A Strong Culture Can Act As A Substitute For Which Of The Following

Test – Organizational Culture Ch 16 Flashcards by jesse petty

Art instead comprises many other artistic fields, ranging from architecture to calligraphy, painting, and glass to ceramics and textiles to name a few examples. Art forms that are considered Islamic art are virtually limitless in scope. Islamist art can include the art of the various diverse civilizations that exist within Islamic nations.

  • Provide an explanation for institutionalization and how it relates to organizational culture Define the traits that are similar to all organizations and contribute to their culture. Compare and contrast civilizations that are powerful and weak. Distinguish between the positive and negative effects of organizational culture on individuals and the organization
  • Describe the variables that influence the culture of an organization. List the aspects that contribute to the preservation of an organization’s culture. Clarify the process through which culture is passed on to workers. Describe the numerous socialising options that are accessible to managers. Describe a culture that is focused on meeting the needs of customers. Describe the features of a spiritual culture
  • And

What is the definition of institutionalization? What is the definition of organizational culture? An organization becomes institutionalized when it takes on a life of its own, separate from any of its members, and gains the ability to endure indefinitely. The organization is appreciated for its own sake, rather than only for the products or services it provides. It is this common system of meaning that separates the organization from other organizations that is referred to as organizational culture.

  • Taking risks and being creative are important. The extent to which employees are encouraged to be inventive and take chances
  • The level of attention paid to detail in the workplace. The extent to which personnel are required to demonstrate accuracy, analysis, and meticulous attention to detail
  • The emphasis is on the end result. The extent to which management is concerned with results or outcomes rather than with technique and procedure
  • Orientation toward people. When making management decisions, how much thought is given to the impact that results will have on individuals inside the business
  • Orientation to the group When work activities are arranged around teams rather than individuals, the degree to which they are successful. Aggressiveness. The extent to which people are aggressive and competitive rather than laid-back and easygoing
  • Stability. The extent to which organizational operations are geared toward sustaining the status quo rather than toward progress.

In other words, culture is a descriptive phrase, rather than an evaluative one. A company’s/organizational organization’s culture is concerned with how its qualities are viewed, not whether they are liked or hated. It has nothing to do with work satisfaction. Do Organizations Have Consistent Cultural Atmospheres? Organizational culture is defined as a shared view held by the members of an organization as a whole.

  • The dominant culture of an organization expresses the fundamental values that are held by the majority of its members. It is usual in large companies to see the emergence of subcultures, which are minicultures that reflect similar issues and circumstances or experiences. Departmental and geographical boundaries are frequently used to establish these
  • Core Values or dominant (main) values are values that are widely recognized within the company.

It is the dominant culture of an organization that conveys the basic beliefs that are held by the majority of its members. It is usual in large companies to see the emergence of subcultures, which are minicultures that reflect shared issues, events, or experiences. Core Values or dominant (main) values are values that are embraced throughout the company and are generally specified by departmental or geographical boundaries.

  • The beginning of a culture: the founders and their vision set the tone. To begin, hire and retain employees who are aligned with the company’s vision
  • Then socialize them
  • And finally, the founder’s behavior serves as a role model and defines the organization’s personality (for example, David Packard of Hewlett-Packard, Bill Gates of Microsoft, Herb Kelleher of Southwest Airlines, Mary Kay of Mary Kay Cosmetics, etc.). What can be done to keep it alive? There are several options. In the first instance, it is reflected and sustained through human resource policies, such as selection (after minimum qualifications have been established, then hire for fit), performance evaluations, training and career development, promotions, and rewarding and removing those who do not support the culture. Following that, top management behavior exemplifies culture (does risk taking make sense? Do norms filter down? How much discretion do managers grant their employees when making decisions? I’m not sure what to wear to work. What types of behaviors are rewarded and lead to promotions?, and so forth). Finally, socialization methods (the process by which employees become acclimated to the organization’s culture) are critical (pre-arrival, encounter, and metamorphosis stages)
  • And
  • A culture’s beginnings are determined by the founders’ vision and determination to persevere. To begin, hire and retain employees who are aligned with the company’s vision
  • Then socialize them
  • And finally, the founder’s behavior serves as a role model and defines the organization’s personality (for example, David Packard of Hewlett-Packard, Bill Gates of Microsoft, Herb Kelleher of Southwest Airlines, Mary Kay of Mary Kay Cosmetics, etc.)
  • Keep it alive by following these steps: It is possible to do so in several ways. Human resource policies (once minimum criteria are set, hire for fit), performance evaluations, training and career development, and promotions are all used to reflect and perpetuate culture. Those who support the culture are rewarded
  • Those who do not are demoted or fired. Following that, top management conduct represents culture (does risk taking make sense? Do norms permeate down to lower levels of management?) Which decisions are given the most latitude by management and which are not? To go to work, how do we dress? In what ways are people recognized and promoted?, and so on). Finally, socialization procedures (the process through which personnel get acclimated to the organization’s culture) are critical (pre-arrival, encounter, and transformation phases)
  • And,
  • It is possible to utilize the qualities of sociability (friendliness) and solidarity (task orientation) to analyze different forms of culture, including networked, mercenary, fragmented, and communal cultures. Remember the management grid from earlier?
  • It is possible to utilize the characteristics of sociability (friendliness) and solidarity (task orientation) to explain distinct forms of culture, such as networked, mercenary, fragmented, and communal. Keep in mind the management grid
  • This is important.
  • It is possible to utilize the characteristics of sociability (friendliness) and solidarity (task orientation) to explain distinct forms of culture, such as networked, mercenary, fragmented, or communal. Keep in mind the management grid.
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Spirituality and Organizational Culture are two important factors to consider. In the workplace, spirituality is defined as the realization that people have an inner life that is fed by meaningful work that takes place in the context of a community, and that this inner life is fed by meaningful labor. For example, a strong sense of purpose, individual growth, trust and openness, employee empowerment, and tolerance for differing viewpoints are all desirable. A Synopsis of the Research and Implications for Managers

  • Employees construct an overall subjective opinion of the company based on criteria such as the degree of risk tolerance, the importance placed on teamwork, and the support provided to individuals. Overall perception becomes the organization’s culture or personality as a result of this. Employee performance and happiness are affected by these favorable or unfavorable opinions, with the impact being higher in organizations with stronger cultures. People’s personalities, like strong civilizations, tend to remain steady over time, just as people’s personalities do. It is tough for managers to transform strong cultures as a result of this. One of the most significant management ramifications of organizational culture has to do with decision-making in the selection process. Hiring personnel whose values do not fit with those of the company is ineffective in terms of achieving long-term objectives. Socialization gives a great deal of information on what an employee should and should not do, and this knowledge is critical to an employee’s effectiveness.

MCQs of Dynamics of Organizational Behaviour (Organisational Behaviour – 3141909)

Questions 11 to 20 out of 45 are being shown.

11. A strong culture should increase employee loyalty because it results in _.
(a) a highly centralized organization
(b) narrow spans of control
(c) cohesiveness and organizational commitment
(d) a highly formalized organization
12. A strong culture can act as a substitute for which of the following?
(a) Institutionalization
(b) Formalization
(c) Socialization
(d) Centralization
13. A culture that expresses the core values that are shared by a majority of the organization’s members is known as a(n) _ culture.
(a) dominant
(b) primary
(c) fundamental
(d) unique
14. When formal authority and control systems are reduced, the _ provided by a strong culture ensure(s) that everyone is pointed in the same direction.
(a) rules and regulations
(b) shared meaning
(c) rituals
(d) socialization
15. A(n) _ climate requires managers and employees to use an external, standardized moral compass such as a professional code of conduct for norms.
(a) independence
(b) rules
(c) law and code
(d) caring
16. Which of the following statements is true regarding the establishment of the organizational culture and its effects on the organization?
(a) Today’s trend toward decentralized organizations makes it is easier to establish a strong culture.
(b) In a virtual organization, a strong culture can be established quickly and easily.
(c) Employees organized in teams always show greater allegiance to the values of the organization as a whole than to their team and its values.
(d) Culture acts as a control mechanism and guides the behavior of employees.
17. _ refers to the shared perceptions organizational members have about their organization and work environment.
(a) Organizational climate
(b) Institutionalization
(c) Microcosm
(d) Groupthink
18. _ organizations often don’t go out of business even if the original goals are no longer relevant.
(a) Virtual
(b) Matrix
(c) Independent
(d) Institutionalized
19. Culture is most likely to be a liability when _.
(a) the employees of the organization are highly skilled
(b) the organization’s environment is dynamic
(c) the organization’s management is highly efficient
(d) the organization is highly centralized
20. Which of the following is not one of the five most prevalent climate categories making up the ethical dimensions of organization culture?
(a) Instrumental
(b) Caring
(c) Dependence
(d) Law and code

There are 45 questions total, and the first 11 to 20 are displayed.

Organizational Culture is more influential at workplace

Organizational culture that is strong and positive was found to be associated with increased organizational effectiveness in a study of 230 organizations from various industries and geographical locations around the world. The study included organizations from North America, Asia, Europe, the Middle East, and Africa. Compelling and positive aspects of organizational culture are the most important factors in achieving success across geographies. These factors include:* empowering employees* having a team orientation* having a clear strategic goal and intent* having a strong and identifiable vision Although there were some parallels when researchers studied organizational culture and effectiveness across regions, there were notable variances when researchers evaluated organizational culture and effectiveness across particular nations.

  1. Furthermore, a focus on bringing about change inside an organization appears to be a high predictor of organizational effectiveness in South Africa, while it appears to be a relatively weak predictor of organizational effectiveness in Jamaica, although the reason for this is still unknown.
  2. Cultures that are strong vs those that are weak: It has become more fashionable to distinguish between cultures that are strong and civilizations that are weak.
  3. In an organization with a strong culture, the essential principles of the company are both deeply held and broadly embraced by all members of the organization.
  4. In accordance with this description, a strong culture will have a significant impact on the behavior of its members since the high degree of sharedness and intensity produces an internal environment of high behavioral control among its members.
  5. Nordstrom workers are well aware of the expectations placed on them, and these expectations play a significant role in determining their actions and attitudes.
  6. A strong culture displays widespread agreement among members on the values and principles of the company.
  7. These characteristics, in turn, reduce the likelihood that employees will quit the firm.

Formalization: What’s the difference?

Therefore, we should acknowledge that a strong culture might serve as a substitute for formalization in some situations.

Predictability, orderliness, and consistency are all enhanced in an organization with a high level of formalization.

Because of this, we should see formalization and culture as two separate paths that lead to the same end.

When workers adopt the organization’s culture, such guidelines will get integrated in their minds.

However, does national culture take precedence over the culture of an organization?

According to the findings of the study, national culture has a stronger influence on employees than does the culture of their employer’s.

This suggests that national culture has the same impact on employee behavior as company culture does in terms of moulding employee behavior.

The previous conclusion must be qualified in order to accurately reflect the self-selection that occurs during the recruiting process.

Consequently, we should anticipate multinational corporations to use the employee selection process to discover and recruit job candidates who are a good fit with their organization’s dominant culture, even if such individuals are not representative of the general population in their country.—

Organizational Culture

Organizational culture is a concept that refers to the shared beliefs and aims of a group of people working together. Everyone in a business may work together to build a culture of mutual respect, collaboration, and support if they all share the same beliefs and goals. Companies with a strong, supportive culture are more likely to recruit highly qualified, dedicated employees who are aware of and committed to the company’s goals and objectives.

Learning Outcomes

  • When it comes to organizations, organizational culture is a word that refers to the common beliefs and goals that all employees share. Everyone in a firm may work together to build a culture of mutual respect, collaboration, and support if they all share the same values and goals. Employers who have a strong, supportive culture are more likely to recruit highly qualified, loyal employees who are aware of and committed to the company’s goals and objectives.

Organizational culture is a word that refers to the shared beliefs and aims of a group of people working in a company. Everyone in a business may work together to build a culture of mutual respect, collaboration, and support when they all share the same beliefs and goals. Strong, supportive cultures are more likely to recruit highly qualified, loyal personnel who are aware of and committed to the company’s goals and objectives.

What Do Corporate Cultures Look Like?

Organizational culture is a concept that refers to the common values and goals that exist inside a company. When everyone in a company shares the same beliefs and goals, it is easy to develop a culture of mutual respect, collaboration, and support. Companies with a strong, supportive culture are more likely to recruit highly qualified, dedicated workers who understand and work toward the company’s best interests.

IBM

Organizational culture is a concept that refers to the shared beliefs and aims of a group of people working together. Everyone in a business may work together to build a culture of mutual respect, collaboration, and support if they all share the same beliefs and goals. Companies with a strong, supportive culture are more likely to recruit highly qualified, dedicated employees who are aware of and committed to the company’s goals and objectives.

Google

Google is an example of a company that has altered the way people work and their outlook on it. Google has earned the reputation as the corporation that provides its loyal employees with an unending array of benefits. Coffee shops, complimentary lunches, lounge breaks, and even the chance to bring your pet to work are just a few of the perks available. Google has offices in more than 100 countries, and the company’s management believes that a happy workforce leads to a more productive workplace.

Here is a list of Google’s basic principles, which serve as the foundation for the company’s corporate culture:

  1. We desire to collaborate with outstanding individuals
  2. Technological innovation is essential to our success. Working at Google is enjoyable. Participate aggressively
  3. After all, you are Google. Don’t take success for granted
  4. Instead, strive for it. Do the right thing and avoid being wicked. Every day, work to earn the loyalty and respect of customers and users
  5. Our capacity to achieve sustainable long-term growth and profitability is critical to our success. Google cares about and supports the communities in which we work and live
  6. We also care about and support the environment.

Apple

When it comes to corporate culture, Google is all about making sure its employees are having a good time, whereas Apple is more concerned with getting things done. Its creator, Steve Jobs, left behind a set of basic principles that make it apparent that competitiveness, focus, and hard work are all important aspects of the company’s culture. These values are as follows:

  1. It is our belief that we are here on the face of the Earth to create excellent items. We believe in the simplicity of things rather than the complexity of things
  2. We think that we must own and control the core technologies that underpin the items we manufacture. We only participate in markets where we have the ability to make a substantial impact. It is our belief that saying no to hundreds of initiatives allows us to devote our whole attention and resources to the handful that are genuinely essential and significant to us. In our groups, we believe in profound cooperation and cross-pollination, which allows us to create in ways that others are unable to
  3. When it comes to every group inside the organization, we don’t accept for anything less than greatness, and we have the self-honesty to confess when we’re wrong and the fortitude to alter our ways.

Contrast the values of Apple with those of Google. Although Apple places a premium on competitiveness, results and perfection, the search giant Google places a premium on values such as having fun, acting responsibly, providing excellent customer service, and interacting with the wider world. Both firms provide digital goods, both have had significant success, and both attract a large number of highly motivated individuals to their respective organizations.

However, because the corporate cultures of Apple and Google are so dissimilar, the companies attract employees with a wide range of personal objectives, work styles, and expectations from one other.

Corporate Culture as a Competitive Advantage

What is it about having a strong, good business culture that is so important? There are three compelling reasons for this:

  • A strong company culture aids in the identification of your corporate values by workers, customers, and the general public. Assume, for example, that your company’s culture places a high emphasis on innovation. That way, your staff will be aware of the fact that they will be encouraged to come up with new ideas, and your consumers will be aware that your products and services are likely to have a creative or distinctive characteristic. High-quality personnel that believe in the same principles as the company are attracted to companies with strong, cohesive cultures and vice versa. Because they are a member of a common culture, after those employees have joined the company, they begin to feel like they “belong.” Those employees who believe that their professions are a good match for their own beliefs are more likely to remain loyal to their employers. After all, they are doing what they like doing for a company that shares their values and aims
  • A strong corporate culture may aid a company in its efforts to establish a strong brand identity. Starbucks, for example, has created a culture and brand that includes a very visible commitment to worldwide fair trade and ethical business practices. Customers who care about fair trade are more likely to purchase from Starbucks and to remain loyal to the company.

Levels of Corporate Culture

The concept of corporate culture developed by E.H. Schein contains artifacts, values, and assumptions. E.H. Schein is a thinker who specializes in the study of business culture. The author of the 1992 book Organizational Culture and Leadership proposes that there are three layers of corporate culture, which he describes as follows: Fundamental assumptions about human conduct are at the heart of any civilization, and they are frequently so deeply embedded in the culture that they are impossible to distinguish.

  • Standard operating procedures (SOPs), operating guidelines, and public manifestations of the organization’s ideology are common examples of this.
  • For example, when Home Depot, under the leadership of a new CEO, realized that the firm needed to return to its customer-centric beginnings in 2007, it moved rapidly to create artifacts—buttons and awards—to remind everyone who came first: the consumers themselves.
  • Great customer evaluations were recognized in meetings, and sales plaques and additional buttons were awarded to associates who received outstanding customer ratings.
  • Management did not totally forsake the cost discipline established by the company’s prior CEO, but it did significantly ease the constraints.
  • Even though Lowe’s has been a fierce competitor, profits have rebounded in recent months.
  • You will, on the other hand, be most successful if you work for a firm that shares your values.

Check Your Understanding

Please respond to the question(s) below to determine your level of understanding of the issues discussed in the preceding section.

If you fail this brief quiz, it will not count toward your overall mark in the class, and you can repeat it an unlimited number of times. This quiz will help you determine if you need to (1) study the previous subject more thoroughly or (2) go on to the next section by checking your comprehension.

ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR Flashcards

Term Unlike leadership research, research on power tends to focus on _.a. individual styles in using powerb. strategies for goal attainmentc. tactics for gaining complianced. the administration of rewardse. the effective use of threats Definition Unlike leadership research, research on power tends to focus on _.c. tactics for gaining compliance(p. 451) Term Which of the following is least likely to create dependency?a. importanceb.

  • nonsubstitutabilityd.
  • supply and demand Definition d.
  • 455-456 Term Which of the following is least likely to create dependency?a.
  • scarcityc.
  • power legitimacye.
  • the only legitimate sources of powerb.
  • strategies for gathering and maintain supportd.

approaches for winning arguments Definition b.

a.power b.sex c.reasonableness d.abuse e.love Definition Term Political behaviors usually _.

a.admitting responsibility b.capitulating c.flattery d.granting favors e.ingratiating Definition Term According to the interactionist’s perspective, a group that functions without conflict is _.

a.is accepted by all members of a group b.is satisfying to the individual members of the group c.causes group members to argue d.causes turnover e.none of the above Definition Term For process conflict to be productive, it must be _.

a.kept high b.kept low c.kept at low-to-moderate levels d.kept at moderate levels e.subject to managerial control Definition kept at low-to-moderate levels Term The categories of causes or souces of conflict include all of the followingexcepta.

structurec.

personal variablese.

a.achieving the desired conflict level b.resolving conflict c.stimulating conflict d.identifying conflict e.assessing the source of conflict Definition a.achieving the desired conflict level Term The two general approaches to bargaining are known as _.

b.affective and reflective c.distributive and integrative d.formal and informal.

a.definition of ground rules b.clarification and justification c.bargaining and problem solving d.process evaluation e.preparation and planning Definition Term Organizational structure has six key elements.Which of the following isnotone of these elements?

  1. a.Wider spans of control b.Narrower spans of control c.Matrix structures d.Simple structures Definition a.Wider spans of control TermWhich of the following isnota common organizational design?
  2. a.high centralization b.high horizontal differentiation c.high employee discretion d.standardization Definition Term Which of the following is not a weakness of the simple structure?a.
  3. It is prone to information overloadc.
  4. It can lead to slower decision makinge.
  5. It is often insufficient in larger organization Term The virtual is also called the _ or_ organizations.a.
  6. team; socialc.
  7. boundaryless; globale.

a.ownership b.teams c.imposing limits d.directives e.manipulation Definition Term Which of the following isnota determinant of an organization’s structure?

b.a mixture of loose with tight properties.

d.high technology. Definition c.low specialization and low formalization. Term The _ of an environment refers to the degree to which it can support growth.

innovationc.

team orientatione.

includes core values of the organizationb.

includes values shared only within the organizationd.

includes values unique to members of a department or group Definition c.

a.institutionalization b.formalization c.socialization d.organizational rules e.social support Definition Term Culture ismostlikely to be a liability when _.

a.prearrival b.encounter c.metamorphosis d.ritual e.none of the above Definition Term An organizational culture most likely to shape high ethical standards is one that _.

a.uses positive reinforcement instead of punishment b.rarely uses rewards c.emphasizes individual growth d.emphasizes building on the organization’s strengths e.emphasizes organizational vitality Definition c.emphasizes individual growth Term Which of the following is true regarding behavioral structured interviews?

  • b.They decrease an interviewer’s reliance on his or her “gut feelings.” c.They are most useful when interviewing high-performing workers.
  • e.They increase the effectiveness of the interview technique. Definition e.They increase the effectiveness of the interview technique. TermThe behavioral structured interview is built on the assumption that _.
  • a.financial b.technical c.problem solving d.interpersonal e.social Definition Term Performance evaluations are used as a mechanism for all of the followingexcept_.
  • a.BARS b.critical incident c.graphic rating scale d.behavioral structured ratings e.MBWA Definition Term Managing resistance to change that is _ is extreamely difficult.a.
  • resolutec.
  • explicite.

a.Structural motion b.Security c.Unlimited focus of change d.Support of established power relationships e.Threat to resource allocations Definition e.Threat to resource allocations Term Politics suggest that the impetus for change is more likely to come from _.

d.all of the above e.none of the above Definition Term In the process of action research, diagnosis is followed by:a.feedback.b.analysis.c.action.d.evaluation. Definition Term Which of the following isnottrue of Organizational Development?a.Problems should be condensed.b.Problems should be openly confronted.c.Effective organizations are characterized by trust.d.People should be treated with dignity and respect. Definition a.Problems should be condensed. Term Which of the following isnota step in the Appreciative Inquiry process?b.dreamingc.devised.destiny Definition Term Which has been the most studied potential source of innovation?a.culturalb.structuralc.human resourcesd.champions Definition Term Which of the following isnota characteristic of a learning organization?

a.There is a shared vision upon which everyone agrees.

c.Members integrate old ways of thinking with new ideas.

Definition c.Members integrate old ways of thinking with new ideas. Term Which isnota strategy for managers to make their firms learning organizations?

Establish a strategy that makes management’s commitment to innovation explicit.

Redesign the organization’s structure by flattening the structure and increasing the use of cross-functional teams c.

d.

make it clear that people high in the organization are behind any proposed change. Definition d. Systematically collect data and then select a change action based on the analyzed data

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