How Did Merchants Most Likely Influence Medieval Culture

How did merchants most likely influence medieval culture?

In the twentieth century, human rights organizations fought to: a.ensure that European imperial powers maintained control over their colonies. Persuade populations in underdeveloped nations to embrace nationalism as a means of overcoming poverty. People all throughout the world were protected from violent treatment because of the efforts of o o o c. weakening the power of international organizations such as the United Nations. o d sub Answers are as follows: 2 The zealots were a group of jews who felt that they should take up arms against the Romans.

I’m going to take an exam as soon as possible.

Keep records of people and products to preserve their history.

Answers are as follows: 2 What should be the very first step taken while applying the scientific method?

b.) identifying and describing the problem c.) the process of examining and interpreting data Answers are as follows: 2 Do you know what the correct answer is?

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Trade in Medieval Europe

In the medieval world, trade and commerce developed to such a degree that even relatively small communities had access to weekly markets and, perhaps a day’s travel away, larger but less frequent fairs, where the full range of consumer goods available at the time was displayed to tempt the shopper and small retailer alike. Farmers’ markets and fairs were held throughout Europe by large estate owners, town councils, as well as some churches and monasteries, who were granted permission to do so by their sovereign.

Since Roman times, international commerce has existed; nevertheless, advancements in transportation and banking, along with the economic growth of northern Europe, resulted in a boom beginning in the 9th century CE.

Market Scene from the Late Medieval Period Artist whose identity is unknown (Public Domain)

MarketsShops

Markets were conducted on a regular basis in public squares (or even triangles), broad streets, or even purpose-built halls in villages, towns, and big cities that had been granted the right of a license to do so by their king. Markets were also set up outside several castles and monasteries to attract visitors. Larger cities would have a daily market that moved throughout different sections of the city depending on the day, or they might have markets for specialized items like meat, fish, or bread that are held once or twice a week.

  • Men were the most common sellers of meat and bread, but women were the majority of stallholders, and they offered basics such as eggs, dairy goods, chicken, and ale, among other things.
  • Sellers of commodities went door to door, not just to marketplaces, but also to private residences, and they were known as hucksters.
  • To ensure that only luxury products were transported over great distances, merchants were required to pay tolls at specific locations along the route as well as at strategic sites like as bridges and mountain pass crossings.
  • So the markets in their vicinity were stocked with goods produced on the surrounding farmlands, and anyone looking for non-essentials like clothing or wine had to be prepared to travel half a day or even longer to the next town.
  • In towns, at addition to marketplaces, the consumer had the choice of shopping in a variety of stores.
  • For the same reason, in cities, businesses selling the same sort of goods were frequently crowded together in the same areas, therefore increasing rivalry and making the lives of municipal and guild inspectors simpler.
  • Businesses that dealt in items whose quality was absolutely critical, such as goldsmiths and armourers, were typically placed near a town council’s administration facilities, where they could be closely monitored by regulators.

A result of this concentration of trades, numerous streets were given names that characterized the trade that was most prevalent in them, names that are still in use today in a number of cities across the country.

Trade Fairs

Trade fairs were large-scale sales events that were often conducted once a year in big cities, where individuals could discover a broader variety of items than they could get at their more local market and where traders could purchase things in bulk at wholesale prices. Prices were also on the down as a result of increased rivalry amongst vendors of certain products. Fairs grew in popularity in France, England, Flanders, and Germany throughout the 12th and 13th centuries CE, with the Champagne region of France being one of the most well-known locations for such events.

  • Woven goods traders from across France and even from other countries, such as Flanders, Spain, England, and Italy, flocked to the fair to trade their wares in a variety of commodities such as wool and fabric.
  • Because of the importance of these fairs, French kings even guaranteed the protection of merchants traveling to and from the fairs.
  • Do you enjoy history?
  • Lawrence OP is a Medieval Spice Merchant who lives in London (CC BY-NC-ND) For many ordinary people, attending a fair anywhere in the world was a high point of the year.
  • While there were some pleasant public entertainments, such as the Champagne dancing girls and a variety of street performers, there were also some less pleasant elements, such as gambling and prostitution, that contributed to the fairs’ negative image with the Church.

The Expansion of International Trade

It was customary for trade fairs to be conducted annually in big cities, where individuals could purchase a wider variety of items than they could find at their more local market, and where traders could purchase things in bulk. Additionally, prices tended to be lower due to increased competition among vendors of particular products. French, English, Flanders and German fairs grew in popularity throughout the 12th and 13th centuries CE. The Champagne region of France was one of the most famous locations for these events.

  • Woven goods traders from across France and even from other countries, such as Flanders, Spain, England, and Italy, flocked to the fair to sell their wares and trade with one another.
  • Because of the importance of these fairs, French kings even pledged to protect merchants traveling to and from the fairs during their duration.
  • Enjoy learning about the past?
  • L.
  • Lawrence was a Medieval Spice Merchant (CC BY-NC-ND) Countless ordinary folks considered fairs to be one of the year’s most enjoyable events.
  • While there were some pleasant public entertainments, such as the Champagne dancing girls and a variety of street performers, there were also some less pleasant elements, such as gambling and prostitution, that earned the fairs a bad reputation with the Church.

Due to a significant rise in the availability of items for purchase everywhere and at any time by the 15th century CE, trade fairs had begun to diminish.

Trading PortsRegulation

International trade was thriving at the time, thanks to the establishment of international trading posts in numerous city-ports, where foreign merchants were permitted to temporarily reside and trade their wares. Genoa, for example, had 198 resident merchants in the early 13th century CE, with 95 of them being Flemish and 51 being French at the time. German tradesmen may be found on the famed (and still existing) Rialto bridge in Venice, in the Steelyard district of London, and in the Tyskebryggequarter of Bergen, Norway, among other locations.

  1. It became so popular that these ports established their own consulates to safeguard the rights of their citizens, and a slew of stores and services sprouted to cater to their unique interests in cuisine, clothes, and religious practices.
  2. Trading expeditions were sponsored by wealthy investors who, in exchange for putting up all of the initial cash, received a portion of the profits (usually 75 percent), with the remainder going to merchants who gathered the commodities and then sent them to markets across the world.
  3. Thesocietasmaris was an alternate structure in which the investor provided two-thirds of the capital and the merchant provided the remaining one-third.
  4. Smaller investors formed consortiums behind these large investors, putting their money up in the hope of a future return, but who could not afford to pay for the entire expedition out of their own pockets.
  5. There were an increasing number of financial instruments available to entice investors and offer credit, including credit notes, bills of exchange, marine insurance, and stock in publicly traded corporations.
  6. The efforts to standardize product quality expanded, and useful treatises on how to compare weights, dimensions, and currencies across different civilizations were published.
  7. In addition, there was guidance on how to effectively get past these rules, as noted in this excerpt about Constantinople’s trade authorities, which was taken from the 14th century CE.
  8. It states that if you treat customs officials, their clerks, and ‘turkmen’ with respect and give them a little something or some money, they will also treat you with respect and tax the goods that you later bring in by them at a lower rate than their true value.
  9. Europian explorers and traders, both religious and commercial, would not be discouraged, and thus the Portuguese found the Cape Verde Islands in 1462 CE, and three decades later, Christopher Columbus would open the door to the New World to everyone who wanted to travel there.

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Medieval Islamic medicine: Influences, thinkers, and anatomy

Because many city-ports built international trading posts, where foreign merchants were permitted to dwell and trade their wares for a limited time, international trade was thriving at the time of the establishment. Genoa, for example, had 198 resident merchants in the early 13th century CE, with 95 of them being Flemish and 51 being French, according to the city’s archives. In addition to the iconic (and still intact) Rialto bridge in Venice, there were German traders in the Steelyard neighborhood of London, as well as the Tyskebryggequarter of Bergen, Norway.

  1. It became so popular that these ports established their own consulates to safeguard the rights of their citizens, and a slew of stores and services sprouted to cater to their unique interests in food, clothes, and religious traditions.
  2. Affluent investors provided the funding for trading trips; if they put up all of the original cash, they received a share of the profits, with the remaining portion going to merchants who gathered the commodities and carried them to markets throughout the world.
  3. Thesocietasmaris was an alternate structure that required the investor to give two-thirds of the capital and the merchant to furnish the remaining one-third of capital.
  4. Smaller investors formed consortiums behind these large investors, putting their money up in the hope of a future return, but who could not afford to pay for the entire expedition out of their own pocket.
  5. In order to entice investors and grant credit, an increasing number of financial instruments were introduced, including credit notes, bills of exchange, marine insurance, and stock in publicly traded corporations.
  6. The efforts to standardize product quality expanded, and useful treatises on how to compare weights, dimensions, and currencies across different civilizations were published, among other things.
  7. Finally, there was advise on how to best get past these laws, as noted in this excerpt about Constantinople’s trade authorities, which was taken from the 14th century CE.
  8. It states that if you treat customs officials, their clerks, and ‘turkmen’ with respect and give them a little something or some money, they will also treat you with respect and tax the goods that you later bring in by them at a lower rate than their true value.
  9. 244).
  10. By the mid-14th century CE, the Italian city-states were even trading with far-flung partners such as the Mongols.
  11. As a result of his brave voyage around the Cape of Good Hope to reach India in 1497 CE, the globe was suddenly a much more linked place at the end of the Middle Ages, one that would provide riches to a few while bringing misery to the majority.

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The Canon of Medicine

In Arabic, ibn Sina authored this five-volume handbook, which is also known as “The Law of Medicine.” Later, it was translated into a number of languages, including English, French, and German, among others. Pin it to your Pinterest board. One of the numerous suggestions for medical practice made by Ibn Sina in his ‘Canon,’ which may be found on this page. Ali Esfandiari’s 2007 photograph is used with permission. It is widely regarded as one of the most renowned and significant publications in the history of medical education and practice.

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In the United States, some of the concepts of “The Canon of Medicine” are taught in history of medicine classes at the University of California, Los Angeles, and Yale University, among other institutions.

  1. Ibn Sina created this five-volume Arabic treatise, which is also known as “The Law of Medicine.” Afterwards, individuals began to translate it into a variety of languages such as English, French, and German. Pin it to your Pinterest boards. One of the numerous suggestions for medical practice made by Ibn Sina in his ‘Canon,’ which may be found here. Ali Esfandiari’s 2007 photograph is credited. It is widely regarded as one of the most renowned and significant works in the history of medical education and scholarship. “The Canon of Medicine” established norms throughout the Middle East and Europe, and it served as the foundation for the practice of Unani medicine in India, which is a type of traditional medicine. In the United States, several of the concepts of “The Canon of Medicine” are taught in history of medicine classes at the University of California, Los Angeles, and Yale University. The following are some principles for evaluating novel medications, according to Ibn Sina, in a section of his text:

Ibn Sina also discussed psychological and mental disorder beliefs that were both practical and scientific in nature. Today, the medical profession recognizes Ala-al-din Abu al-Hassan Ali ibn Abi-Hazm al-Qarshi al-Dimashqi, also known as ibn al-Nafis, as the author of the first description of pulmonary blood circulation. Ala-al-din Abu al-Hassan Ali ibn Abi-Hazm al-Qarshi al-Dimashqi was born The physician was born in the Syrian capital of Damascus around 1213. Because it was in conflict with the teachings of the “Quran,” he stated that he did not like dissecting human bodies.

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The cardiovascular system

Aspects of psychology and mental disease were also discussed by Ibn Sina in terms of practical and scientific beliefs. Today, the medical profession recognizes Ala-al-din Abu al-Hassan Ali ibn Abi-Hazm al-Qarshi al-Dimashqi, also known as ibn al-Nafis, as the author of the earliest description of pulmonary blood circulation. He was born in Damascus in 1213, and became a physician in that same year. Because it was in conflict with the teachings of the “Quran,” he stated that he did not like dissecting human bodies, and also because he had sympathy for the human body.

The eyes

According to Ancient Greek medicine, sight was delivered by a visual spirit that resided in the eye. In the ninth century CE, Hasan ibn al-Haytham, also known as al-Hazen, was an Iraqi Muslim scholar who lived from 965 CE until around 1040 CE. In his explanation, he stated that the eye is an optical instrument and presented a thorough account of the anatomy of the eye. His latter work included the development of theories concerning the production of pictures. Until the 17th century, European scholars relied to his “Book of Optics” as a reference.

Digestive system

After conducting experiments on live lions, Ahmad ibn Abi al-Ash’ath, an Iraqi physician, explained how a full stomach dilates and contracts after eating.

Musculoskeletal system: The jaw

Abd al-Latif al-Baghdadi was an Iraqi physician, historian, Egyptologist, and traveler who lived from 1162 to 1231 C.E. He was born in Baghdad and died in Baghdad. Galen thought that the lower jaw was made up of two bones, but al-Baghdadi, after examining the remains of nearly 2,000 persons who had starved to death in Egypt, came to the conclusion that the lower jaw, or mandible, is made up of just one bone, which he named the mandible. Medieval Islamic treatments were often derived from plants, as had been the case with ancient Greek, Roman, and Egyptian medicines.

Pain and anesthesia

According to a research published in 2016 in the Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences, Islamic physicians employed a variety of medicines to induce anesthesia during surgical procedures. Al-Razi was the first doctor to employ inhaled medicine for this purpose, and he received a Nobel Prize for his work. Hemlock, mandrake, henbane, mandragora, opium poppy, and black nightshade were some of the plants and medications used to ease pain and provide anesthesia. The patient would consume, drink, or inhale the substances, or they would apply them topically to their skin and hair.

Doctors employed poppy seeds, which contain both codeine and morphine, to treat a variety of ailments, including:

  • Eye discomfort, gallbladder stone pain, fevers, toothaches, pleurisy, and headaches are all possible symptoms.

Other medicinal herbs

There was a broad variety of plants utilized by medieval Islamic doctors, including the following: Cancer patients might benefit from an analgesic bath made of dill seed, chamomile flower, yellow sweetclover, mallow leaves, flaxseed, cabbage, and beetroot. Garlic is used in a variety of therapies, including those for urinary issues. Using Juniperor pine needles in a bath can help alleviate allergic skin conditions. For its antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects, oregano is a popular herb.

  • Doctors prescribed them, but only for therapeutic grounds because they were aware that they were extremely potent medications.
  • Medieval Islamic physicians conducted more surgery than their Greek and Roman counterparts, and they were also responsible for the development of new instruments and techniques.
  • Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi was a renowned physician who lived and practiced in the Spanish province of Andalusia.
  • In addition, he utilized catgut to close wounds.
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Types of procedure

Aside from cataract surgery, medieval Islamic doctors also conducted trachoma surgery on patients to treat the disease. A standard method at the time was cauterization, which involved burning the skin to prevent infection and stop the bleeding. During surgery, the surgeon heated a metal rod and placed it on the incision to help coagulate the blood and speed recovery. Additionally, surgeons used bloodletting to restore the balance of humors, the four components or qualities that served as the foundation for much medical treatment from ancient Greece through the seventeenth century.

A vein would be punctured, and blood would be drawn, sometimes using a technique known as “wet-cupping.” An incision in the skin was covered with a heated glass cup during this procedure.

Hospitals

There were also hospitals, some of which were teaching hospitals, where students could learn how to treat patients and get valuable experience. Hospitals in Cairo (in Egypt), Harran (in Turkey), and Baghdad (in Iraq) were all well-known. Hospitals were given the term “bimaristan,” which is derived from a Persian phrase that means “home of the ill.” According to the Oxford Islamic Studies Online, the phrase refers mostly to mental health institutions, although hospitals provided a wide range of treatments and consumers were not necessarily required to pay for these services.

Some women from the families of well-known physicians appear to have had top medical training, and they are likely to have treated both males and females in their practice.

One advantage of having women be allowed to administer health care was that they would be more likely to grasp the challenges that women face in terms of health.

At a time when Europe was mired in the so-called Dark Ages, Islamic academics and doctors were building on the work of the ancient Greeks and Romans and generating discoveries that have had an impact on medical practice for centuries.

France – Economy, society, and culture in the Middle Ages (c. 900–1300)

  • A reduction in the size of borders and outlying territories
  • The establishment of the Pippinids and the consolidation of Austrasian hegemony
  • The emergence of the Pippinids and the consolidation of Austrasian power
  • The ascent of the Pippinids and the predominance of the Austrasians
  • The economy, society, and culture of the Middle Ages (c.900–1300) are discussed in detail.
  • During the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, the economy, society, and culture were all in flux.
  • The euro-zone crisis and the revival of the Socialist Party

Italian Renaissance (1330-1550): Women in the Renaissance

Similar to their counterparts in the Middle Ages, European women in the Renaissance were forbidden any political rights and were regarded legally subservient to their husbands. Women of all social strata were expected to carry out the responsibilities of a housewife first and foremost. In addition to working in the fields alongside their husbands, peasant women were responsible for running the household. The women of middle-class shopkeepers and merchants were frequently involved in the operation of their husbands’ enterprises as well.

Women who did not married were not allowed to live on their own for long periods of time.

A few affluent women of the time were able to break free from the constraints of subordination and acquire at the very least renown, if not complete independence from their husbands.

As Pope Alexander VI, he sought to utilize Lucrezia as a piece in his game of political power, but she refused to play along.

Four years later, when he no longer need the political backing of the city of Milan to the same extent, he canceled the marriage, claiming that Sforza was impotent on the basis of false accusations.

In accordance with Borgia mythology, Cesare Borgia, Lucrezia’s older brother, murdered Lucrezia’s son, who was born as a result of this marriage.

The rest of her life was spent at Ferrara, where she established herself as a loving wife and mother, a prominent figure in the city’s politics and social life, and a notable patron of the arts.

Isabella d’Este, Lucrezia’s sister-in-law, was considered to be one of the most powerful and brilliant women of the Renaissance period.

A regular performer in public, she exhibited her abilities in singing, dancing, and playing musical instruments throughout her appearances on stage.

Isabella wielded considerable power over the court of Mantua, and it was in large part as a result of her presence that the city came to be renowned as a significant center of wit, elegance, and creative talent in the Renaissance.

Furthermore, she had an impact on the economic development of the region by promoting the growth of the textile and garment industries, which eventually formed the backbone of the Mantua economy.

The subject of subordination ran throughout the life of a Renaissance lady.

Women who did not marry for any reason were also denied independence of thought and action, and were forced to live under subjection in the house of a male relative or in a convent, where they may train to become nuns, the only profession available to women of the time.

Only women of the greatest social standing were allowed the opportunity to distinguish themselves, and even then, only on rare occasions.

Women have always served as nothing more than a backdrop to the political and social history of the Italian Renaissance.

As a result, it is reasonable to assume that even access to the most powerful men on the planet did not necessarily enable a woman to differentiate herself and express herself freely.

Her mobility, from place to place and husband to husband, was unquestionably greater than that of any Renaissance lady could have hoped for.

However, following closer examination of the historical record, it becomes evident that Lucrezia was not so much in command of her life as she was a piece in Alexander VI’s big plan for the prosperity and fortune of the Borgias.

It has been demonstrated in history, however, that Lucrezia only genuinely exerted authority once she had entered into a happy marriage with Alfonso d’Este, who permitted her to engage to a significant amount in the politics and society of Ferrara.

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