How Did The Mediterranean Climate Influence Culture In The Region

How did the climate of Mediterranean influence culture in the region? – Easierwithpractice.com

The Mediterranean climate allowed for a more leisurely way of life, which had an impact on the culture of the region. For clarification, the Mediterranean Sea is a sea that connects to the Atlantic Ocean and receives a lot of rainfall and has a pleasant temperature, making it a very suitable location for agricultural.

How did the climate of the Mediterranean influence culture in the region Brainly?

The Mediterranean climate has an impact on culture in the region, as seen by the development of a shared cuisine throughout the region. The cuisines are mostly based on seafood, primarily sourced from the Mediterranean Sea.

How is the Mediterranean affected by climate change?

Currently, the Mediterranean is seeing a temperature rise that is higher than current global warming trends (+1.1°C). Additionally, declining precipitation, sea-level rise, ocean acidification, sea temperature rise, and increased risks of soil degradation, quality deterioration, and erosion are all consequences of climate change in the region today.

Why is the Mediterranean climate zone important to the US and Canada?

The Mediterranean climate may be found in tiny areas on multiple continents, and it is hot in the summer and warm in the winter. Because of its agricultural importance, the Mediterranean climate is economically significant.

Is the Mediterranean climate the best climate?

The sweltering Mediterranean climate The climate of Csa is the most pleasant on the planet. In most cases, the Csa climate is found on the western borders of continents between the latitudes of 30 degrees and 45 degrees latitude.

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Mediterranean climate

HomeScience Fossils, Earth Science, and Geologic Time Earth Sciences, Climateology, and Geology Alternative titles include: Cs weather conditions Located between approximately 30° and 45° latitude north and south of the Equator and on the western sides of the continents, the Mediterranean climate is the most significant climate type in the Köppen classification, characterized by hot, dry summers and cool, wet winters.

  1. It is the most common climate type in Europe. It is subdivided into the Csa and Csb subtypes according to the Köppen-Geiger-Pohl classification system.
  2. Anticyclones are replaced by frontalcyclones, which migrate northward and bring heavy precipitation with them as the anticyclone travels northward and southward in winter.
  3. Mediterranean climates are also drier than humid subtropical climates, with annual precipitation totals ranging from 35 to 90 cm (14 to 35 inches); the lowest totals are found in interior regions next to the semiarid steppe climates, which are the driest of the Mediterranean climates.
  4. In certain coastal areas (for example, southern California in the western United States) where cold offshore currents prevail, summer temperatures are relatively low and fog is frequent, resulting in regular fog.

However, this climatic type is only found in Europe, where the latitude for this climate type coincides with anocean basin (the Mediterranean Sea, from whence it receives its name), and it does not extend eastward for any substantial distance away from its shore.

Classification of major climatic types according to the modified Köppen-Geiger scheme
letter symbol
1st 2nd 3rd criterion
1 In the formulas above, r is average annual precipitation total (mm), and t is average annual temperature (°C). All other temperatures are monthly means (°C), and all other precipitation amounts are mean monthly totals (mm).
2 Any climate that satisfies the criteria for designation as a B type is classified as such, irrespective of its other characteristics.
3 The summer half of the year is defined as the months April–September for the Northern Hemisphere and October–March for the Southern Hemisphere.
4 Most modern climate schemes consider the role of altitude. The highland zone has been taken from G.T. Trewartha, An Introduction to Climate, 4th ed. (1968).
Data Sources: Adapted from Howard J. Critchfield, General Climatology, 4th ed. (1983), and M.C. Peel, B.L. Finlayson, and T.A. McMahon, “Updated World Map of the Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification,” Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 11:1633–44 (2007).
A temperature of coolest month 18 °C or higher
f precipitation in driest month at least 60 mm
m precipitation in driest month less than 60 mm but equal to or greater than 100 – (r/25) 1
w precipitation in driest month less than 60 mm and less than 100 – (r/25)
B 2 70% or more of annual precipitation falls in the summer half of the year and r less than 20t + 280, or 70% or more of annual precipitation falls in the winter half of the year and r less than 20t, or neither half of the year has 70% or more of annual precipitation and r less than 20t + 140 3
W r is less than one-half of the upper limit for classification as a B type (see above)
S r is less than the upper limit for classification as a B type but is more than one-half of that amount
h t equal to or greater than 18 °C
k t less than 18 °C
C temperature of warmest month greater than or equal to 10 °C, and temperature of coldest month less than 18 °C but greater than –3 °C
s precipitation in driest month of summer half of the year is less than 30 mm and less than one-third of the wettest month of the winter half
w precipitation in driest month of the winter half of the year less than one-tenth of the amount in the wettest month of the summer half
f precipitation more evenly distributed throughout year; criteria for neither s nor w satisfied
a temperature of warmest month 22 °C or above
b temperature of each of four warmest months 10 °C or above but warmest month less than 22 °C
c temperature of one to three months 10 °C or above but warmest month less than 22 °C
D temperature of warmest month greater than or equal to 10 °C, and temperature of coldest month –3 °C or lower
s same as for type C
w same as for type C
f same as for type C
a same as for type C
b same as for type C
c same as for type C
d temperature of coldest month less than –38 °C (d designation then used instead of a, b, or c)
E temperature of warmest month less than 10 °C
T temperature of warmest month greater than 0 °C but less than 10 °C
F temperature of warmest month 0 °C or below
H 4 temperature and precipitation characteristics highly dependent on traits of adjacent zones and overall elevation—highland climates may occur at any latitude

Those in charge of editing the Encyclopaedia Britannica Adam Augustyn was the author of the most recent revision and update to this article.

Climate and environmental change in the Mediterranean – main facts

THE MOST IMPORTANT FACTORS RELATING TO CLIMATE AND ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE IN THE MEDIEVAL Summary: The Mediterranean basin is a zone of great cultural and geographic variety, as well as a location of exceptional wealth. Recent decades have seen an increase in the speed with which climate and environmental changes caused by human activities have occurred in this region. During this time span, the average yearly temperatures of the air and the sea have risen, the sea level has risen, and the acidity of the oceans is still happening.

  • There are various concerns associated with these changes, both for ecosystems and for human well-being.
  • This is the goal of the first MedECC report, which was released in September.
  • The cultural diversity found in the Mediterranean region is unparalleled.
  • Land use changes, industry, and population increase, in combination with the expansion of coastal urban districts (UNEP/MAP 2012), are all factors that influence the environment.
  • The Mediterranean Sea is also one of the world’s busiest maritime lanes, according to the United Nations Environment Programme/MAP-Plan Bleu (UNEP/MAP-Plan Bleu 2009).
  • Despite tremendous progress achieved in developing nations along the Mediterranean’s southern shore, the North-South divide persists.
  • Furthermore, the Mediterranean area is defined by the abundance and diversity of its landscapes, which range from subtropical deserts to temperate mid-latitude regions.

It is estimated that the Mediterranean Sea supports 4 percent to 18 percent of all known marine species, which is significant considering that it only accounts for 0.82 percent of the world’s total ocean surface area (Collet al.2010).

Aside from that, the Mediterranean region is vulnerable to a variety of natural hazards, including earthquakes, volcano eruptions, floods, fires, and droughts.

The Mediterranean Sea has been identified as one of the most sensitive regions to climate change, according to global climate forecasts (Giorgi 2006).

1).

Depending on the climatic scenario (RCP: Representative Concentration Pathway) and the season, an increase in temperature of 2 to 6 degrees Celsius by 2100 is projected in the Mediterranean region, according to the World Meteorological Organization (for summer temperatures: Fig.

It is anticipated that high temperature occurrences and heat waves will become more common and/or more severe in the future (Jacobet al.2014).

The average annual temperature in the Mediterranean region is currently 1.4 degrees Celsius greater than it was during the period 1880-1899, which is much higher than current global warming trends.

2 shows a diagram of a compass.

Using the four RCP scenarios, the 5th, 25th, 50th (median), 75th, and 95th percentiles of the distribution of 20-year mean changes are plotted on the right-hand side for the years 2081-2100, respectively.

Between 1945 and 2000, the sea level in the Mediterranean rose at a pace of 0.70.2 millimeters per year (Calafat and Gomis 2009).

The predicted average sea level increase in the Mediterranean basin has been anticipated to reach between 9.8 and 25.6 cm by 2040–2050, depending on the scenario considered (Galassi and Spada 2014).

(Nykjaer 2009).

3; Adloffet al.2015).

Long-term trends in the Mediterranean area reveal that annual mean conditions are becoming warmer and drier, according to the United Nations Environment Programme/MAP-Plan Bleu 2009.

It is projected that the length of the dry period (in days) would lengthen (Schleussneret al.2016), and that precipitation will decrease, particularly in summer and with significant regional variability, will occur (for summer, Fig.

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Fig.

Predicted minimum and maximum increases in sea surface temperature for the 2070–2099 period (compared to the 1961–1990 period) based on a 6-member ensemble spanning multiple sources of uncertainty (degrees Celsius).

2015, for the details of the analysis) Figure 4 shows a time series of relative change in precipitation averaged across land grid points in the region South Europe/Mediterranean (30°N to 45°N, 10°W to 40°E) from October to March, as compared to 1986–2005.

It is projected that precipitation would decrease, particularly during the summer.

Furthermore, there are numerous combined consequences of various environmental changes caused by human pressures, such as landscape and ecosystem degradation due to industrialization, urbanization, and transportation (pollution of air, water, soil, and living resources), as well as unsustainable extraction and use of natural resources on land and in the sea.

  1. As a result, taking environmental considerations into consideration while making economic and political decisions must be a top priority in order for the Mediterranean to survive.
  2. As part of standard practice, consideration of scientific evidence includes the transmission of uncertainties in a straightforward manner.
  3. Contrary to this, the evaluation should assist individuals in better comprehending the complexities of the relationships between many climatic, environmental, and socioeconomic elements.
  4. Even though there is a significant quantity of observational data and scientific ability for risk assessment available throughout Europe’s Mediterranean area, resources are unequally distributed, and some of the most susceptible regions and economic sectors are not well investigated.
  5. As a result, public and private decision-makers have insufficient access to the available knowledge.

Posted on January 30, 2018;This post was written by Katarzyna Marini with assistance from Plan Bleu– UN Environment Programme/MAP. References

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  • AllEnvironment (ed.) (2016) Climate change is having an impact on the Mediterranean area. Paris, France: IRD Editions, 736 pages
  • Boero, France (2015) Towards a different tomorrow for the Mediterranean Sea Ecosystem: a vision for the future. The Rendiconti Lincei, Vol. 26, Nos. 3-12
  • Calafat FM and Gomis D (2009) Reconstruction of the Mediterranean sea level fields for the period 1945-2000, using satellite data. International Journal of Climate 66(3-4), 225-234
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  • Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2013) In 2013, the Physical Science Basis for Climate Change will be published. Making a contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change is the responsibility of Working Group I. Jacob D, Petersen J
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Human-environmental interactions in Mediterranean climate regions from the Pleistocene to the Anthropocene

Open access is granted under the terms of the Creative Commons license.

Highlights

Climate change poses significant threats to human well-being and biodiversity in Mediterranean climate regions, according to the United Nations Environment Programme. Human responses to climate change in the past have been documented in archaeological and paleoecological records. The worsening of the climate in the past has been a significant cause of socio-environmental change. For millennia, people have been actively altering the ecosystems and landscapes of these places. Archaeological records can give important insights on how to prepare for climate change and environmental issues in the future, according to researchers.

Abstract

For millennia, Mediterranean climatic zones (MED) around the world have served as crucial hotspots for human and biological development, ranging from nomadic hunter-gatherer tribes to a succession of state societies. In today’s world, the Middle East and North Africa (MED) region consists of five regions on six continents that are important for human settlement, global food production, transportation, industry, and tourism. However, these regions are extremely vulnerable to projected changes in their typically temperate climate towards more extreme conditions.

This analysis synthesizes archaeological and paleoenvironmental evidence, with a particular emphasis on significant demographic, social, economic, and cultural processes that occurred concurrently with and frequently in reaction to historical climatic and environmental upheaval.

Comprehending Pleistocene-Holocene human-environmental interactions, land use, and climate change, as well as the necessity of understanding present and predicted environmental change, are all shown by these deep time data sets.

Keywords

Climate change is a fact of life. Environmental archaeology is a branch of archaeology that studies the past in its natural environment. The consequences of human activity Ecology of the human being Elsevier Ltd. is the publisher.

How did the mediterranean climate influence culture in the region

QUESTION 1: Which of the following techniques did Spain employ in an attempt to block French claims to the Texas area following the Treaty of Paris in 1689? Spanish settlers were being sent up from Mexico into Spanish territory, and alliances were being built with native American indian groups that would oppose the French. d. compensating the French for the claim to Texas with silver produced in the French possessions in the southern hemisphere. A petition for statehood in Texas, filed in 1845, was refused because it was filed for one of the following reasons: In 1845, the United States refused to recognize Texas as a state because of the problem of slavery.

  • c.
  • d.
  • In the third question, which of the following events contributed to the ultimate determination of the official border boundaries for the state of Texas?
  • What provision of the 1869 “carpetbagger’s constitution” of the state of Texas was put into effect was question number four.
  • What main political subculture does Texas belong to, according to Daniel J.
  • Traditionalistic, individualistic, conservative, and moralistic are all possible responses.
  • a.

a city manager appointed by the city council c.

a board of trustees elected by the citizens of the city q7- Which of the following is the most important rationale for the establishment of special purpose districts?

provide services when no other unit of government can provide those services; b.

take power away from city governments and place it with the county government; and d.

The following options are available: a.

gain approval from the legislature; c.

pass it through the commissioner’s court with a unanimous vote In which of the following areas do county constables perform the majority of their work, according to q9?

q10-which of the following statements about the county judge’s authority and responsibilities is not correct?

In the second case, county judges are elected to four-year terms.

When the commissioner’s court meets, the county judge preside over the proceedings; however, the county judge has no vote in them. d. The county judge’s office is vested with judicial responsibilities under the state constitution. Answers are as follows: 2

The Mediterranean Marine and Coastal Environment

The Mediterranean Basin is one of the world’s most valuable waters, with a total worth of more than $1 trillion. A diverse range of coastal and marine ecosystems exist in the region, including brackish water lagoons, estuaries, and transitional areas; coastal plains; wetlands; rocky shores and nearshore coastal areas, sea grass meadows; coralligenous communities, frontal systems and upwellings; seamounts and pelagic systems; and a variety of other types of ecosystems. Because twenty-one nations border this highly exploited sea (UNEP/MAP, 2012), the Mediterranean is not only complicated in terms of ecological, but also in terms of socio-politics.

  1. The Mediterranean Sea is surrounded by three continents: Europe and its southern peninsulas to the north, southwestern Asia to the east, and northern Africa to the south.
  2. As a result, the political landscape is complicated and uneven.
  3. Their surface sizes range from 2 km2 to 2.4 million km2.
  4. The Mediterranean area has always been a hotbed of human activity due to its geographical location.
  5. With only limited trade with the oceanic basins, significant internal mesoscale circulation, and a great diversity of sensitive ecosystems, the Mediterranean Sea is a tiny, confined sea with restricted interaction with the oceanic basins.
  6. Such an approach is critical to the long-term prosperity of all countries that share borders with bodies of water that extend beyond their national borders.

This enables for a better understanding of the overall interrelationship between Mediterranean ecosystems and the causes of human activity in the Mediterranean.

Geography, physiography and landscapes.

A general overview of the physical geography of the Mediterranean region reveals a coastline that is irregular and deeply indented, particularly in the north, where the Iberian, Italian, and Balkan peninsulas jut southward from the main body of Europe, and a coastline that is irregular and deeply indented in the south. The islands that make up the Pacific Ocean are made up of solitary tectonic blocks, submarine ridge peaks, and the points of underwater volcanoes. Large islands include Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, Cyprus, and Crete, and important island groups include the Balearics off the coast of Spain and the Ionian, Cyclades, and Dodecanes islands off the coast of Greece.

  1. Aside from the coastal plains and deltaic zones of major rivers (such as the Ebro, Rhone, Po, and Nile), the coasts are largely surrounded by mountain ranges, with the exception of the Mediterranean Sea.
  2. As a result, the highest peaks of the world’s major mountain ranges often represent the northernmost boundary of the hydrographic basin that flows into the Mediterranean Sea.
  3. This sea, which separates Europe from Africa, spans from the Atlantic Ocean on the west to the Asian continent on the east and connects the two continents.
  4. It has an average depth of 1,460 meters and a maximum depth of 5,267 meters, making it the largest enclosed sea on the planet (Coll et al, 2010).
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Because of this, a large portion of the Mediterranean basin can be classified as deep sea, with some unusual characteristics such as temperature variations ranging from 12.8°C–13.5°C in the western basin to 13.5°C–15.5°C in the eastern basin and salinities ranging from 37.5–39.5 psu in the eastern basin.

With the motions of the water and the emergence/submergence of the land, this process resulted in a vast range of different sorts of coastal environments.

In particular, the granite coastline of northern and eastern Sardinia, as well as the Dalmatian coastline, where the land surface has sunk, creating lengthy islands parallel to the shore due to erosion and flooding, are examples of submerged coastlines.

The deltas of the Rhône, Po, Ebro, and Nile rivers are excellent examples of beaches formed as a result of silt deposition on rivers’ banks.

Circulation and water masses.

The Mediterranean Sea is a semi-enclosed sea characterized by high salinities, temperatures, and densities, as well as high salinity, temperature, and density. Due to an excess of net evaporation over precipitation, the Strait of Gibraltar has anti-estuarine circulation, which contributes to extremely low nutrient concentrations in the seawater. The Mediterranean Sea has an active overturning circulation, with one shallow cell that communicates directly with the Atlantic Ocean and two deep overturning cells, one in each of the two main basins.

  1. 2013).
  2. It is one of the few places on the planet where deep convection and the development of water masses occur together.
  3. During their 100-year voyage from the Atlantic to the Mediterranean, the inflowing waters are influenced by an excess of evaporation over precipitation and a small cooling inside the Mediterranean basin (El-GeziryBryden 2010).
  4. It is estimated that the Mediterranean Sea gets approximately one-third the quantity of water that it loses to evaporation from the rivers that run into it.
  5. The primary body of arriving surface water moves eastward along the north coast of Africa after passing through the Strait of Gibraltar.
  6. Heaviest during the summer, when evaporation in the Mediterranean Sea reaches its greatest capacity.
  7. A little quantity of water reaches the Mediterranean from the Black Sea through the Bosporus, the Sea of Marmara, and the Dardanelles as a surface current, and this water is used to irrigate crops (Coll et al., 2010).

Hydrological and climatic setting.

The Mediterranean area is characterized by heavy winter rains and hot, dry summers, with nothing in between. Despite the fact that the Mediterranean basins have a high degree of spatial climatic variability and variation, many of the regions may be classed as dry or semi-arid. As a transition zone between temperate Europe, which has relatively ample and stable water supplies, and dry African and Arabian deserts, which have extremely limited water resources, the Mediterranean serves as a vital link.

  • More than half of the world’s water-stressed population is concentrated in the Mediterranean basin, which has just 3% of the world’s total fresh water resources, according to the United Nations Development Programme.
  • In Italy and Greece, half of the catchments are located, with the remaining 25% concentrated in France and Turkey.
  • The availability of water resources in the Mediterranean has already been impacted by environmental change, and it is expected to be severely harmed under future environmental, economic, and demographic scenarios, as well (Garcia-Ruiz et al., 2011).
  • However, a number of studies have shown that land cover has an impact on river discharge and water resources in a variety of different ways.
  • This is due to a combination of decreased water resource availability (due to lower precipitation and increased evapotranspiration) and increased water use pressure due to economic growth and urban expansion.

Mountain areas, on the other hand, are experiencing increasing hydrological stress as a result of a combination of factors including: I rising temperatures and decreasing precipitation, which are both higher than in the lowlands; ii) land use change, which includes natural and deliberate reforestation of abandoned farmland, which is increasing evapotranspiration and water consumption; and, (iii) increasing pressures on surface and groundwater resources, which is reducing river discharge and lowering the depth of the The volume and distribution of rainfall in Mediterranean regions is unpredictable and varies from place to place.

More than 10 inches (250 mm) of rainfall per year is uncommon along the North African coast from Gabès in Tunisia to Cairo in Egypt, yet on the Dalmatian coast of Croatia, there are locations that receive 100 inches (250 mm) every year (2,500 mm).

The summers are hot and dry, while the winters are cold and humid, which describe the climate of the region.

Coastal aquifers contribute to the Mediterranean’s freshwater supply by acting as additional source of discharge.

Seepage inflows are common along the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea, which is dominated by karstic aquifer systems, as well as along the eastern and southern Mediterranean coasts, which are characterized by semi-arid and arid conditions, limited precipitation and runoff, and a lack of surface watercourses and discharge points, among other factors.

They also contribute to the preservation of wetlands and brackish water habitats, which are vital for biodiversity, as well as fishing nursery regions.

According to the United Nations Environment Programme and the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, submarine groundwater discharge is also a significant source of nutrient input in some regions and may provide pathways for pollutants to disperse into the sea (UNEP/MAP, 2012; and UNEP/MAP, UNESCO, 2015).

Water and nutrient characteristics.

The Mediterranean Sea is classified as microtidal since its usual tidal range is less than 50 cm. This lessens the likelihood of dissolved and particulate wastes becoming diluted and dispersed in the environment. As one of the most oligotrophic (that is, deficient in nutrients) marine systems known, it is characterized by an eastwards longitudinal gradient in oligotrophy. It is the inflowing Atlantic surface waters, at or around the level of the Gibraltar Strait, that serve as the primary supply of nutrients in the Mediterranean.

  1. As the waters of the Mediterranean flow eastward from the Strait of Gibraltar, they become deprived in nutrients.
  2. Additionally, the Nile River’s nutritional signature has vanished as a result of the construction of the Nile Dam in the 1960s.
  3. Additional nutrition sources exist in the Mediterranean, but their effects are limited and localized, making them insignificant.
  4. The most eutrophic waters in the western basin may be found on the northern shore, at the mouths of the great rivers Rhone and Ebro, which flow into the basin.
  5. Considerable amounts of fertilizer inputs into tiny rivers may be crucial in most North African oueds, as these rivers receive a large amount of nutrient-dense wastewater.
  6. As a source of nutrients for the sea, rivers contribute approximately 50 percent of the nitrogen and 75 percent of the phosphorus that are essential for maintaining biological productivity in the sea (Figure 1.4).

Biodiversity.

The Mediterranean is one of the world’s top 25 biodiversity hotspots, ranking second only to the Amazon. Coll et al. (2010) estimate that it hosts between 4 and 18 percent of the world’s marine biodiversity in its very diversified marine environment (Gabrié C., et al. 2012). The Mediterranean Sea provides critical habitat for the reproduction of pelagic species, including the main spawning grounds of the Atlantic bluefin tuna, the only known breeding grounds of the great white shark, and nesting grounds for sea turtles, such as the green and loggerhead turtles, along its eastern coast.

  • Key species and delicate habitats such as seagrass beds and coralligenous assemblages may be found in the shallow coastal waters, whilst the deep seas support a diverse and vulnerable fauna.
  • This natural treasure has had a significant impact on the evolution of communities, resulting in the formation of a diverse and rich mosaic of cultures throughout the Basin of the Amazon.
  • Fishing methods, habitat loss and degradation, eutrophication, and, more recently, the introduction of alien species and the consequences of climate change are all examples of environmental problems.
  • An area of over 86 000 km2 in the Mediterranean is designated as a Marine Protected Area (MPA) or a Natura 2000 site (Figure 15).

Although the CBD convention has set an objective of 10 percent protection, it is still far from being reached. High- and deep-sea marine protected areas must be established in areas that are currently underrepresented in the existing network.

Man’s Impact on the Several Regions with Mediterranean Climates

It is a volume in the Ecological Studiesbook series (ECOLSTUD, volume 7)

Abstract

The type and severity of the change of their ecosystems as a result of human activity varies enormously throughout the many locations of the globe having mediterranean climates, and this variance is particularly pronounced in the Mediterranean region. The length of time that humans have been in the same place is not a statistically significant variable. It is longer than 10,000 years in all cases, and it may easily be the oldest in South Africa, which is one of the least changed locations on the planet.

Areas completely free of fire would surely carry a greater amount of forest than they do at the moment.

The island of Madeira is remarkable in that it is the only section of the Mediterranean climate that has remained uncontaminated by humans since antiquity.

Keywords

Climate in the MediterraneanCash Market in the Fifteenth CenturyCoast Range Cactus with pears on it These keywords were not added by the writers, but rather by a computer program. Considering that this is an experimental procedure, the keywords may be modified as the learning algorithm becomes more refined.

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Heidelberg, Germany: Springer-Verlag Berlin 1973.

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Persistent warm Mediterranean surface waters during the Roman period

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