- 1 African Diaspora Cultures
- 2 The African Diaspora-What is it?
- 3 The African Diaspora and Its Influence on African Development
- 4 Research Guides: African Diaspora in the Americas and the Caribbean: Resistance, Culture and Survival: Getting Started
- 5 African Diaspora: A Global Impact
- 6 Facts and Information on African Diaspora
- 7 African Diaspora in the Americas
- 8 The Enslavement of Africans and The Origins of the African Diaspora in the Americas
- 9 Keywords
- 10 References
- 11 Copyright information
- 12 Authors and Affiliations
- 13 The African Diaspora’s Role on The Continent
African Diaspora Cultures
Many people are unfamiliar with the phrase “African Diaspora.” Neither in conversation nor in writing, it is a term we hear very often. When individuals from Africa were forced to flee their homes as a result of the Transatlantic Slave Trade, they were referred to as “African Diaspora,” which is a word widely used to characterize the large-scale dispersion of peoples from Africa during the 1500s and 1800s. This Diaspora transported millions of individuals from Western and Central Africa to various locations throughout the Americas and the Caribbean.
The broad pattern of a plant-based, colorful diet consisting of vegetables, fruits, tubers and grains, nuts, healthful oils, and fish (when accessible) was shared by all four areas, but their cultural differences should be acknowledged and cherished.
Here is a quick summary of the four healthy regional diets of African Heritage, which are divided into four categories.
The ancient cuisine of Central and Western Africa was frequently built on robust vegetable soups and stews that were infused with spices and fragrances and served on top of cooked and mashed tubers or grains.
- Traditional meals in the Horn of Africa, which includes Ethiopia and Somalia, are focused on flat breads such as injera (made from teff, sorghum, or whole wheat) and beans cooked with spices, such as lentils, fava beans, and chickpeas.
- In Africa, couscous, sorghum, millet, and rice were eaten as the basis of meals, as porridges, and as side dishes to accompany meat and poultry.
- Beans were consumed in large quantities around the world, particularly black-eyed peas, which were commonly crushed into a powder and used to make delicious bean pastes that were then fried as fritters.
- In the traditional African American diet, the majority of items came directly from the garden.
- Pickling vegetables was a common method of preserving food in the past; pickled beets, radish, cabbage, carrots, and cucumbers were all popular, and the list goes on and on.
- Oysters, crabs, shrimp, sweet potatoes, Hoppin’ John, and rice are all staples of traditional Low Country cookery, which originates on the coasts of South Carolina and Georgia.
- In the Caribbean, there are around 23 million individuals of African heritage living.
Despite the fact that the island was surrounded by water, traditional African-Caribbean meals comprised a range of fish dishes like salted cod and conch; tropical fruits such as papaya or guava; and rice and peas dishes, which were often made with pigeon peas or red beans.
Roti is a popular flatbread in the southern Caribbean that is primarily made from whole wheat flour and can be filled with curried vegetables and shrimp, or bean dishes, and served as a warm, soft roll-up.
The Afro-South American population is growing.
These recipes are influenced by the same African heritage as those served in other parts of the world, including soups and stews, as well as rice and beans, and tubers such as cassava and yucca.
Red snapper, avocado, cilantro, and tapioca are just a handful of the ingredients that are popular.
Moqueca Baiana is a classic meal from Brazil that is quite popular. It is a seafood stew with strong African origins that is created using palm oil, coconut milk, shrimp and crab, onions, garlic, peppers, tomatoes, and cilantro as well as other ingredients like cilantro.
The African Diaspora-What is it?
Movements of the Atlantic Slave Trade on a Map The African diaspora has a population of 140 million people, but the continent of Africa has a population of 1.2 billion people. Brazil, Colombia, America, the Dominican Republic, and Haiti are the nations with the highest concentrations of African diaspora residents. Due to the fact that their ancestors came from comparable locations in Africa and suffered similar circumstances, including slavery and colonization, there is a sense of community among descendants of slaves in the African Diaspora.
- African history did not begin with slavery, and the continent’s contributions to the creation of mathematics, astronomy, medicine, architecture, philosophy, civilisation, and other fields are often disregarded in the Western world.
- Throughout Africa, you will find a vast range of countries and civilizations, each with its own distinct history.
- What is now Ethiopia and Eritrea was once ruled by the Axum Empire, which was a powerful force in the region.
- During its existence in what is now southern Nigeria, the Benin Kingdom made substantial contributions to the fields of techonolo- gy, architecture, science, art, administration, town-planning, astronomy, and many other fields.
- This is referred to as the 25th Dynasty of Egypt, and it was a period of renaissance in Egypt that was highly significant.
The African Diaspora and Its Influence on African Development
|Pamela E. Bridgewater,Deputy Assistant Secretary for African AffairsRemarks at Kentucky State UniversityFrankfort, KentuckyMarch 28, 2003I am very pleased that the organizer of the Southern Interdisciplinary Roundtable on African Studies asked me to join you this evening to share some thoughts with you on the African Diaspora and to discuss how it can contribute to African Development.African Heritage in the Americas:Empowerment for African Descendents in the 21st Century Before I begin, I would like to recognize the professor and the other distinguished individuals who are with us this evening. I also want to thank Dr. Ayiuninjam and Dr. Amadife for the very warm hospitality they have extended to me.Most simply, the Diaspora is made up of those who are descended from Africa at some point in their or their family�s history. There are now nearly 800 million Africans on the continent and perhaps up to another 100 million persons of African descent living in other parts of world, most in the United States but with significant communities in Brazil, the Caribbean, Canada, and parts of Western Europe.There are now roughly 35 million citizens of African descent in the U.S. with a collective purchasing power of about $450 billion per annum – a sum that if represented by a single country would make it one of the 15 largest economies in the world.African immigrants to this country, an increasingly important part of the Diaspora, boast some of the highest educational attainments of any immigrant group and there are now more than 250,000 scientists and physicians of African descent in the United States.As a country, our human, economic, moral and strategic ties to Africa are strong and growing. In 2002, U.S.-African trade totaled approximately $24 billion, and the United States is Africa�s largest single market. The United States is both the leading foreign investor and the largest bilateral aid donor to Africa, providing more than $ 2 billion in overall development, humanitarian and security assistance this past year.A large proportion of the over $3 billion in remittances that Africa receives from the Diaspora each year originates in this country. Most important for the future, over 30,000 Africans are studying in the United States today.In addition, to help free the enormous potential of the 800 million men and women living on the African continent, the United States is engaged in scores of education programs throughout the continent itself through the United States Agency for International Development and the Peace Corps. And marvelous work is also being done by foundations, by American colleges, including our Historically Black Colleges and Universities, and of course by U.S.-based NGOS like Africare.Of course, it was not always like this.Africans first came to this continent over 350 years ago. They were the first wave of luckless sons and daughters of Africa compelled into bondage. They landed in the Americas in order to fulfill the dreams of others.For African American descendents of this first wave of the African Diaspora like myself, we feel a deep gratitude toward the generations that came before us. As Colin Powell has said:�In all that we are, in all that we do, we draw deeply from the wells of strength, courage and faith of those who went before us – our parents and grandparents,the relatives we know through family stories passed down the generations. And the countless souls known but to God whose time on earth is recorded in plantation ledgers or as nameless, numbered cargo on ship manifests.�Just as we have mourned the millions of our ancestors that perished and suffered from the horrors of slavery, we today mourn the millions of Africans who have died in internal conflicts – Congo, Sudan, the Great Lakes region and in west Africa. As the Secretary of State has said in reference to those who have perished in Africa�s internal conflicts, �We will never know the gifts that they may have brought to Africa and the gifts they may have given to all of humanity.�Now and for the past generation, there has been a second more hopeful wave of the Diaspora. These Africans have come to this country and others in the west willingly – often the sons and daughters of the most educated and affluent segments of African society – the doctors, the lawyers, the university professors who freely immigrated and still immigrate to the United States.This second wave of the Diaspora has come to the United States to fulfill their dreams – not those of the slave trader or plantation owner. But too often, they have come here because they felt their dreams could not be fulfilled at home in Africa – due to the strife, corruption and misrule that has marked too much of Africa�s post-colonial history.While the second wave of the Diaspora represents the fulfillment of many individuals� dreams for greater prosperity and freedom, the magnitude of the exodus of Africa�s best from the continent in many ways marks a failure of governance on the African continent.At a time when African governments are desperately seeking technical skills from agronomy to economics to health care, we estimate that more than 20,000 African professionals leave Africa every year to settle in the West. More than 40,000 Africans with a Ph.D. work out of Africa, and for every 100 professionals sent overseas for training from Africa between 1982 and 1997, only 65 returned to Africa. At the same time, one estimate suggests that more than 100,000 expatriates are employed in Africa at a cost of $4 billion each year to offset the annual migration from Africa by its own skilled professionals.This situation marks a significant roadblock to sustainable economic growth and development in Africa. At a time when Africa desperately needs human as well as financial capital, too many of Africa�s best and brightest are leaving.I recognize that there are �pull� as well as �push� factors, but governments are not helpless in these circumstances. In the case of India, with more open trade and investment opportunities, the benefits of India�s enormous human capital are flowing both ways across the oceans in a vibrant and growing high technology trade and investment relationship with the United States. Inspired by a vigorous democracy and a vibrant economy growing numbers of Koreans have began to voluntarily repatriate to their homeland while even more no longer feel it necessary to leave their native land to enjoy the benefits of freedom and prosperity.It will take time, many years in fact, but in order to develop, African governments must develop a credible strategy for progress in many of the areas that led the recent wave of the African Diaspora to leave their home countries in the first place.Governments also need to address rational economic development that gives expatriates the chance to pursue their chosen field and engage in political life without undue hindrance and in an atmosphere of tolerance and physical security. For those who have not chosen to return home, they will never be motivated to contribute their energies to this effort unless African governments create the type of country they would like to return to.Those of us who care deeply about Africa, and want to see her people thrive, must also do whatever we can to ensure the success of political and economic reform, to work to bring peace to war-torn regions. We must join the fight against HIV/AIDS and the other infectious diseases that are decimating Africa�s most precious resource: her people.For the Diaspora to make a difference in Africa�s development, individuals must decide to become informed of the overall issues facing the continent and engage in promoting deeper U.S. African ties across the board, in advocating reform within Africa itself and in becoming involved at an individual level with self-help, city to city and other small scale initiates that have an immediate impact in improving people�s lives.I would suggest that because so much of African brainpower is residing outside the continent, the intellectuals, the doctors, lawyers and businesspeople have a special responsibility to work constructively with Africa�s governments and its people so that in a knowledge-based world economy, Africa is not left behind.For their part, African governments need to realize that their expatriate communities and the African Diaspora at large is a strategic asset for their development, one that holds enormous stores of know-how, capital and good will.In recent years, Africa has been encouraged to move in this direction by major donor countries which have seen first hand the paradox of African talent being exercised so productively within their own borders while efforts to promote economic development within in Africa itself founder.I am glad to note that one symbolic step has already been taken in this direction with the declaration of the Diaspora as Africa�s �sixth region� by the newly formed African Union at its February meeting in Addis Ababa.In addition, recognizing that so much of Africa�s brainpower is found �off-shore� the New Partnership for Africa�s Development (NEPAD) has made a start in bringing these resources to bear on Africa�s development. This past month, following a meeting at the NEPAD Secretariat in South Africa, NEPAD formally engaged with the Constituency for Africa through a memorandum of understanding to develop the bonds between NEPAD and the Diaspora that will help promote Africa�s development.Let me add that the United States government has welcomed NEPAD�s endorsement of sound principles for development; good governance, including a mechanism for peer review, democracy, and the promotion of greater private trade and investment flows. We hope that NEPAD emerges as an effective champion for reform.I want to leave you with a vision and a challenge.The vision is that of an African continent 20 or even 30 years from now, at least in our children�s lifetime – of vibrant democracies and economies thriving in global markets, a continent of countries at peace within their own borders and at peace with their neighbors.The vision is of a continent where for the first time the majority of the people have access to decent schools and medical facilities, to safe drinking water, to good roads and railways, to electricity and to the Internet. That Africa is within this generation�s reach and we in the African Diaspora should do all that we can to see that this vision becomes a reality.The challenge for the African Diaspora, including the men and women in this room, is to engage in a constructive dialogue at the intellectual level – to learn about Africa and what is going on there and then to bring your knowledge and experience to bear on the great debates going on in our think tanks, the halls of Congress, and in the community at large on African development and what our government as well as the community at large can do to promote Africa�s development.But more importantly, I challenge you to become involved in whatever your field of expertise is in direct people to people activities, be they sister city relationships, academic exchanges or working with an individual community in Africa to help it confront and welcome its development challenges.To give you an example of what I am talking about, I recently met with a representative of the Association of Scientists and Physicians of African Descent (ASPAD). Made up of health professionals in the U.S., Canada and Europe, the ASPAD president said the organization could no longer �simply sit on the sideline and wring our hands like helpless on-lookers while the health problems that plague the African continent continue to escalate.�Instead, the ASPAD has organized teams of health professionals to go to Africa and bring to bear their professional talents and their knowledge both of the continent to address specific health problems, two examples of their work the appallingly high incidence of blindness in northern Nigeria and the to contribute to the wider fight against HIV/AIDS.I applaud these kinds of initiatives and hope that they will multiply. This level of engagement will make a difference in the lives of Africans and can make you a dedicated emissary for Africa in this country. A knowledgeable and experienced emissary – one who can effectively make the case for Africa, make the human connections, building the trust one person at a time, helping decision makers understand what is needed by the people and the villages and the townships who will never be able to hire a lobbyist, host a reception or contribute to a campaign.Like the ASPAD, Africare, and the Constituency for Africa, there are many organizations out there that have already begun this work. The power of the global marketplace is the world�s biggest bootstrap – and our community the Diaspora needs to take full advantage of its growing role in that marketplace to benefit Africa and speed its integration into the world economy.Whatever the institutional arrangement, what counts is the commitment and involvement of each one of you.|
Research Guides: African Diaspora in the Americas and the Caribbean: Resistance, Culture and Survival: Getting Started
The following is taken from the ICD’s “Experience Africa” program: During the Transatlantic Slave Trade, the first wave of forced African migrations began to take place (16th-19th century). Europeans seized or purchased African slaves, especially from West Africa, and transported them to Europe, and eventually to South and North America, where they remained until the 19th century. The number of Africans that were sent over the Atlantic is believed to be in the neighborhood of twelve million. As a result of this population movement, the establishment of the first African community outside of Africa may be said to have been established with the aid of immigration.
Despite the fact that many Africans were deported out of Africa during this time period, the sense of belonging to a community, namely the African community, did not go away.
The transatlantic slave trade was primarily responsible for the establishment of a sizable community of African origins on the American continent, particularly in the United States and Brazil.
This diaspora is considered to be part of the first wave of migration, and it is sometimes referred to as the historical diaspora because of its historical significance.
African Diaspora: A Global Impact
What is the African diaspora, and how does it differ from the African diaspora? The African diaspora is comprised of about 170 million individuals of African heritage who live all over the world and are of African descent. The African diaspora may be found on all continents, with about 39 million people in North America and 113 million in Latin America, among other places. 14 million people live in the Caribbean, while 4 million people live in Europe. People of the African diaspora have a variety of ties to their homelands in Africa, as well as a variety of stories about how they arrived in their present locations.
- The link between the African diaspora and Africa A small number of individuals of the African diaspora were born in Africa and have since left the continent in order to seek education and career possibilities in other nations outside of the continent.
- Ten to fifteen million Africans were captured and spread over the Americas, the Caribbean and Latin America during the Transatlantic slave trade, according to current estimates.
- To mark the 400th anniversary of the arrival of African slaves in the United States, Ghana’s president, Nana Akufo-Addo, named 2019 the Year of Return in his country.
- Over the course of a year, more than 300,000 more individuals came to Ghana than in previous years, taking part in festivals, seminars, and other events around the country.
- The African diaspora is having an influence all over the world.
- In music, food, art, athletics, architecture, science, business, and agriculture, to name a few of the fields in which the effect and influence of Africa and the African Diaspora can be observed, the impact and influence of Africa and the African Diaspora can be seen.
Due to the advent of the internet, the globe is becoming smaller, and the African continent, as well as the African Diaspora, is becoming stronger and more influential, the effect of Africa on business and culture will continue to grow.
Facts and Information on African Diaspora
According to certain interpretations, Africa was the cradle of all human civilization. Whether it is true or not, individuals from Africa have traveled to new locations throughout history, have been transferred without their consent, and even now, there are a large number of people who are transferring for new lives in other parts of the globe. There are now African communities all across the world, including the United States. The diaspora includes people who have lived in Africa for decades and are now contributing to the expansion of their cultural legacy in an ever-increasing number of regions.
- The African diaspora is represented in nations such as Spain (690,291 Africans), Germany (817150 Africans), Mexico (1,386,556 Africans), Peru (1,200,000 Africans), and nearly all other countries.
- When we look at the African Union, we realize that the true African Diaspora comprises individuals from Africa who live in countries other than their home country.
- The most of the time, they are devoted to the development of African towns and other underdeveloped places around the continent.
- Most of the African diaspora population originated in the Americas and Europe, and then spread to Asia, as recorded in historical records.
- Scholars think that this was the genesis of the notion of the African diaspora, which emerged between the 16th and 19th centuries and spread throughout the world.
- Large populations of Africans came to populate these areas as a result of the vast magnitude of the slave trade.
- As a result, following generations have continued to reside in these areas and refer to them as “home.” The consequences of the Atlantic slave trade may be seen in other parts of the world as well.
Fortunately, they have preserved and passed down many of their customs as a means of preserving their cultural history and identity.
The beginning of the African Diaspora may be traced back to a number of factors, the most prominent of which is economic.
People were literally selling human people (Africans) for a variety of purposes, including as a labor, for pleasure, and a plethora of other reasons.
After witnessing the consequences of slavery and realizing how profitable it had become, Europeans began to trade slaves by transporting West Africans to the Americas and Europe.
Fortunately, Africans were able to survive these difficult times and have since multiplied on their own, in various areas, over the course of history.
They began to learn about the way of life via their contact with slaves throughout the slave era.
As a result, local men and women became acquainted with one another and began their families together, rearing their newborn children in the new territories.
First and foremost, they must begin inside their own communities.
The number of new families who have migrated to locations all over the world in search of a better life and new possibilities continues to grow.
People of African heritage can be found all over the world, even if they do not identify themselves as being of African descent in the traditional sense.
There are first and second generation Africans living in the United States who have just migrated with their immediate families, whether they are themselves or their parents.
Similarly, there are some Africans who have lived in these new areas for so many generations that they have developed a stronger attachment to the local culture than to their homelands.
In fact, when asked where they call home, the vast majority of Africans would swiftly respond with the nation of their origin in Africa as their first choice.
The people of Africa have transformed their unfavorable circumstance into one of fresh possibility by drawing on their tragic past. Because of the continued growth of the African Diaspora, these symbols of national pride will be found in even more places across the world.
African Diaspora in the Americas
The Enslavement of Africans and The Origins of the African Diaspora in the Americas
The history of the Atlantic slave trade and the enslavement of Africans and their descendants can serve as a convenient point of departure in tracing the history of the African diaspora in the Americas, but this history does not experientially exhaust the practical politics and social pursuits, nor the quest for existential meanings, in what has become, by now, a multinational, transnational, and heterogeneous social formation in the postcolonial, postmodern era.
Enslaved Africans who had previously lived in the Iberian Peninsula were most likely transported to the Caribbean as early as 1493 on Columbus’ second journey to the New World, according to historical evidence.
Enslaved Africans were transported immediately to the New World, the Caribbean, and Brazil, at the same time as the beginning of what would become known as the Sugar Revolution in the Americas.
Descent from African ancestors Gender Stereotypes Slave Trade is a term used to describe the trade of slaves. Tradition in the country African Diaspora (also known as African Diaspora) These keywords were not added by the writers, but rather by a computer program. Considering that this is an experimental procedure, the keywords may be modified as the learning algorithm becomes more refined.
- Alleyne, M. C. Alleyne, M. C. (1985). From the standpoint of linguistics, the Caribbean In S. W. Mintz and S. Price (Eds. ), Caribbean outlines (pp. 155–79), the Caribbean is described as follows: The Johns Hopkins University Press is located in Baltimore. A search on Google Scholar turns up Andrews, G. R. (1992). A statistical comparison of racial disparity in Brazil and the United States. Journal of Social History, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 229–263, 2002. Anstey, R. (Google Scholar)
- Anstey, R. (1976). A reflection on the history of the British slave trade from 1751 to 1807. Journal of African History, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 606–607. CrossRef Google Scholar
- R. Blackburn’s website
- (1997). From the baroque through the modern era, 1492–1800, the development of New World slavery is traced. Verso, a publishing house in London. Internet Archive
- Browning, B.Infectious rhythm: Metaphors of contagion and the dissemination of African culture (Google Scholar)
- The Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy. New York: Routledge. Google Scholar
- Burdick, J. (July 2004). (1992a). The myth of racial democracy has been debunked. Report on the Americas, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 40–44. Google Scholar
- Burdick, J. (July 2004). (1992b). Black awareness is being promoted in Brazil. Report on the Americas, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 23–27. Carney, J. A. (Google Scholar)
- Carney, J. A. (2001). The African origins of rice production in the Americas are represented by the term “black rice.” Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Cobb, M. (Google Scholar)
- Cobb, M. (1979). A comparative critical analysis of Langston Hughes, Jacques Roumain, and Nicolás Guillén’s works set in Harlem, Haiti, and Havana. Three Continents Press, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
- Coppin, A., and Olsen, R. N. Washington, DC: Three Continents Press (1998). In Trinidad & Tobago, earnings are correlated with ethnicity. Journal of Development Studies, volume 34, number 3, pages 116–134. CrossRef Costa, E. V. da
- Google Scholar
- Costa, E. V. da (1994). The slave revolt in Demerara in 1823 was marked by crowns of glory and tears of blood. Oxford University Press is based in New York. M. Craton’s Google Scholar page
- Craton, M. (1982). Slavery in the British West Indies was put to the test, and the results were dramatic. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York. Crook, L., and Johnson, R. (Google Scholar)
- (Eds.). (1999). Black Brazil’s culture, identity, and social activism are explored in this book. The Latin American Center Publications of the University of California at Los Angeles are located in Los Angeles. Google Scholar
- P. D. Curtin, P. D. Curtin (1969). A census of the slave trade in the Atlantic. The University of Wisconsin Press is located in Madison. Google Scholar
- P. D. Curtin, P. D. Curtin (1976). A remark on the measurement of the Atlantic slave trade once more. Journal of African History, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 595–605. CrossRef Google Scholar
- Curto, J. C., and Lovejoy, P. E. (Eds.) (Google Scholar)
- (2004). Changing civilizations between Africa and Brazil throughout the age of slavery: the enslaving links between the two continents. Humanity Books, based in Amherst, New York. Davis, E. J. (Google Scholar)
- Davis, E J. (1991). Who is a black person according to one nation’s definition. The Pennsylvania State University Press is located in University Park. A. de la Fuente’s Google Scholar page
- De la Fuente, A. (2001). Race, inequality, and politics in twentieth-century Cuba: A nation for all. The University of North Carolina Press is located in Chapel Hill. Dubois, L. (Google Scholar)
- Dubois, L. (2004). The account of the Haitian Revolution, as told by the Avengers of the New World. The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press is located in Cambridge, Massachusetts. W. E. B. Du Bois, W. E. B. Google Scholar
- Du Bois, W. E. B. (1939). ‘Black Folk: Then and Now’ is a historical and sociological study of the Negro race. ‘Henry Holt and Company’ published in New York. B. H. Edwards’s Google Scholar page (2003). Literary translation and the growth of Black internationalism are all examples of how diaspora is practiced today. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Eltis, D. (Google Scholar)
- Eltis, D. (2001) Review of the Transatlantic Slave Trade’s magnitude and organizational structure. The William and Mary Quarterly, volume 58, number 1, pages 17–46. CrossRef Fernández Olmos and L. Paravisini-Gebert (eds.) (Fernández Olmos and L. Paravisini-Gebert) (Google Scholar)
- (2001). Restorative arts and religions in the Caribbean and its diaspora: The role of art and religion in curative practices. The St. Martin’s Press, New York, 2001, is the publisher. Fick, C. E. (Google Scholar)
- Fick, C. E. (1990). Creating Haiti: The Saint Domingue Revolution as seen from the bottom up The University of Tennessee Press is located in Knoxville. Google Scholar
- Frazier, E. E.
- (1939). In the United States, there is a Negro family. The University of Chicago Press is located in Chicago. Geggus, D. P. (Google Scholar)
- Geggus, D. P. (Ed.). (2001). The ramifications of the Haitian Revolution throughout the Atlantic region. The University of South Carolina Press is located in Columbia, South Carolina. Geggus, D. P. (Google Scholar)
- Geggus, D. P. (2002). Haitian Revolutionary Studies is a scholarly journal that publishes original research on the Haitian Revolution. Indiana University Press is based in Bloomington, Indiana. Google Scholar
- Gilroy, P. (1993), The black Atlantic: Modernity and Double Consciousness, New York: Columbia University Press. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Gomez, M. A. (Google Scholar)
- Gomez, M. A. (1998). African identities in the colonial and antebellum South were transformed as a result of the exchange of their national symbols. The University of North Carolina Press is based in Chapel Hill, North Carolina. Greenbaum, S. D. (Google Scholar)
- Greenbaum, S. D. (2002). Afro-Cubans in Tampa are more than just black. The University Press of Florida is located in Gainesville, Florida. Gutman, H. G. (Google Scholar)
- Gutman, H. G. (1976). The Black family in the United States over the period 1750–1925. Pantheon Books is based in New York. Google Scholar
- R. L. Hall et al (1991). Taking in the flavors of Africa in the New World. Seeds of Transformation, edited by H. J. Viola and C. Margolis (pp. 160–171), is a collection of essays on social change. Smithsonian Institution Press is located in Washington, DC. Hanchard, M. G. (Google Scholar)
- Hanchard, M. G. (1994). The Movimento Negro of Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo, Brazil, 1945–1988: Orpheus and the Power of the People. Princeton University Press is located in Princeton, New Jersey. Google Scholar
- Hanchard, M. (ed. ), Hanchard, M. (ed) (1999). The role of race in Brazilian politics today. Duke University Press is located in Durham, North Carolina. Harewood, J., and Henry, R. (Google Scholar)
- (1985). Unemployment and inequality in a colonial post-colonial society: the case of Trinidad and Tobago. The University of the West Indies’ Institute of Social and Economic Research is located in Port of Spain. Google Scholar
- R. Henry, R. Henry et al (1988). In an independent Trinidad and Tobago, the state and income distribution are distinct. According to S. Ryan (Ed.), T&T: The Independence Experience 1962–1987 (pg. 471–493). Trinidad and Tobago: The Independence Experience 1962–1987. The University of the West Indies’ Institute of Social and Economic Research is located in Port of Spain. Google Scholar
- Herskovits, M. J. Herskovits, M. J. (1941). The legend of the Negro ancestors. Harper and Brothers Publishers, New York. Hoberman, J. (Google Scholar)
- Hoberman, J. (1997). Darwin’s athletes include: Sports have harmed African-Americans and helped to perpetuate the concept of race. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. Google Scholar
- H. Hoetink’s article (1973). Inquiry into the nature of slavery and race relations in the Americas, as well as their relationship with one another Harper & Row Publishing Company, New York. T. C. Holt’s Google Scholar page
- Holt, T. C. (1992). It’s all about the dilemma of freedom in Jamaica and Britain from 1832 to 1938, and it’s all about race, labor, and politics. The Johns Hopkins University Press is located in Baltimore. The following sources are available: Google Scholar
- Inikori, J. E. (1976a). An evaluation of Curtin and Anstey’s work on the measurement of the Atlantic slave trade. Journal of African History, volume 17, number 2, pages 197–223. CrossRef The following sources are available: Google Scholar
- Inikori, J. E. (1976b). A reply to the article Measuring the Atlantic Slave Trade. Journal of African History, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 607–629. CrossRef The following sources are available: Google Scholar
- Inikori, J. E. (2002). On this study in international commerce and economic growth, Africans and the Industrial Revolution in England are examined. Cambridge University Press is located in Cambridge, England. CrossRef Klein, H. S. (Google Scholar)
- Klein, H. S. (1999). Slavery in the Atlantic Ocean. Cambridge University Press is located in Cambridge, England. Rice and slaves: Ethnicity and the slave trade in colonial South Carolina (Littlefield, D. C., 1981). Google Scholar
- Louisiana State University Press is located in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Google Scholar
- A. P. Maingot, A. P. Maingot (1992). In the Caribbean, there is a distinction between race, color, and social status. In A. Stepan’s The Americas: Interpretive Essays (pp. 220–247), he discusses the history of the Americas. Oxford University Press is based in New York. Mann, K., and Bay, E. G. (Google Scholar)
- (Eds.). (2001). Rethinking the African Diaspora: The emergence of a black Atlantic world in the Bight of Benin and Brazil is an ongoing project. Frank Cass & Co., Ltd., London. Matory, J. L. (Google Scholar)
- Matory, J. L. (1999). African and American cultures are in constant contact with one another, as evidenced by the Afro-Atlantic Culture Project. H. L. Gates, Jr. (ed. ),Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience (pp. 36–44), K. A. Appiah and H. L. Gates, Jr. Basic Civitas Books is based in New York. Search Google Scholar for J. H. McWhorter (2000). Recovering the origins of plantation contact languages by resurrecting the lost Spanish Creoles The University of California Press is located in Berkeley, California. Mintz, S. W. (Google Scholar)
- Mintz, S. W. (1974). Transformations in the Caribbean. Aldine Publishing Company in Chicago. Mintz, S. W. (Google Scholar)
- Mintz, S. W. (1985). Sugar’s position in modern history as a source of sweetness and strength Viking Publishing Company, New York. Mintz, S.W., and Price, R. (Google Scholar)
- (1992). An anthropological perspective on the emergence of African-American culture. Beacon Press, Boston, Massachusetts. Google Scholar
- Monge Oviedo, R. Monge Oviedo, R. (1992). Is it true that we are or aren’t? Report on the Americas, vol. 25, no. 4, p. 19. Moreau de Saint-Méry, M. L. E. (Google Scholar)
- Moreau de Saint-Méry, M. L. E. (1958). The topographic, physical, civil, political, and historical descriptions of the French portion of the island of Saint-Domingue are provided. The Société de L’Historie des Colonies Françaises and the Librarie LaRose published this book in Paris. Morgan, M. H. (Google Scholar)
- Morgan, M. H. (2002). In African American culture, language, discourse, and power are all important. Cambridge University Press is based in New York. CrossRef Mufwene, S. S. (Google Scholar)
- Mufwene, S. S. (Ed.). (1993). Africanisms are found in a number of Afro-American linguistic variations. The University of Georgia Press is based in Athens, Georgia. Google Scholar
- G. Oostindie’s website
- (Ed.). (2001). Perspectives on the remembrance of slavery from Africa, the Americas, and Europe offer different perspectives on the past. Ian Randle is a musician from Kingston, Jamaica. Pamphile, L. D. (Google Scholar)
- Pamphile, L. D. (2001). Haitians and African Americans have a tragic and hopeful history together. The University Press of Florida is located in Gainesville. Price, R. (Google Scholar)
- Price, R. (Ed.). (1973). Maroon societies were slave communities that rebelled against their masters in the Americas. Anchor Press, Garden City, New York. Google Scholar
- A. J. Raboteau, A. J. Raboteau, A. J. (1978). Slave religion was the “invisible institution” of the Antebellum South, according to historians. Oxford University Press is based in New York. Rainwater, L., and Yancey, W. L. (Google Scholar)
- Rainwater, L., and Yancey, W. L. (1967). It’s all about the politics of controversy with the Moynihan Report. M.I.T. Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Reichman, R. (Google Scholar)
- Reichman, R. (Ed.). (1999). From apathy to inequality, race in contemporary Brazil is a complicated issue. The Pennsylvania State University Press is located in University Park. Reis, J. J. (Google Scholar)
- Reis, J. J. (1993). The Muslim insurrection of 1835 in Bahia, Brazil, was the first slave rebellion in the country. Arthur Brakel is the translator. The Johns Hopkins University Press is located in Baltimore. Google Scholar
- Roberts, W. A. (Walter A.) (1942). The French in the West Indies were a thorn in their side. Bobbs-Merrill Company, New York. Sansone, L. (Google Scholar)
- Sansone, L. (2003). Brazil’s construction of race is characterized by blackness without ethnicity. Palgrave Macmillan Publishing Company, London. CrossRef M. Schuler’s Google Scholar page
- Schuler, M. (1970). Slave uprisings in the British Caribbean led by the Akan. 8, pp. 8–31 in Savacou, 1. M. Schuler’s Google Scholar page
- Schuler, M. (1986). During the nineteenth century, the recruitment of African indentured laborers for European colonies was commonplace. In P. C. Emmer (Ed. ), Colonialism and migration: Indentured labor before and after slavery (pp. 125–161), colonialism and migration: Indentured labor before and after slavery is discussed. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Dordrecht. Sheriff, R. E. (Google Scholar)
- Sheriff, R. E. (2001). Color, race, and racism in metropolitan Brazil: a dream of equality in the city. Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, New Jersey. T. S. Simey’s Google Scholar page (1946). In the West Indies, welfare and planning are important. Clarendon Press, Oxford, United Kingdom. M. Schuler’s Google Scholar page
- Schuler, M. (1980). “Alas, alas, Kongo”: A social history of indentured African immigration to Jamaica from 1841 to 1865 (also known as “Alas, alas, Kongo”). The Johns Hopkins University Press is located in Baltimore. Stephens, T. M. (Google Scholar)
- Stephens, T. M. (1989). An encyclopedia of Latin American ethnic and racial terminologies. The University of Florida Press is located in Gainesville. Sweet, J. H. (Google Scholar)
- Sweet, J. (2003). Recreating Africa: Culture, family, and religion in the African-Portuguese world, 1441–1770 is a book on the re-creation of Africa. The University of North Carolina Press is located in Chapel Hill, North Carolina. Tannenbaum, F. (Google Scholar)
- Tannenbaum, F. (1946). The Negro in the Americas is both a slave and a citizen. Alfred A. Knopf & Company, New York. Thornton, J. K. (Google Scholar)
- Thornton, J. K. (1992). Africa and Africans played a role in the formation of the Atlantic world between 1400 and 1680. Cambridge University Press is located in Cambridge, England. Twine, F.W., and Google Scholar (1998) racism in a multi-racial democracy: the preservation of white supremacy in Brazilian politics Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, New Jersey. Google Scholar, as well as the United States Census Bureau (2001). The most recent demographic survey, as well as an annual social and economic supplement Author’s office in Washington, DC. Google Scholar, as well as the United States Census Bureau (2002). The most recent demographic survey, as well as an annual social and economic supplement Author’s office in Washington, DC. Google Scholar, as well as the United States Census Bureau (2003). The most recent demographic survey, as well as an annual social and economic supplement Author’s office in Washington, DC. Williams, E. (Google Scholar)
- Williams, E. (1944). Capitalism and slavery go hand in hand. The University of North Carolina Press is located in Chapel Hill. Wade, P. (Google Scholar)
- Wade, P. (1993). The dynamics of racial identity in Colombia are characterized by blackness and race mixing. The Johns Hopkins University Press is located in Baltimore. Waters, M. C., and Google Scholar (1999). West Indian immigrant ambitions and American reality collide in the formation of black identities. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Whitten, N. E., Jr., and Torres, A. Google Scholar
- Whitten, N. E., Jr. (Eds.). (1998). Sociocultural dynamics and cultural alterations of blackness in Latin America, the Caribbean, and the United States Vols. are 2 volts. Indiana University Press is based in Bloomington, Indiana. Wood, P. H. (Google Scholar)
- Wood, P. H. (1974). Negroes constituted the majority of the population in colonial South Carolina from 1670 to the time of the Stono rebellion. Alfred A. Knopf & Company, New York. Yelvington, K. A. (Google Scholar)
- Yelvington, K. A. (2001a). Patterns of “race,” ethnicity, class, and nationalism are all explored. Second edition of Understanding modern Latin America, edited by R.S. Hillman (pp. 229–261), published by Routledge. Lynne Rienner Publications is based in Boulder, Colorado. Yelvington, K. A. (Google Scholar)
- Yelvington, K. A. (2001b). In this chapter, we will discuss the anthropology of Afro-Latin America and the Caribbean and its diasporic features. Annual Review of Anthropology, volume 30, pages 227–260 CrossRef Yelvington, K. A. (Google Scholar)
- Yelvington, K. A. (Ed.). (forthcoming). Dialogues in the Afro-Atlantic region: Anthropology in the Diaspora The School of American Research Press is located in Santa Fe, New Mexico. Google Scholar is an excellent resource.
Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. was founded in 2005.
Authors and Affiliations
There aren’t any associations available at this time.
The African Diaspora’s Role on The Continent
IE Africa Center’s “African Solutions, Global Challenges” discussion, which took place on March 4, 2020 in London’s Chatham House, was the second edition of the forum series. Researchers from the SOAS University of London, MIT Legatum Center for Development and Entrepreneurship, The African Foundation for Development, and the Royal African Society discussed how Africa’s diaspora is playing an increasingly important role in shaping the continent’s future. The two roundtable conversations, which focused on developing new solutions and ideas to boost African creativity across the diaspora through finance and entrepreneurship, were a particular highlight of the event.
Roundtable Session One: The African Diaspora and Global Finance
Yinka Adegoke, Editor of Quartz Africa, will serve as the moderator. The first session of the roundtable discussions was devoted to concrete ways in which the diaspora might contribute to the development of the continent. The most important lesson from the conversation is that people’s perceptions of who and what is African are shifting throughout time. Currently, the African Union’s current definition of what is called the diaspora is comprised of individuals of African descent living both inside and outside of Africa who are prepared to contribute to both the development of the continent and the establishment of the African Union (AU).
- One means by which they may accomplish this is through social media, which makes it simple for individuals living in the diaspora to not only communicate with others living on the continent, but also to obtain information about what is going on in their home nations.
- For example, Onyekachi Wambu, of the AFFORD Foundation, explained that his organization categorizes the ways in which the diaspora helps its continent into the following categories: financial and intellectual capital; political and social capital; cultural and intellectual capital; and time.
- Nonetheless, a greater emphasis on the production elements found inside the continent is urgently required.
- According to another significant conclusion from the discussion, a lack of awareness of how risk is viewed contributes to the existence of hurdles to investment in the continent.
- One further obstacle that is preventing greater investment in the continent from taking place is the investment gap that exists when investing in the continent.
- To enhance investment in Africa, not only from the diaspora, but from everyone else who might be interested in investing in Africa, the development of a system that makes this information more readily available is critical.
- Female entrepreneurs outnumber men entrepreneurs on the continent, but they do not have as much access to capital as their male counterparts do.
- One of the reasons why this problem continues to exist is that the individuals who make the decisions about who receives funding appear to be more biased in favor of male entrepreneurs than female entrepreneurs, which is one of the causes of the problem.
- At the roundtable, participants criticized the lack of sound economic policies by African countries, as well as other issues.
- On top of that, each has implemented laws and activities that will encourage its diaspora to make investments in their own nations.
- This effort was put in place by the Ghanaian government in order to enhance tourism in their nation, and it was successful in this endeavor.
A significant rise in the number of international visitors to the country occurred as a result of the program, which garnered widespread media attention for the country.
Roundtable Session Two: Harnessing Diaspora Entrepreneurship and Innovation
Dina Sherif, Executive Director of the MIT Legatum Center for Entrepreneurship and Development, will serve as the moderator. The second roundtable discussed how diaspora entrepreneurship has tremendous potential for leveraging innovation in order to build their own businesses while also having a multiplier effect on African economies, particularly in the United States. This conversation has demonstrated that entrepreneurship in the African diaspora can be leveraged to advance development efforts on the continent.
Entrepreneurship has the potential to offer many significant benefits to the continent.
Diaspora investment in the continent can also help to spur employment creation, which is much needed on the continent right now.
This is owing to the fact that not only will this result in more employment being created, but social entrepreneurship will also supply commodities that governments on the continent should normally give but do not.
An additional example is Tobi and Timi Oludayomis’ Studio 14, a digital learning platform that assists in the training of individuals across the African continent.
These institutions can better help the diaspora by publicizing the activities and opportunities that are available to them at African institutes of higher learning.
They must also assist these entrepreneurs in gaining information about how to be effective leaders who can scale their influence in order for their businesses to be successful in the long run.