- 1 How can we obtain cells for a cell culture?
- 2 Applications of Cell Culture
- 3 Answer and Explanation:1
- 4 Introduction to Cell Culture – NL
- 5 Finite vs Continuous Cell Line
- 6 Culture Conditions
- 7 Cryopreservation
- 8 Morphology of Cells in Culture
- 9 Applications of Cell Culture
- 10 Related Cell Culture Basics Videos
- 11 Cell Culture – an overview
- 11.1 Publisher Summary
- 11.2 3Equipment
- 11.3 7.6Nanoemulsions in Cell Culture
- 11.4 Abstract
- 11.5 Introduction
- 11.6 Cell culture
- 11.7 22.214.171.124Micro-Scale Cell Culture
- 11.8 Purified environment
- 11.9 2Equipment
- 11.10 2.2.1Virus isolation in cell culture
How can we obtain cells for a cell culture?
What is the best way to get cells for a cell culture?
Applications of Cell Culture
In the scientific sector, cell culture has a wide range of uses, including research and development. Basic cell biology and the process by which cells grow and divide may be examined in its most basic form; in addition, the impact of various environmental circumstances as well as viruses and medications can be investigated in more depth. Cell culture is utilized in the biotechnology sector for a variety of purposes, including the creation of vaccinations against viruses such as hepatitis and the flu, as well as the development of gene therapy for diseases such as cancer.
Occasionally, cell culture is used to generate replacement tissue for skin grafts, and there is continuing study into the use of tissue culture to grow specific organ cells, particularly those of the kidneys and liver, for transplantation.
Answer and Explanation:1
To begin a cell culture, it is necessary to first get primary cells from which to work. There are a number distinct methods for obtaining these cells. One of the most straightforward. See the complete response below for more information.
Introduction to Cell Culture – NL
Cell culture is the process of removing cells from an animal or plant and allowing them to develop in a suitable artificial environment once they have been removed. Before culture, cells can be isolated directly from the tissue and disaggregated using enzymes and/or mechanical methods. Alternatively, cells can be isolated from an existing cell line or cell strain and cultivated in the same way that they were originally isolated. Primary culture refers to the stage of the culture after the cells have been separated from the tissue and have multiplied under the suitable circumstances until they have taken up the whole accessible surface area of the substrate (i.e., reachconfluence).
Upon the completion of the first subculture, the primary culture is known as a cell line or a subclone.
It is possible to transform a cell line into a cell strain by selectively cloning or using other methods to isolate a subpopulation of the cell line from the rest of the culture.
Finite vs Continuous Cell Line
A limited number of times in normal cells before they lose their capacity to multiply, which is a genetically regulated phenomenon known as senescence; these cell lines are referred to as finite. Although some cell lines become immortal naturally, some cell lines become immortal by a process known as transformation, which can occur spontaneously or be driven chemically or virally.
The transformation of a finite cell line into a continuous cell line occurs when the cell line gains the ability to divide endlessly as a result of the transformation.
The culture conditions for each cell type differ significantly, but the artificial environment in which the cells are cultivated always consists of an appropriate vessel that contains the following components:
- A substrate or medium that provides the required nutrients (amino acids, carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals)
- Growth factors
- Gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide)
- And other substances (such as oxygen and carbon dioxide). It is necessary to have a controlled physico-chemical environment (pH, osmotic pressure, temperature).
Adherent or monolayer culture is required for the majority of cells, which must be attached to a solid or semi-solid substrate (adherent or monolayer culture), while some can be grown floating in the solution (floating culture) (suspension culture).
If there is an excess of cells available after subculturing, they should be treated with a suitable protective agent (e.g., DMSO or glycerol) and kept at temperatures below –130°C (cryopreservation) until they are required again. Refer to theGuidelines for Maintaining Cultured Cells for further information on subculturing and cryopreservation of cells.
Morphology of Cells in Culture
It is possible to classify cells in culture into three fundamental types depending on the shape and appearance of the cells (i.e.,morphology). Bipolar or multipolar fibroblastic (or fibroblast-like) cells have elongated forms and grow connected to a substrate, whereas fibroblastic cells do not. A polygonal structure with more regular proportions characterizes epithelial-like cells, which develop in distinct patches linked to a substrate as they expand. Lymphoblast-like cells are spherical in form and are often cultivated in suspension, without adhering to a surface, in order to maximize their growth potential.
Applications of Cell Culture
When it comes to cell culture, it is one of the most important tools in the field of cellular and molecular biology. It provides excellent model systems for studying the normal physiology and biochemistry of cells (for example, metabolic studies, aging), the effects of drugs and toxic compounds on the cells, as well as the mutagenesis and carcinogenesis of cells, among other things. It is also employed in the screening and development of pharmaceuticals, as well as the large-scale production of biological substances (e.g., vaccines, therapeutic proteins).
Related Cell Culture Basics Videos
An overview of the fundamental equipment needed in cell culture as well as the suitable laboratory set-up is provided in this video. Instructions and demonstrations on how to operate safely and aseptically in a cell culture hood are provided. It is the objective of this video to discuss the precautions you should take to avoid contamination of your cell culture. There is a demonstration of all of the fundamental procedures necessary to accomplish cell culture utilizing best-practice sterile methods.
Cell Culture – an overview
Dwight E.Lynn’s entry in the Encyclopedia of Insects (Second Edition), published in 2009.
This chapter explains the process of cell culture, which involves removing cells from an organism and placing them in a fluid media. The cells have the ability to live and even expand under the right conditions. Cell division (mitosis) or other processes such as differentiation, during which the cells might transform into particular kinds that are capable of performing duties equivalent to those of tissues or organs in the complete organism, can characterize the growth. It is feasible to determine how individual substances impact an insect by extracting the tissue or cells from the insect.
Infectious agents that cause illness, such as viruses and rickettsia bacteria, as well as some protozoans, are classified as obligatory pathogens.
Some of the earliest work on insect cell culture was done with a genus of viruses known as nucleopolyhedroviruses, which are still in use today.
In order to manufacture these viruses for use in biologically based insecticides, cell cultures in vast quantities can be cultivated and harvested.
It is also well-known that some insects are capable of transferring illnesses to larger animals and plants. In addition, cell cultures derived from mosquitoes and other insects can be utilized to investigate these infections. Read the entire chapter at the following URL: Methods in Cell Biology
BiswanathMaity,. Rory A. Fisher’s paper was published in Methods in Cell Biology in 2013.
Dishes for cell culture that have been treated weight coverslips (about one and a half pounds) (round 12 mm preferred) Media for cell culture that is sterile Forceps Micropipettes that are sterile Aspirator with a vacuum In a sterile cell culture environment Incubator with 5 percent CO at 237 degrees Celsius.
3.2To Section Tissues
Fine scissorForcepsDissection microscopeFine scissorForceps CryostatMicrotome
3.3For Fixation and Staining of Cells, Tissues
7 forceps with a curved point Micropipettors made of parafilm Cell culture plate with 12 wells Eppendorf tubes are a kind of test tube. Container with a flat bottom and a cover Dish with rack and lid made of glass for staining (Research Products International Corp., Cat. No.- 144,200)
Microscope with 488 and 546 filters, 63mm objective, and mercury light for studying fluorescence in living organisms (immunofluorescence) An immunoperoxidase light microscope with objectives of 20x, 40x, and 63x was used. and properties of nanoemulsions (URL: and properties of nanoemulsions G. RoshanDeen and Jan SkovPedersen published an article in Emulsions in 2016.
7.6Nanoemulsions in Cell Culture
For in vitro experiments or the production of biological substances such as recombinant proteins or antibodies, cell cultures are commonly employed. In order to enhance cell development, it is common practice to supplement the culture media with blood or a certain quantity of specified molecules. Even after years of research, it is still difficult to augment the medium with lipophilic compounds since this reduces the quantity of accessible material for absorption by the cells. Nanoemulsions are capable of solubilizing and transporting lipophilic compounds into cell cultures.
Because of their nanoscale size, the nanoemulsion droplets are easily taken up by the cells, resulting in increased bioavailability of the lipophilic chemical in the solution.
The whole chapter may be found at URL: Microscopy of Model Systems.
Hess and Thomas Seppi, published in 2010.
Cell culturesystems are essential tools for fundamental research as well as a wide range of clinical in vitro investigations, and they are becoming increasingly popular. Conventional 2D cell cultures, on the other hand, do a poor job of simulating the circumstances seen in the actual organism. This shortcoming has the potential to substantially impair the reliability and importance of the data collected through such methods. So we present here a comparative study on selected 3D and 2D cell cultures of U87-MG human glioblastoma cells that were processed using high-pressure freezing and freeze substitution, as well as conventional chemical fixation and Tokuyasu cryo-section immuno-labeling, as well as conventional chemical fixation and Tokuyasu cryo-section immuno-labeling.
The reference models for static 2D culture systems were cell cultures in dishes and on coverslips, which were also employed in this study.
Our discussion will center on the practicality of the cell culture methods explored for state-of-the-art electron microscopy, as evidenced by morphological and immuno-cytochemical data in the laboratory. Read the entire chapter. in Cell Culture is the website address.
In Canine and Feline Infectious Diseases, Jane E. Sykes and Shelley C. Rankin published a paper in 2014.
It is the cultivation of nucleated (eukaryotic) cells under well regulated circumstances in a laboratory that is referred to as cell culture. In order to isolate infectious pathogens that require living host cells for multiplication, cell culture is the only method available. The introduction of molecular diagnostic assays based on nucleic acid detection has resulted in cell culture being used less frequently for routine clinical diagnostic purposes. This is due to the long turnaround times (ranging from days to weeks), the high cost, and the requirement for significant technical expertise to perform cell culture and interpret the results of these tests (Table 1-1).
Canine distemper, canine adenovirus infections, parvovirus infections, rabies, and feline viral and chlamydial respiratory tract illness are among the vaccines for dogs and cats that are being developed in cell culture.
Knowledge of cell culture procedures can assist veterinary physicians in submitting the best specimens possible, as well as understanding laboratory turnaround times, potential difficulties, and how to read and interpret data in the laboratory.
When it comes to EV diagnosis, cell culture is no longer employed. However, it can be used for the verification of PCR-negative specimens in the event of the novel variation, which includes the identification of more than one virus strain in a single test. The collection of specimens, processing of samples, and methods used in viral isolation are all detailed in the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations (World Health Organization, 2004;Chen et al., 2014). There are several strains of EVs that may be extracted from cell cultures derived from mammalian cells and certain other cell lines such as monkey kidney cells and human fibroblasts (World Health Organization, 2004;Schmidt et al., 1975).
The CPEs were discovered in cell culture after 2–5 days after injection and were determined to be active.
It has been shown that EV 71 does not develop well in cell cultures (Jaramillo-Gutierrez et al., 2013), but EVD68 needed a lower incubation temperature than is typically used for EVs (Jaramillo-Gutierrez et al., 2013).
(Zaidi et al., 2016). Read the entire chapter. Biotechnology and Healthcare (website)
(2011), in Comprehensive Biotechnology (Second Edition), by Y.-H. Lin and M.-H. Wu
126.96.36.199Micro-Scale Cell Culture
As a general rule, cell culture is considered to be a procedure in which cells are grown outside of a live creature under carefully regulated circumstances (e.g., temperature, pH, nutrient, and waste levels). It has a long history of usage in a wide range of biological applications, including the study of cell biology and physiology, drug screening, toxin testing, and various cell-based assays, among others. Currently, the most extensively utilized cell-culture technique is the use of multiwell microplates or Petri dishes as culture containers for the cultivation of cells.
- The latter is attributable to the conventional static cell-culture format as well as the presence of chemical gradients in the culture system in question.
- A cell-culture system may be reduced to the size of a micro-scale device, thanks to recent advancements in microfabrication and microfluidic technology.
- This paves the way for the creation of a cellular microenvironment in vitro that is more like the one found in the body.
- Particularly relevant in situations where resources are restricted (for example, drug testing/screening), this is a useful feature to have.
- More importantly, because of the reduced size of the miniaturized cell-culture scale, the chemical gradient phenomena that exist in culture settings or cultivated constructions may be significantly reduced, allowing for more control over the cell’s microenvironment.
Microfluidic-based cell-culture systems fabricated in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) using well-developed soft lithography techniques have piqued the interest of biologists primarily because of the ease with which they can be constructed and because the inherent nature of PDMS makes it suitable for use in cell-culture systems.
- Recent years have seen a flurry of activity in the development of different microfluidic-based cell-culture systems for a variety of purposes, including drug or toxin testing/screening and cell-based bioassays.
- Its characteristics include the ability to maintain homogeneous and stable culture conditions, as well as effective medium pumping methods and cell/scaffold loading, which allows for more precise and high-throughput cell-culture-based tests to be performed.
- However, despite the fact that microfluidic-based cell-culture systems offer enormous potential as platforms for a wide range of applications, the adoption of such developing technologies has not yet resulted in an evolutionary shift away from conventional techniques of cell culture.
- Some of the technological concerns that must be addressed include the avoidance of liquid evaporation in the microfluidic system as well as the development of detection systems that are effective and high-throughput in their reading out of the results of a cellular test.
- Photos of a perfusion-based, 3D cell-culture platform and (II) photographs of the full experimental setup are shown in Fig.
- (the platform is integrated with a hand-held controller) (b) Schematic representation of a microfluidic system for cell-based, high-throughput screening, which includes an upstream concentration-gradient generator and downstream parallel cell-culture chambers.
- Development of a perfusion-based 3-D cell culture platform and its use for high-throughput drug testing were the focus of this research in 2008.
(b) Adapted from Ye N, Qin J, Shi W, and colleagues High content screening of cells using an integrated microfluidic device was published in 2007. 7th Lab on a Chip (pages 1696–1704) Read the entire chapter. Design of a Cell Therapy Facility is the URL.
J.Liu,.L.Song, inReference Module in Biomedical Sciences, 2016
It is necessary to operate in an aseptic atmosphere in order to protect against germ contamination and the impact of potentially dangerous variables when performing cell cultureoperations. Cell culture room design necessitates a clean working environment that is free of pollution and filled with fresh, dry air. The room is placed on the inner side of the laboratory and has Class 10,000 grade purification, which allows one to stay away from the turbulence generated by people and maintain the space tidy and clean, which is important.
- Special autoclaved lab coats are required for cell cultivation in order to maintain sterility (Fig.
- Read the entire chapter.
- Methods in Enzymology, 2014; Donald L.
Cell culture viability (e.g., class II biological safety cabinet) Incubator and/or incubator shaker (must be capable of maintaining a temperature of 28°C). Microscope with compound lenses centrifuge (low-speed) on a surface that has been refrigerated High-speed centrifuge that is kept chilled Water bath (60 degrees Celsius) Water bath (temperature of 30°C) Aide à la pipette Six-well cell culture plates with a micropipettor T-flasks for cell culture Shaking flasks for cell culture (Erlenmeyer) Glass test tubes with a diameter of 1275mm.
Parafilm Read the entire chapter.
The authors, XinZhang and Yi-WeiTang, published in Advances in Clinical Chemistry in 2020.
2.2.1Virus isolation in cell culture
Previously, cell culture was widely utilized in clinical diagnostics for the isolation and identification of viruses, as well as for other purposes. In terms of viruses that may cause gastroenteritis, only norovirus has been shown to be incapable of being produced in cell culture. The capacity to replicate rotaviruses, enteric adenoviruses, and astroviruses in cell culture has tremendously aided the advancement of research into these pathogens. The separation of astroviruses and adenoviruses from cell cultures is frequently coupled with immunofluorescence detection of the viruses using particular antibodies.
Despite the fact that growth in cell culture may be used to detect many distinct viruses from clinical specimens, it is typically believed to be too time-consuming and sluggish to make a significant contribution to useful AGE treatment.
When it comes to the detection of enteroviruses, rapid cell culture is frequently utilized. Centrifugation-enhanced rapid cell culture, which may be used with standard cell lines, such as SuperE -Mix, can be used for the detection of enteroviruses. Read the entire chapter here: URL: