on the antifungal advisory boards of Gilead Sciences Inc (Australia), Merck SharpDohme (Australia), Pfizer, and Schering Plough. He has received reimbursement for travel expenses to IDSA and ICCAC events on behalf of both Merck and Pfizer in the past.
A stool test checks the contents of the feces (poop). In order to diagnose issues with the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, stool tests are performed on the patient. A stool test may be performed to check for the following conditions:
- A stool test checks the contents of the bowel movement (poop). In order to diagnose issues with the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, stool tests are performed in the laboratory. In order to rule out the following conditions, a stool test may be performed.
Colorectal cancer screening involves the use of stool tests to check for bleeding within the gastrointestinal system. Learn more about the importance of colorectal cancer screening. Stool tests are available in a variety of formats. The sort of stool test that is performed is determined by the reason for the test and the results that the doctor is searching for.
- Colorectal cancer screening involves the use of stool tests to examine for signs of bleeding inside the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract). Learn more about colorectal cancer screening and how it may help you. In terms of stool testing, there are a number of options. The sort of stool test that is performed is determined by the reason for the test as well as the results that the doctor seeks.
Typically, a stool sample is taken at the patient’s residence.
When collecting and storing the stool sample, make sure you use latex gloves and follow your doctor’s recommendations. Stool collection can be accomplished using a variety of means, including:
- A hat-shaped plastic container that is put over the toilet bowl is used. using plastic wrap to cover the toilet bowl in a loose manner making a diaper liner out of plastic wrap (for babies or little children)
if the urine (pee) is mixed with the feces or if the stool comes into contact with the inside wall of the toilet bowl, a second sample will need to be obtained At the lab, the stool sample will be examined under a microscope to determine its composition. Normal stool is typically brown in color, soft in texture, and well-formed in consistency. It does not include any blood, mucus, pus, or microorganisms that are hazardous. A variety of factors can contribute to abnormal findings from various types of testing, including:
- Peptic ulcers are caused by a variety of factors, including infection, parasites, digestive conditions, and the use of aspirin or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Hemorrhoids are enlarged, swollen veins that can occur inside or outside of the anus. Polyps are growths that can form on the colon or rectum. Anal fissures are thin tears in the lining of the anus.
Peptic ulcers are caused by a variety of factors, including infection, parasites, digestive conditions, and the use of aspirin or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Hemorrhoids (enlarged, swollen veins inside or outside of the anus); polyps (growths attached to the colon or rectum); anal fissures (thin tears in the lining of the anus); cancer; and use of aspirin or nonsteroidal anti-
- Fischbach FT, Fischbach MA. Fischbach FT, Fischbach MA. Fischbach’s A Manual of Laboratory and Diagnostic Tests is a reference book for laboratory and diagnostic tests. Wolters Kluwer, 10th edition, 2018
- Wilkes is the general manager. Cancers of the colon, rectal, and anal tissues. Yarbro CH, Wujcki D, Holmes Gobel B, Yarbro CH, Yarbro CH (eds.). Cancer Nursing: Principles and Practice, 8th ed., is a textbook for cancer nurses. Jones and Bartlett Learning, Burlington, Massachusetts
- 2018: 51: 1423 – 1485
How long does it take to get results from a stool culture?
A stool culture is performed in order to identify any bacteria, viruses, parasites, or fungus that may be causing an illness in the patient. The results of a stool culture test are normally available in 2 to 3 days. However, certain cultures for fungi and parasites may take many weeks to provide findings. 3 to 4 days is a reasonable estimate. Second, what does a stool culture test reveal about a person’s health? This test is used to detect and identify bacteria that are responsible for illnesses of the lower digestive system.
In a similar vein, the question is posed, “What can you tell from a stool sample?” When a stool (feces) sample is collected, a set of tests is performed on the sample to assist in the diagnosis of specific digestive system diseases.
What is the maximum amount of time a stool sample may be maintained at room temperature?
Frozen feces samples can be used for testing for up to many months after they have been frozen.