How Does Culture Affect Memory Development


How Culture Affects Memory

It may come as a surprise to realize that your cultural background has an impact on how you recall the past. According to a research conducted by Brandeis University and published on Futurity, while recalling an event such as a birthday celebration, Westerners were more likely to concentrate on details such as the color of the decorations and the frosting on the cake than Easterners. East Asians were more likely than other cultures to recall interpersonal details such as who served the cake or who danced with whom.

“Your culture determines what you perceive to be significant in your environment,” she adds further.

“Culture has a significant impact on your memory.” As part of the investigation, Gutchess and her research team attempted to investigate the relationship between culture and recollections.

The results were remarkable.

Possibly, this is due to the fact that East Asian memory is more focused on emotional context and social detail than visual detail.” Studies like this one might be valuable in improving teaching techniques in multicultural schools, as well as in enhancing diplomatic ties between countries.

What percentage of you believe the results are accurate?

The culture of memory

When you ask an American about his or her first recollection, you’re likely to hear something along the lines of: “My cousin’s wedding, when I was three.” Alternatively, you may say: “I’m sitting on the beach with my brother, building a sandcastle on the sand. I was almost four years old at the time.” For the majority of us, any time before the age of 3.5 years is a blank slate. We all suffer from “childhood amnesia,” which was initially described by Sigmund Freud as an inability to recall our earliest childhood memories.

When a Maori child is 2.5 years old, it is possible that his or her first recollection is of visiting a relative’s burial.

Of course, people’s memories differ significantly from one another.

In the words of Michelle Leichtman, PhD, a psychologist at the University of New Hampshire who specializes in childhood memory: “We believe that this is a result of the meaning of memory within a specific cultural system.” For better or worse, the way parents and other adults talk about, or don’t talk about, the events in their children’s life has an impact on how those experiences are remembered by the children in the future.

Human beings who grow up in societies that place a high value on individual personal history, such as the United States, or in societies that place a high value on personal family history, such as the Maori, will have different-and often earlier-childhood memories than people who grow up in cultures that place a high value on interdependence rather than individual autonomy, such as many Asian cultures, according to Leichtman.

  • Now, she and other researchers are attempting to grasp the subtleties of these distinctions, as well as the specific elements that influence memory in different cultural contexts.
  • The first study comparing the ages of earliest recollections across cultures was published in 1994 by psychologist Mary Mullen, PhD.
  • 52, No.
  • Mullen, who was a graduate student at Harvard University at the time, discovered that, on average, the Asian and Asian-American students’ recollections occurred six months later than the memories of the Caucasian and white students.
  • 10, No.
  • “Those publications were essentially the platform from which we started,” says Harlene Hayne, PhD, a psychologist at the University of Otago in Dunedin, New Zealand, who specializes in culture and memory research.
  • In a research published in the journal Memory (Vol.

6, pages 365-376) in 2000, she discovered that, on average, Asian people’ initial memories were later than those of Caucasians, similar to the findings of Mullen’s experiments (57 months as compared with 42 months).

According to Leichtman, these discrepancies can be explained by the social-interaction model created by Katherine Nelson, PhD, a psychologist at the City University of New York who specializes in child development.

The more that adults urge us to create a detailed narrative account of the incident, the more probable it is that we will recall specific details about it afterwards.

She and her colleague David Pillemer, EdD, have investigated the impact that “high-elaborative” moms have on their children as compared to “low-elaborative” mothers.

The low-elaborative mother, on the other hand, speaks less about the past and is more likely to ask closed-ended inquiries rather than open-ended ones.

15, No.

Leichtman and her colleagues listened in while the moms of the students talked to their children about the visit the next day and categorized the degree to which the mothers employed a high-elaborative or low-elaborative style of speech in their conversations.

Parenting styles in Asian cultures are often less elaborate, according to Leichtman, than parenting styles in the United States, which he compares to According to Hayne, Maori culture, on the other hand, is even more concerned with personal history and storytelling than American society.

“They look past with an eye toward the future,” says the author.

We keep track of what we require.

Instead, according to Leichtman, people have the sorts of memories that they require in order to function well in the world in which they live.

By sharing experiences from our own histories, she explains, “we are able to form bonds with one another.” “It is compatible with our autonomously oriented culture, which places a strong premium on sticking out, being unusual, and being one of a kind, When a culture is more interdependently oriented, the emphasis is more on interpersonal harmony and making the group operate, and the method in which individuals interact with one another is less frequently by sharing recollections of personal occurrences.” She claims that in other cultures, the attitude is much different: “They would wonder, ‘If both of you were at an event, what would be the point of discussing it between you?'” says the author.

  1. This disinterest in one’s own or other people’s personal histories, according to her, goes against what we consider to be a universal truth—that our own memories are the essential element that defines who we are as individuals.
  2. A research she conducted with individuals in rural India indicated that just 12 percent of those who participated in a scripted interview remembered something unique from their childhood, as she discovered.
  3. In contrast, 69 percent of those from the United States mentioned a distinct recollection.
  4. For example, Qi Wang, PhD, a Cornell University psychologist, is investigating the early childhood memories of Chinese-American immigrants to examine how they compare to those of native Chinese and native Americans.
  5. In his early-memory studies, Pillemer, of the University of New Hampshire, is adopting a somewhat different approach than his colleagues.
  6. In his words, “dreams are private, so the only way someone else would know about it is if you told them about it.” “It’s an intriguing test of the social-interaction concept,” he adds.

Overall, Leichtman asserts that the notion that culture effects memory is “not yet an old idea.” It is now being fine-tuned, and we are investigating the vast range of factors that are responsible for its development.

how does culture affect memory development?

For example, memory is influenced by our perception of the world, which is influenced by our cultural background. People’s sense of space, as well as their perceptions of odor, color, and taste, can be influenced by culture. It has been observed by researchers that people’s experiences are influenced by their language, and that various languages have their own structure and logic. The most potent types of cultural memory may entail recollections of prior pain experienced by groups of victims, which may be quite strong.

Culture has a significant influence on schema and, thus, memory recall.

Which of the following is a cultural universal and found among all known human cultures?

Gender roles, the incest taboo, religious and healing ritual, mythology, marriage, language, art, dance, music, cooking, games, jokes, sports, birth and death, all of which have ritual ceremonies associated with them, are examples of elements that may be considered cultural universals. Other examples include birth and death because they have ritual ceremonies associated with them.

How does culture affect thinking?

According to a new study, cultural activities such as language use have an impact on our learning processes by changing our capacity to acquire diverse types of facts, draw connections between them, and infer a desirable pattern of behavior from them.

How do culture affect development?

Culture has an impact on our development from the minute we are born, and it continues to have an impact on us as we get older. For example, culture may have an impact on how children develop their values, language, belief systems, and sense of themselves as individuals and as members of a larger social group. If our society encourages a more extroverted personality style, we might anticipate a greater demand for social engagement in the future. Furthermore, individualistic societies encourage individuals to be more forceful and vocal in their actions.

What are the effects of culture?

Culture, in addition to its inherent worth, brings significant social and economic advantages to society. Culture improves our quality of life by increasing our learning and health, increasing tolerance, and providing chances to join together with others. It also boosts the general well-being of both people and communities as a result.

How culture affects our intelligence?

Overall, social and environmental factors have a significant impact on intelligence.

People who are confronted with obstacles that raise the need to employ mental resources may have higher levels of assessed intelligence than those who are not. People who are stressed out as a result of the nature of their environment, on the other hand, do lower on intelligence tests.

Can personal or cultural bias influence the accuracy of a memory?

While schemas aid in the retention of new knowledge, they may also cause us to erroneously recall events that did not occur to us and to distort or misremember events that did occur to us. A wide range of cognitive biases have an impact on the correctness of our judgements.

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Which structure of memory is autobiographical?

Memory for occurrences on a regular basis The episodic memory component is widely regarded as the distinguishing characteristic of autobiographical memory retrieval since it allows for vivid recall of previous events in the present (Conway, 2001; Rubin, 2005). 29th of January, 2019

What is the difference between the sensory store and the short term store?

Sensory memory – This type of memory is responsible for processing information collected via your five senses. In fact, it only retains information for a very short length of time (less than a second) after the original stimulation has ended. Short-term memory — This is the memory that stores information that you are currently thinking about.

What does anterograde amnesia mean?

Anterograde amnesia is a term that refers to a reduced capacity to remember new knowledge. This might have an impact on your day-to-day activities. It may also interfere with your ability to perform well at work and in social situations since you may have difficulty generating new memories.

What is the foundation of memory?

Our memory performs three basic functions: encoding information, storing it, and retrieving it. Encoding is the process of transferring information into our memory system, which can be done automatically or by manual effort.

What do we call the hypothesis that language influences what we think?

The Sapir–Whorf hypothesis, also known as the linguistic relativity hypothesis, is a suggestion that the language one speaks has an impact on the way one thinks about the world around him or her.

How is cultural memory formed?

Cultural memory is generated through symbolic legacy, which may be found in texts, ceremonies, monuments, festivals, artefacts, sacred scriptures, and other media that function as mnemonic triggers, causing meanings linked with what has occurred to be activated.

How is cultural memory distinguished from communicative memory?

Unlike communicative memory,cultural memory is disembodied. In order to function as memory, however, its symbolic forms must not only be preserved but also circulated and re-embodied in a society. The disembodied status of cultural memory is another reason why it was not recognized as a form of memory until recently.

What is the difference between cultural and collective memory?

Cultural memory varies from collective memory in two ways: first, it emphasizes cultural aspects that are absent from ‘communicative’ or ‘everyday memory,’ and second, it is more specific in its focus. First and foremost, it differs from history, which does not possess the properties of memory. second … We have cultural memory when we are apart from our ordinary lives.

Why does culture influence behavior?

Cultural norms serve as a foundation for our behavioral and affective standards since it is a system of meaning and shared ideas. It is believed that the mechanism has something to do with the brain’s plasticity, or its ability to adjust to long-term participation in prescribed activities, according to results from cultural neuroscience research (i.e. cultural tasks).

How do social and cultural factors affect one cognitive process?

The influence of schemas on memory is an example of the influence of social or cultural variables on one cognitive process.

Since schemas are impacted by external elements such as social and cultural characteristics, which in turn affect what is retained in our memory processes, it is important to understand how they work. In cognitive science, memory is the mechanism through which past events are recalled and relived.

What are cultural dimensions psychology?

The amount to which cultural groups are found to differ from one another in terms of psychological qualities such as values, beliefs, self-construals, personality, and behaviors is summarized by the phrase “cultural dimensions.”

How does culture relate to the development of norms and values?

According to, cultural norms are defined as follows: “The term ‘culture’ refers to attitudes and patterns of behavior in a certain community. Normalcy is more directly associated with our actions, whereas values are more strongly associated with our thoughts, feelings, and ideas (or ideals).

Do cultural differences always matter why?

It also provides us with the opportunity to learn and grow from the cultures and experiences of others. It also supplements our own personal experiences, which allows us to do better work and collaborate more effectively. Furthermore, cultural variety contributes to the development of individuals’ personal growth and development in terms of intercultural competences.

Can society exist without culture?

Answer: No, culture is essential for the survival of the human race. The definition of culture is a collection of concepts, customs, and standards as well as behaviors that a society adheres to and executes in their daily lives, as defined by the United Nations.

Why does cultural memory matter today?

Describe an instance in which your own culture or community may have influenced your memory. Exemplifications of cultural memory What role does culture have in shaping our knowledge? Memory culture is a term that refers to the practice of remembering things. Memory and identity in a cultural context What are the cultural distinctions in memory and how can we retain cultural memories be discussed? What role does culture have in shaping social thinking? See more entries in the FAQ category.

The Geography of Learning: How Culture Shapes Memory

According to a study conducted by Japanese and English academics and published online on May 4, 2012, in the journalCognition, culture might influence how we acquire and retain information. Do persons from diverse cultural origins have distinct ways of thinking? For decades, the notion that they do, known as cultural relativity, was considered taboo. According to some experts, even posing the topic of whether various groups of individuals think in different ways is racially discriminatory. Cultural relativity, others claimed, was conceptually incorrect since, after all, the fundamental workings of the human mind are universal, right?

  1. What methods are available for quantifying and comparing these abstract notions?
  2. The approach was presented in Nisbett’s 2003 book The Geography of Thought.
  3. The ancient Greeks regarded public argument as important, and people who triumphed in verbal warfare were held in high regard.
  4. The ancient Chinese, on the other hand, placed a high priority on harmony.
  5. Nature was not broken down into categories, as was previously thought.

They were interested in finding out whether these cultural differences — such as valuing independence or interdependence, emphasizing distinctions or continuities, and so on — corresponded to fundamental differences in the perception, cognitive, and behavioral abilities of Easterners versus Westerners.

  • For example, when asked to describe an underwater scene, American participants were more likely to begin by naming the most notable fish (there’s a large fish.) than those from other countries.
  • Those who are skeptical, on the other hand, believe that these findings may just demonstrate that Americans and Japanese people describe things differently, rather than that they experience them differently.
  • In front of the Japanese and Americans was a box with a vertical line running through it.
  • The participants were instructed to create the line “the same” length as the original, which meant that it had to have the same absolute length (Absolute condition).

As a result, participants from the United States performed better on the Absolute task, which required them to concentrate solely on an individual object while ignoring its surroundings, whereas Japanese participants performed better on the Relative task, which required them to perceive and remember an object in its context.

  1. During the experiment, participants were exposed to an artificial grammar, which consisted of a series of letters that, unknown to the subjects, were organized in recurring patterns that were comparable to the patterns observed in real languages.
  2. They were created in order to communicate “glocal” information (i.e., both global and local).
  3. 1).
  4. Kiyokawa et al.
  5. All of the big letters were organized in sequential order, and the tiny letters in a variety of sequential order.
  6. This result was repeated when the sequences were composed of big and small Japanese Kana characters rather than Roman letters, indicating that participants’ familiarity with one alphabet or another was not a factor in the cross-cultural disparities.
  7. This finding demonstrates that Japanese individuals were not less capable of learning local sequences than other participants.

As a result, culture does not limit what we are able to learn; rather, it biases the information we are predisposed to acquire — and not learn — when we are given freedom to interact with the environment in the manner that is most natural to us.

Many theories think that human brains are universally hard-wired to accomplish the process of learning grammar, and it is notable that the culture-based habit of recording our experiences either analytically or holistically can impact how people learn a language in one way or another.

These findings, which go beyond the laboratory, raise concerns about schooling in a mixed society.

Students from both holistic and analytic cultures are increasingly represented in American classrooms.

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Kiyokawa and colleagues (2012).


E., Peng, K., Choi, I., Norenzayan, A., Nisbett, R.


108(2), pp.


Masuda and R.

Nisbett, eds (2001).

The Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol.

9, pp.

Kitayama, S., Duffy, S., Kawamura, T., Larsen, J.


Psychological Science, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 201–206. Fitch (William T.), Hauser (Mary Ann), Chomsky (Noam) and Chomsky (Noam) (2002). What is the Faculty of Language, who possesses it, and how did it come to be developed? Science, vol. 298 no. 1569-1579, p.

How Human Memory is Fundamentally Cultural

In a study published online on May 4, 2012 in the journalCognition, researchers from Japan and England found that culture can influence how we learn. What are the differences in thinking between persons from diverse cultural backgrounds. It was considered taboo for decades to hold that they did, which is known as cultural relativity. For some experts, even posing the subject of whether various groups of individuals thought in different ways was racially charged. Cultural relativity, others claimed, was conceptually incorrect—after all, the fundamental workings of the human mind are universal, after all.

What do you mean by the terms “culture” and “thinking” in your definition?

A new paradigm for investigating cognition across cultures was developed by psychologist Richard Nisbett and colleagues around the turn of the twenty-first century.

Unlike Westerners (Europeans and Americans), Easterners (Chinese, Japanese, and Koreans) tend to think more “holistically.” Westerners (Europeans and Americans) prefer to think “analytically.” As Nisbett explains, the differences between Westerners and Easterners in their ways of thinking may be traced back to the ways in which people understood themselves, their societies, and the natural world in ancient Greece and ancient China, respectively.

  1. The ancient Greeks regarded public argument as important, and those who triumphed in verbal warfare were held in high esteem by their peers.
  2. On the other hand, harmony was highly regarded among ancient Chinese.
  3. A value represented in modern Chinese proverbs such as “the nail that stands up gets hammered down” is that conspicuous performance by individuals was not rewarded, but rather discouraged.
  4. Nature was not broken down into categories, as was previously believed.
  5. To many scientists, the initial tests appeared to be too lyrical.

Participants from Japan, on the other hand, began by describing their surroundings (there’s a pond.), and they were 100 percent more likely than their American counterparts to mention connections between the fish and other objects in their environment (e.g., the big fish swam past the seaweed).

  • Additional research calls into question this skepticism.
  • In a second box of different size, they were instructed to draw a vertical line within it that corresponded to the vertical line drawn inside box 1 (see image below).
  • Alternatively, they were instructed to draw a second line that was the “same” length as the first in relation to the surrounding box on half of the other occasions (Relative condition).
  • In a recent study, Sachiko Kiyokawa and colleagues investigated whether individuals who spoke Japanese and English had distinct patterns of unconscious learning.
  • This set of correspondence, however, was unique.
  • For example, a large “N” was constructed from a series of smaller “B”s (see Fig.
  • Focusing on the global wholes causes the large letters to appear; conversely, focusing locally on the individual components causes the little letters to appear.
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Kiyokawa and colleagues (2012) published “glocal” stimuli in Cognition.

Japanese participants subconsciously learnt global patterns (in large letters), whereas those from the United Kingdom unintentionally learned both global and local patterns.

A significant finding was that when participants were directed to attention to sequences on either a global or local level, the cross-cultural difference was no longer noticeable.

In fact, when told to concentrate on them, the Japanese participants performed somewhat better than their English counterparts in terms of understanding the local patterns.

They give some of the first conclusive evidence that culture may have an impact on unconscious mental processes.

It appears that while the processes of grammar acquisition are universal, the way in which these mechanisms are utilized appears to be influenced by culturally driven attentional restrictions.

Easterners and Westerners learned different things when given the identical information — as if the two groups had been taught two separate lessons, to put it another way.

What strategies can instructors devise in order to assist pupils from a varied range of cultural backgrounds in their understanding of both forests and trees?

Among those who have contributed to this work are S.

Unconscious knowledge differs from culture to culture.

In the next paper, Nisbett et al.

E.), Peng et al., Choi et al., Norenzayan et al.

Holistic cognition vs analytic cognition in terms of culture and thought systems A Special Issue of Psychological Review, vol.

The third author is T.


A comparison of Japanese and American responses to situations in which they are holistic rather than analytical in nature.


Kitayama and colleagues (S.

Kawamura and colleagues) and Larsen, J.

Kitayama and colleagues (S.

Kawamura, T.

Psychological Science, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 201–206, 2003. Fitch (William T.), Hauser (Mary Ann), Chomsky (Noam) and Chomsky (Noam) (2002). What is the Faculty of Language, who possesses it, and how did it come to be? Originally published as: Journal of the American Chemical Society, 298(1569-1579).

“Rather than merely being a neurocognitive faculty within the individual, human memory functions as an open system thoroughly immersed in cultural contexts,” Wang writes.

It is in the public domain. When it comes to psychology, it has been criticized for having a WEIRDproblem, where research is predominantly undertaken in Western and educated countries, as well as industrialized, wealthy, and democratic societies, and then exported to other civilizations. Cultural realities are often relegated to the background of people’s psychological understandings and are rarely believed to be important to the human experience. Numerous scholars have raised concerns about psychology’s colonial effect not only in other regions of the world, but also in the United States, and have called for further investigation.

  1. Wang demonstrates in this essay that even a fundamental cognitive skill such as human memory is influenced by cultural factors.
  2. However, various cultures have different ideas about what memory is and what causes it to be lost or become inaccessible.
  3. Wang examines decades of research demonstrating that memory is produced through the use of cultural contexts.
  4. People’s feeling of space, as well as their perception of odor, color, and taste, can be influenced by culture.
  5. Individuals are better at identifying colors (color memory) if they know the words that represent those colors in their native language.
  6. Examples include how animals are classified by the Wichi community in Argentina’s Chaco forest based on ecological-social relationships, such as whether the animal is violent or peaceful, and how valuable it is.
  7. Wang cites research suggesting that, whereas Westerners are more likely to concentrate on individual items (analytic perception), East Asians are more likely to concentrate on the context in which an object is presented (holistic perception).
  8. The results of a study found that when items were shown against the original backdrop rather than a new background, Japanese participants performed much better in terms of object recognition.

In addition, culture has an impact on how we interpret the emotions of others; in one research, Japanese participants regarded the primary individual’s emotional state as being reliant on the emotional expressions of characters in the background:

“They judged, for instance, the central figure’s happiness expression as less happy when the background figures expressed anger rather than happiness.”

Westerners, on the other hand, concentrated only on the principal figure’s emotional condition in order to determine the strength of his emotions. Wang asserts that memory is environmentally based, and that different cultures with varying ecological needs “may result in diverse applications and, in turn, distinct properties of memory,” according to Wang. Youngsters from aboriginal cultures who are hunters and foragers, for example, have advanced visuospatial memory skills than other children.

  • This has an impact on people’s perceptions of time and the value they place on the past.
  • In part, this is owing to the East Asian cyclical sense of time, which contrasts with the Western linear notion of time.
  • Wang observes that the manner in which things are remembered and recalled is dependent on one’s cultural context.
  • Culture has an impact on whether emotions are valued and if there are higher degrees of independence or dependency, and these characteristics have an impact on how memories are organized and remembered.
  • European Americans remembered more pleasurable encounters over the course of a week, according to one research, despite having had comparable experiences.
  • Asians either remembered their own performance exactly or remembered it a bit worse.
  • It is the opinion of Wang that culture has an impact on how we express our recollections, whether in solitary reflection or in front of an audience.
  • The language they are speaking in at the time has an impact on whether or not they recall more relationship-oriented memories or self-events when they are recalling them.
  • Working memory is the ability to retain knowledge for a brief period of time so that we may work on it later.

The school-going youngsters demonstrated the primacy effect (remembering information that is presented first), the recency effect (remembering information that is presented last/most recently), and the serial clustering effect, which reflected the focus placed on rote learning in Western schooling.

  • Episodic memory is the recalling of specific experiences that occurred at a given time and place, and it is influenced by culture.
  • The degree to which people are independent or interdependent also has an impact on how they encode information.
  • “Autobiographical memory” is defined as “memories of major personal experiences that have occurred in one’s life.” Because cultural notions of self differ from one another, the way memory resources are assigned varies depending on the aims of the individual.
  • This was demonstrated in a research in which trauma survivors without post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) had more self-focused memories than trauma survivors with PTSD in societies where autonomy and independence are valued.
  • The author finishes by stating that “Culture penetrates human memory,” which is supported by research.

**** Wang, Q. et al (2020). The Cultural Foundation of Human Memory is a term used to describe the foundation of human memory that is cultural in nature. Annual Review of Psychology, vol. 72, no. 1, pp. 151-179

Cultural activities may influence the way we think: A new learning model may explain how culture helped shape human cognition and memory

Instead, Westerners concentrated only on the principal figure’s emotional condition in order to determine the strength of his or her feelings. Wang asserts that memory is environmentally based, and that different cultures with varying ecological needs “may result in diverse applications and, in turn, distinct properties of memory,” as Wang explains. Youngsters from hunter-forager tribes, for example, have superior visuospatial memory compared to other children. In the instance of London cab drivers, it was demonstrated that the repetitive demands of the work might even alter the brain’s structural makeup and function.

Chinese participants in a research believed that previous experiences were closer to the present, more important to current problem solving, and that they could recall them more vividly than North American participants.

In particular, memory is susceptible to reconstruction and modification.

When Cambridge University students were asked to recall Native American fairy tales over a period of several years, they tended to recall the stories as increasingly conforming to their own cultural frameworks—their reconstruction of the story was dependent on their own cultural frameworks, according to a seminal study.

  1. Example: In Western societies, happiness is an explicit objective that is highly prized, however in many Asian cultures, life is considered as an ups and downs rollercoaster that effects memory.
  2. When asked to execute tasks such as shooting a basketball, European Americans performed better than they did in the actual research, according to another study.
  3. Moreover, according to other research, Korean children who participated in games recalled what their peers did significantly better (after a week of the game session), but European American children remembered their own parts more precisely.
  4. Examples include multilingual persons who experience shifts in their sense of self (from autonomous to interdependent) depending on which language they are speaking.
  5. The author then provides three instances of how culture might effect working memory, episodic memory, and autobiographical memory, all of which are discussed in detail.
  6. Working memory processing was shown to have changed in three indigenous societies where Western education had just recently been introduced.
  7. When children who had not attended school were asked to recall knowledge, they used semantic clustering to do so (organizing information based on meaningfulness).
  8. In countries where negative beliefs about aging are prevalent, people’s memory deterioration is more severe, according to research.
  9. Westerners recalled more self-owned goods than Asians, who tended to remember self- or other-owned objects equally and remembered mother-owned objects the most, according to a research study.
  10. memories associated with cultural objectives and expectations would be associated with a sense of well-being, and vice versa (person-culture-fit framework).
  11. Contrary to this, persons with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remembered more memories that were centered on themselves rather than on others in cultures that emphasize relational selves.

**** Q. Wang is a Chinese author who lives in Hong Kong (2020). Human Memory is built on a cultural foundation. 72: 151-179 (Annual Review of Psychology).

American Friends of Tel Aviv University is a group of people who support Tel Aviv University in the United States. According to the article, “Cultural activities may impact the way we think: A novel learning model may explain how culture assisted in shaping human cognition and memory.” ScienceDaily. The 4th of August, 2017, according to ScienceDaily. American Friends of Tel Aviv University is a group of people who support Tel Aviv University in the United States (2017, August 4). Cultural activities may have an impact on our way of thinking: A new learning model may be able to describe how culture influenced human cognition and memory in the future.

The information was obtained on January 12, 2022, from the American Friends of Tel Aviv University.

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Seeing Culture in Our Brain

Here’s a short question: when I utter the term culture, what comes to mind first? Imagine individuals from different regions of the globe who consume different sorts of cuisine, dress in different styles of clothing, and talk in a variety of different languages. You may also consider how they can have drastically different beliefs and world views and how they may perceive the same thing differently if you think a little more deeply than the surface level differences. People who live in Western cultures, such as North Americans and Europeans, use an analytical style of thinking when thinking about something, according to cross-cultural psychology studies.

Individuals from Eastern cultures, such as those from Eastern Asia, have a holistic thinking style that is concerned with the overall pattern of things and how they exist in relation to other things, as opposed to western cultures.

Looking at these two paintings, for example, you can see that the Western painting is more focused on a central figure, whereas the Eastern painting is more concerned with the overall environment rather than a central object or person Investigators in laboratories discovered that when presented with a complex scene that contains one main object, Westerners’ eyes are drawn to the main object first, while East Asians’ eyes are drawn to the background environment immediately after they have examined the main object.

  • Following a viewing, Westerners recall more specifics about the primary items, but East Asians recall more specifics about the backdrop.
  • A new issue arises as a result of these findings: if culture changes our perception, does this imply that it might also shape our brain?
  • It is hypothesized by neuroscientists that our brain analyzes visual information in two streams.
  • If we are going to investigate culture and perception, we must first look at what is called the ventral stream.
  • Afterwards, it can be subdivided into numerous smaller regions, each of which is responsible for distinguishing between different types of visual information.
  • The lingual landmark area is where scenes and the surrounding environment are processed.
  • Modern neuroimaging technology, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), allows us to observe brain activity while people perform various tasks.

In accordance with previous behavioral studies, when processing faces, Westerners’ fusiform face area shows significantly more activation than Asians’, indicating that they prefer a single focal object, such as an individual’s face, whereas East Asians’ lingual landmark area shows significantly more activation when processing scenes with environmental contexts, indicating that they prefer perceiving overall relationships.

Furthermore, this effect of culture on our visual processing becomes increasingly robust with age, indicating that prolonged exposure to a particular culture has the potential to influence our brain and cause us to think in the manner of the culture in question.

The next time you think of culture, consider that it encompasses more than just exotic foods and clothing; it also includes something that can be embedded in our brain and have a profound impact on how we interact with this beautiful world!

Cultural Memory

Cultural memory is the constructed concept of the past that is passed down from one generation to the next through the transmission of literature, oral traditions, monuments, ceremonies, and other forms of representation. Subjects Anthropology, sociology, social studies, and storytelling are some of the subjects covered. Image

Indonesian Cultural Festival

An Indonesian cultural festival is being celebrated in Denpasar, Indonesia, with dancers clad in sarongs. Denis Moskvinov / Alamy contributed this photograph. Image from a stock photo”> Typically, people conceive of memory as a remembrance of events that occurred in the past. People may learn from their prior experiences and apply that information to their current situations thanks to their memory. It is an essential component of our identity. In the same manner, culture is a way of life that is particular to a group of people.

  • Through many cases, cultural memory is preserved in physical artifacts, such as museums or historical monuments.
  • Artifacts from the past can give valuable insight into our own history.
  • Cultural memory is the most long-lasting type of memory available.
  • Cultural memory, like other types of memory, serves a vital purpose in society.
  • When we have a strong sense of our cultural memory, we are better able to grasp our history as well as the values and customs of the group (or, more precisely, groups) to which we belong.
  • The most potent types of cultural memory may entail recollections of previous traumas that have been experienced by large numbers of people.
  • Because all groups have cultural memory, it is possible for marginalized or threatened groups of people to develop a spirit of resistance or survival as a result of this.

Rather, it is to draw on prior experiences in order to prevent repeating the same mistakes over and over again in the future.

Cultivating cultural memory helps cultures to persist, it helps people adapt to their cultural heritage and it helps civilizations to adjust to new conditions by preserving remnants of what worked in the past.

Denis Moskvinov / Alamy Stock contributed to this photograph.

Tools, clothes, and food are examples of culturally significant material remnants.

communicateVerbto convey information, ideas, or feelings.

People’s learned behavior, which includes their languages, belief systems, social structures, institutions, and material commodities, is referred to as a noun.

a symbol is a noun that refers to anything that represents something else. trauma An injury caused by an external force, such as a gunshot wound, is referred to as a nouninjury.

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André Gabrielli is a National Geographic Society photographer.

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How culture influences children’s development

There are a variety of tools available to parents to assist them in tracking and facilitating their children’s development, ranging from educational toys to government recommendations to thorough nursery status reports. There are methods for teaching children to communicate, count, draw, and show respect for others that may be used. However, the society in which they grow up has an unexpectedly large role in how their development takes place. Child development is a dynamic, interactive process that takes place throughout time.

  1. The things they ask for and get from others as well as their environment influence how they think and behave.
  2. It is as a result of this that children’s views and behavior vary widely across cultural boundaries.
  3. People’s thinking and reasoning styles are shaped by their languages, according to adult studies.
  4. Beginning as early as infancy, moms of various cultures communicate with their children in a variety of ways.
  5. Mothers of the African tribal tribe Nso, on the other hand, are more concerned with the social milieu in which they live.
  6. Children from the Masai tribe.
  7. When it comes to describing oneself, youngsters in Western European and North American nations are more likely to use phrases such as “I am smart” or a specific skill such as painting.
  8. This includes phrases such as “I am my parents’ child” and “I am an excellent student,” among others.
  9. Using the example of a recent memorable personal experience, European-American preschoolers offered more thorough descriptions, recalled more particular events, and emphasised their preferences, sentiments, and views about it more than Chinese and Korean preschoolers, according to a study.

The Asian youngsters, on the other hand, were more concerned with the individuals they had met and how they interacted with themselves.

Cultural effects of parenting

The importance of parents in shaping their children’s behavior and thinking habits varies depending on their cultural background and upbringing. Typically, parents are the ones who prepare their children to engage with others in the larger community. Children’s interaction with their parents frequently serves as a template for how to behave among others, with children acquiring a range of socio-cultural standards, expectations, and taboos through their interactions with their parents. For example, young children typically develop a conversational style that is similar to that of their parents – and this is dependent on their cultural background.

  1. Furthermore, they have a tendency to communicate in a reciprocal manner, taking turns speaking.
  2. They frequently participate in talks in a more passive manner.
  3. Children in the Western world are more likely to challenge their parents’ authority.
  4. Parental power and responsibility over children are highly valued in Chinese culture, where parents engage with their children in a more authoritative manner and expect their children to obey their commands.
  5. Chinese immigrant children growing up in England, on the other hand, act more like English children, who are less likely to comply with parental expectations if they are not inclined to do so.

From class to court

The knowledge of cultural differences in children’s thinking, memory, and how they interact with adults is becoming increasingly important as the world becomes more globalized. This knowledge has important practical implications in many fields where it is necessary to understand a child’s psychology. Teachers, for example, may be required to assess pupils who come from a range of cultural backgrounds, which can be challenging. It might be beneficial for a teacher to understand how students from different cultures think and communicate differently in order to effectively interview them as part of an oral academic examination, for example.

Being aware that Chinese children have a tendency to recall details about other people and to be brief in their initial responses to questions may enable the investigator to allow more time for narrative practice in order to prepare the child to answer open-ended questions and prompt them with follow-up questions after they have learned about the person.

They should also be prepared to be tolerant with those who are reluctant to report abuse inside their own families.

This factor may even influence how quickly children accomplish certain developmental milestones, although research on this complex issue is still unclear at this point in time.

Importantly, understanding cultural variations may also assist us in identifying what all children have in common: an insatiable curiosity about the world and a deep affection for the people in their immediate environment.

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